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An Introduction to biomedical literature

search and online
search methods
Sharanbasappa Durg
Scientific Analyst
Molecular Connections Pvt. Ltd.,
Bengaluru.

What is Literature?
"any written work"

Scientific literature:
"... writings on a particular subject"

What are the types of Literature? Three types 1) Primary Literature (also called primary sources) 2) Secondary Literature (secondary sources) 3) Tertiary Literature: Everything else .

Why Literature Search?  To find new evidence to support a change in practice  To  To learn about the latest research find product data and competitive information .

e.g.g. e.How to Start Literature Search?  Clearly define the question which can be translated into an effective search strategy  Start with resources that have already summarized the literature. PubMed . The Cochrane Library  Use a more complex search strategy to interrogate general medical databases.

Continued … The steps to perform a systematic literature search 1. where needed 8. Create a search strategy 3. Select suitable references from those that have been retrieved 6. Redesign the search strategy. if necessary . Select the right bibliographic databases 4. Assess whether the search was satisfactory 7. Define the problem 2. Search 5. Repeat steps 2-6.

Define the Question?  The structured question should have the following components. Question components : PICO  What types of Participants/ Population?  What types of Interventions?  What types of Comparison?  What types of Outcomes? Note: In What study designs? .

Example?  Efficacy and Safety of LABA/LAMA combinations Vs Standard of Care treatments in COPD (LAMA or LABA/ICS)? Participants/ Population? Patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD  Interventions? LABA/LAMA combinations  .

AE and SAE  LABA/LAMA Vs LAMA or LABA/ICS What study designs? RCT . QoL.Continued … Comparison? Standard of Care treatments in COPD (LAMA or LABA/ICS)  Outcome(s)? Improvement in lung function (FEV1). dyspnea. exacerbations.

Question?  Whether the use of LABA/LAMA combinations (FDC) improve the lung function (FEV1). dyspnea. AE and SAE in patients (≥40 years) with moderate-to-very severe COPD compared with LAMA or LABA/ICS in RCTs? . exacerbations. QoL.

COPD . Spiolto AND  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. aclidinium) OR  Ultibro. formoterol. vilanterol.Search Strategy?  Long-acting beta2-agonists (indacaterol. olodaterol) OR  Long-acting antimuscarinics (tiotropium. Duaklir. Anoro. umeclidinium. glycopyrronium.

Which databases should I search? Web of Science PubMed/Medline Cochrane Biosis Previews Library Scopus Embase CINAHL SciFinder .

PRISMA Flow Chart .

This lesson will cover some more advanced search techniques which can help you refine your searches. and catalogs to find information.Search techniques Literature search (basic/advanced) mainly involves the search of web search engines. . article databases.

Continued … Querying the biomedical literature becomes more difficult and effective searching requires the use of  Medical Subject Headings (MeSH).  Boolean operators.it may be time consuming and requires some degree of expertise. .  Filters/limits.  Truncation. and  Other advanced search options .

Type 2 Mellitus.000 MeSH headings found in the biomedical literature  Used for indexing biomedical literature  Example: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Diabetes Diabetes Diabetes Diabetes Diabetes Diabetes Diabetes Mellitus Insipidus Mellitus. Experimental Complications .Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)  The “vocabulary” of PubMed  Over 26. Type 1 Mellitus.

Boolean operators  AND  OR  NOT .

etc. like     diabetes.Truncation  Allows searching of terms that all begin with same search string  Asterisk (*) is the symbol used within most databases  Example: diabete*. . diabetetogenic. diabetes mellitus. diabetetogensis. then all terms beginning with the string will be retrieved.

Filters/limits  Age  Groups  Gender  Type of study. etc .

Others Quotation marks: using quotations marks bring only those pages with the terms you typed Example: “Withania somnifera” Wildcard: used to search for variations in spelling. denoted by a question mark ‘?’ in some databases Example: behavio?r would pick up both terms behaviour and behavior .

 Limit  The the number of search results.Summing Up Using advanced search techniques when searching article databases. and web search engines will help refine your search. and results found should be more relevant for your research question .

Steps of a Systematic Review 1 2 Question? Literature Search 3 Identify studies Relevant 4 Review for relevance Evaluate methodological quality 7 5 Extract data 6 Analyze data Draw Conclusions Not Relevant Exclude .

Thank you .