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EVOLUTION OF

ROBOTIC
SURGERY
T H E P A S T, P R E S E N T A N D T H E F U T U R E

HISTORY OF ROBOTIC SURGERY


The first Robotic surgical machine performed a robotic assisted procedure in 1985 with a machine called
Puma 560 (image shown above)
It had only one arm and not many degrees of freedom to move the arm. Since the robot didn't need to
perform a lot of functions, the base was small. The robotic arm has a needle attached to its arm to cut
anything.
The negatives about this robot is that it cannot perform many functions and the structure holding the arm
is quite fat. However, this was fixed with the newer surgical machines.
My robotic arm is a little based on this design, since my robot has one arm. My robot only has one arm
since only professionals, and factories can make machines with more than one arm. However, the
structure holding the arm is thinner compared to the PUMA 560, so it doesnt take up as much space.

base

ZEUS system
The Da Vinci Robotic
machine

CUR R ENT M A C H IN ES
The current robotic surgical machines have evolved to have 3 arms with a lot more degrees of
freedom. The most famous example of a current machine is the Da Vinci machine. Another example
is the ZEUS system but it is not that commonly used.
The advantages of this machine are that: it has a lot more accuracy with the motors being upgraded,
leading to ]
The disadvantages of this machine is that the base is too large and the arms structure also takes up
a lot of space.
My design was based of this since my robot has the same structure as that of the Da Vinci with a
based followed by a support structure to hold the arm facing down, however my robot only has one
arm. Along with that the structure that has been made from my arm bends to also decrease the
height of the machines addressing the problem of current surgical machines not fitting inside the
operating rooms.
For my robotic arm, I also decreased the size of the base, by decreasing the bases height and length
but increasing the width. This is because of the microcontroller or the CPU of the robot where all the
processes happen. The microcontroller itself takes about almost half the space of the base.

FUTURE ROBOTIC SURGICAL


MACHINES
Since my robotic surgical machine focuses on evolution as a whole my robotic arm incorporates the good parts of
the design in the past and current robotic surgical machines and it fixes the design problem with the current
robotic arms such as base size, structure size etc.
For the future of the machines, they will be automated meaning that there will be no remote control but just the
robot being programmed to perform surgery on its own. This has positive effects since it decreases the pressure in
surgeons since they just have to overview this project. The future machines will also have a smaller base to fit
inside operating rooms. With a smaller base, the machines become cheaper and more hospitals can afford them.
That is why my robotic arm is automated and I just have to press 2 buttons for the robot to pick up and place
objects from one place to another. Also, my robot also has a small base size due to a smaller length and height.
My robotic arm also has color and gyro sensors for the automated program making the robot detect materials.
This is similar to how the robotic machines will use small cameras to perform surgery.
There are again negative factors to the future of robotic surgery since the employment is decreased with robots
replacing humans to perform this job, and my robotic arm addressed this problem by making sure a person
always watches the procedure and presses a few buttons to make sure the robot is accurate.

PLANNING OF ROBOTIC ARM USING


EV3
This is the microcontroller of the
robotic arm along with the different
motors that helped me design the
arm. Along with another 500 pieces,
the kit

The kit
used to
make
the
robot

PRODUCT NEAR COMPLETION

MY FINAL PRODUCT

CO DI NG FOR R OBO TI C A R M

MORE CODING FOR THE ARM

LIMITATIONS
Since my robot actually cant be programmed to perform surgery, it has
been limited to simple functions but has been coded using Java which is an
object oriented programming language. I will take this as a learning step to
get more into programming to develop more professional programs that can
for example: draw things by holding a pencil.
For this project I thought it is best for my robotic arm to pick up and places
objects somewhere else, since it is a little similar to how the PUMA 560
picks up the instruments and moves its arm to a different place.

THANK YOU!