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(SCE)

1. Voltage dividers

R2

Vo

Vs

R1 R2

07/27/16

Deflection bridges

Deflection bridges are used to convert the output of resistive,

capacitive and inductive sensors into a voltage signal

Amplifiers

Amplifiers are necessary in order to amplify low-level signals, e.g.

thermocouple

or strain gauge bridge output voltages, to a level which enables them

to be further

processed

Oscillators and resonators

Bridge Parameters

a. Range of output

1

1

Z4

Z3

1

1 Z

Z2

I min

V

S

Vmin

1

1

Z4

Z3

1

1 Z

Z2

I max

V

S

Vmax

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b. Sensitivity

Vout

Z

VS2

Z1

w

2

Z1 Z 4

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d. Non linearity

Vmax

Vmax

I -

I min

I max I min

I max I min

Videal

E th Videal

100 N

Vmax

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Output voltage for resistive deflection bridge

bridge

Often we require V = 0, i.e. the bridge to be balanced when I =

MIN

IMIN;

Case 1.

-utilizing a single active gage in position R1

- it is often employed for both static and dynamic strain-gage

measurement if temperature compensation is not required.

-The resistance R1 = Rg and the other three resistances are selected to

maximize the circuit sensitivity while maintaining the balance condition

R1R3 = R2R4.

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12

defined as the product of the sensitivity of the gage Sg and the

sensitivity of the bridge circuit S. Thus,

S s S g Sc

07/27/16

R g R g

Vo

R R

g

g

Vo

13

arm R2.

-The active gage remains in arm R1

- fixed-value resistors are used in arms R2 and R3.

- With this positioning of the dummy gage

-the system sensitivity is the same as that given by case 1.

- Temperature compensation is achieved in the same manner that

was illustrated in Case 2, but without loss of circuit efficiency.

- When a dummy gage is to be used to effect temperature

compensation, arm R4 of the bridge is the preferred location for

the dummy gage.

07/27/16

14

Case 4.

- Four active gages are used in this Wheatstone bridge

arrangement: - - it is used to measure transverse and axial strain

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15

Link-type Load Cell

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16

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17

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18

bridge

bridge

Bridge for capacitive level sensor

Thus in order to get :ETh = 0 at minimum level hMIN, we require C0 = ChMIN(R3 /R2),

giving:

if R3 /R2 is made large compared with 1, this approximates to the linear form:

This gives:

This gives:

Amplifiers

Signal Amplification (I,V,,P)

Signal processing

Inverting

Buffering

Filtering

Compression

Integration

Differentiation

Converters * (How)

Inverting amplifier

Since V+ = V = 0

Also

giving

Non-inverting amplifier

Since i+ = 0, V+ = VIN

Also since V+ = V

we have

Voltage follower.

Differential amplifier

Instrumentation amplifier

High input impedance

High common mode rejection ratio

Low input offset voltage

Low temperature coefficient of offset voltage.

Voltage adder.

Input offset voltage VOS

The existence of input offset voltage VOS means that VOUT is unequal to zero

when both V and V+ = 0 volts, i.e.

Where

AOL -D.C. open-loop gain

Some operational amplifiers have facilities for adjusting VOS to zero, i.e. for

obtaining VOUT = 0 when V+ = V = 0.

VOS is dependent on the temperature TE C of the amplifier environment

Example

If VOS is set to zero at TE = 15 C; then if TE subsequently increases to 25 C, the

resulting input offset voltage is (25 15), i.e. 6 V, which causes a change of

approximately 0.6 106 V, i.e. 0.6 V in the output of the open-loop operational

amplifier

Instrumentation amplifiers

High common mode rejection ratio

Low input offset voltage

Low temperature coefficient of offset voltage.

Oscillators

Inductive Oscillators

Capacitive Oscillators

resonator

Examples of resonators

Vibrating plate element

It follows that

and

07/27/16

56

Therefore

and

07/27/16

57

From KVL

and it follows that

07/27/16

58

and

we have

07/27/16

59

Logarithmic amplifiers

- When a sensors output dynamic is of a high amplitude (10 mV to 10 V, for

example), it can be useful to compress the signal by using a logarithmic amplifier.

- After amplification and digitization, the signal can be easily transmitted across a

transmission line.

At reception, it is enough to carry out the reverse operation to restore the

measurement signal.

This principle allows us to lower noise sensitivity.

- Logarithmic amplifiers also help us linearize sensors, carry out multiplications,

divisions, elevations in the square, and extractions of the root squared.

To construct this type of amplifier , we use the feature of a P-N junction with an

equation (Ebres-Moll equation) in the following form:

where

q is the electron charge

k the Boltzmanns constant

T is the absolute temperature

U is the direct voltage and i0 is the flow of reverse current

07/27/16

60

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61

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