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Soal Neuroanatomi

Bordering both sides of the

primitivegroove is an elevation of
cells, the primitive streak,
whereas the anterior border of the
primitive pit is a small elevation of
cells, the

Cells of the mesoderm cannot

penetrate the contact of the
ectoderm and endoderm at the
prochordal plate, but they can
migrate around this region of
adhesion, and some mesoderm cells
will be located anterior to this
structure. These cells are

.is the process whereby the

embryo internalizes its developing
nervous system

The dorsal of the two sheaths of the

lateral plate mesoderm becomes
known as the somatic mesoderm,
and together with its associated
ectoderm this is referred to as the

Arcus Brachialis 1 akan menjadi

ligamen apa ?
Sebutkan minimal 2

The cartilage of the second or hyoid

arch is known as

Dasar dari saccus pharyngeus 2 ?

The basal plates and alar plates of

themantle layer are separated from
eachother by the ..


is a condition that frequently displays the presenceof a slight depression, similar to a dimple, in the
midline of the sacral region ofthe back. This slight depression is indicative of the final fusion of the sacralspinal
cord level, where the separation of the neural tube from the surfaceectoderm was almost incomplete. In fact,
occasionally a fibrous cord persistsbetween the dura mater and the dermis just beneath the dimple.

Some of the ependymal cells of the

third ventricle are modified and are
known as These modified
ependymal cells possess long
processes that approximate capillaries
and certain neurosecretory cells of the
hypothalamus. It is speculated that
they may transport CSF to these cells.

When whole mounts of teased

myelinated nerve fibers are viewed
with the light microscopethese areas
appear as clear slanted lines in the
myelin sheathsand are known as

a childhood disease, isdue to

mutations in the mitochondrial DNA as
well as mutations in chromosome9
(surfeit-1 gene) of neurons located in the
basal ganglia. Children afflicted with this
disease initially lose their verbal abilities
and muscularcoordination, and later may
exhibit dementia, seizures, and optic
atrophy;many die due to respiratory

A 32-year-old man complains

of numbness and tingling in his
left arm which began 5 days ago. He has
also noted some recent staggering
when walking and he feels quite off balance.
There is no dizziness or weakness.
He knows of no precipitating event. He
has no other complaints. Upon asking
about past history, he recalls that about 3
years ago he had an episode of bilateral
leg paralysis and poor sensation in the
legs. This improved over the course of 2
months and his legs got back to normal.
No specific etiology was found at that
time. He has not followed up with a
doctor.. DX ?

the venom of the black widow spider, is inserted

into the presynaptic membrane of the myoneural
junction, where it acts as an ungated, nonselective ion
channel, permitting the entry of Na+, K+, and Ca2+
into the presynaptic terminal. The altered intracellular
univalent cation concentration results in constant
depolarization of the presynaptic terminal. Moreover,
theelevated Ca2+ levels facilitate synaptic vesicle
docking and the release ofcopious amount of
acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft. The continuous
releaseof acetylcholine initially results in muscle
rigidity and then in paralysis ofthe affected muscles.

Spinal cord level T10,

Spinous process of vertebrae ?

Substantia gelatinosa (of Rolando)

Lamina Rexxed berapa ?

Sacral parasympathetic nucleus

( Onufrowicz ) Lamina rexxed ?

are tumors involving usually the caudal end of the

spinal cord and the filum terminale. The unchecked
cell division of the ependymal cells results in the
presence of small to medium-sized growth in the
affected area. These cells produce large quantities of
proteins that elevate the protein levels in the CSF
with a consequent reduction in the ability of the
arachnoid granulations to deliver CSF into the
lacunae lateralis/superior sagittal sinus. Therefore,
the patient begins to suffer from hydrocephalus with
headaches, and MRI examinations display the
presence of enlarged cerebral ventricles.

occurs infrequently and is characterized

by complete anesthesia and paralysis,
including the absence of all reflexes,
somatic or autonomic, involving the body
segments caudal to the site of damage. This
condition may be permanent if the spinal
cord is transected or of temporary duration
if the spinal cord receives a sudden, but
transient, injury, such as an unusually high
dose of spinal anesthesia. the result of unilateral spinal cord

lesions characterized by contralateral
pain and temperature loss and
ipsilateral weakness and loss of

broadmann 912 and 4647

Area ?

A ..refers to a contusion that

occurs to the part of the brain that
directly underlies the site of head
A refers to a contusion that
occurs in parts of the brain directly
opposite the site of head trauma.

The smallest of the sinuses is the

located in the posterior
margin of the falx cerebelli.

Sebutkan cabang pars cavernosa a

carotis interna ! (5)

The largest of the slender striate arteries

(lenticulostriate arteries) is frequently
known as the artery of cerebral
hemorrhage because its aneurysmis the
most likely source of strokes in hypertensive
patients. This vessel, abranch of the middle
cerebral artery, passes between the external
capsule andthe lentiform nucleus and
penetrates as deep as the caudate nucleus.
Aneurisma apa ?

miosis, ptosis, vertigo, dysarthria,

and ipsilateral hemiataxia
Kondisi apa ?

Preganglionic fibers of the

sympathetic nervous system arise
from nerve cell bodies located in the
lateral horn of spinal cord levels ?

this leaves the middle meningeal

artery to pass through (without
synapsing in) the otic ganglion. It
joins the auriculotemporal nerve and
serves the parotid gland.
What nerve ?

Branch of Superior Cervical Ganglion

from the right and left side:these join
the cardiac plexus and innervate the
cardiacmuscle of the heart. They
function in concert with themiddle
and inferior cardiac nerves to
accelerate the rate ofheart beat.
What nerve ?

The region of the sympathetic cord

connecting the middle and inferior
cervical ganglia. This is usually split
into an anterior and a posterior
portion; the anterior portion passes
around the subclavian artery,
forming a loopthe ?

preganglionic sympathetic fibers that

are located caudal to the least
splanchnic nerve,synapse in the ?

The least splanchnic nerve,

formed from preganglionic
sympathetic fibers that pass through
the twelfth thoracic ganglion, passes
through the diaphragm and synapses
in the ?

patients suffer from orthostatic

hypertension and faint frequently because
the autonomic nervous system neurons
responsible for adjusting blood pressure
during postural changes have either
degenerated or died. These postural
changes can involve the patient standing
up from a reclining (or even from a sitting)
Nama Syndrome ?

(Nama penyakit apa ? ) is a

paraneoplastic disorder, meaning it is
often associated with cancer. Small
cell lung cancer is the one most often
associated. The immune system is
induced by an as yet undetermined
mechanism to produce antibodies to
the voltage-gated calcium channel.
Therefore, a cancer work-up should be
undertaken in all patients with this
syndrome. In particular, this patient
needs, at the least, a chest X-ray and/or
chest CT since he has been a heavy

Somatosensory to the
Sebutkan traktusnya ? Min 4

During slight stretching of a relaxed

muscle, the muscle spindles are
stimulated while the ..remain
undisturbed and quiescent; with
stretching both the muscle spindles
and . are stimulated

Pada anterolateral system , neuron

apa yang membawa implus ?

In addition to the spinothalamic and

spinoreticular tracts, the ALS also
Contains ?

Lokasi badan sel neuron ordo I dari

rostral spioncerebellar ?

form of tertiary neurosyphilis, is a rare

condition which is
manifested during the second decade after
an individual becomes infected
with the microorganism causing syphilis. This
condition is characterized
by sensory ataxia (G. ataxia, without
order) resulting from impairment of
two-point discrimination, vibratory sense,
position sense, and kinesthesis.

In subacute combined
degeneration, as a result of
vitamin B12 deficiency,
both the .. And .. Undergo
degeneration a hereditary disorder that is

manifested prior to, or during,
puberty. In this condition, the
spinocerebellar tracts as well
asthe dorsal column pathways
degenerate and, consequently,
produce anincreasingly
deteriorating ataxia.

A curious phenomenon has been reported by

individuals who have had a limb
amputated. These individuals experience pain or
tingling sensations that feel
as if they were coming from the amputated limb,
just as if that limb were still
present. Although the mechanism of phantom limb
pain is not understood, the
following two possible explanations are offered
Fenomena apa ?

What tract mediates the execution of

rapid, skilled, voluntary movements
of the distal musculature of the
upper and lowerlimbs, especially the
intrinsic muscles of the hand ?

What tract fibers terminate not only

in their target cranial nerve motor
nuclei, but also in the sensory relay
nuclei and reticular formation of the
brainstem ?

What tract arises from

the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis and descends
in the lateral funiculus of the spinal cord. Nerve fibers
terminate at all spinal cord levels, where they synapse
with interneurons in the intermediate zone gray matter
of the
spinal cord. The medullary reticular fibers have an
effect on extensors and an excitatory affect on
flexors ?

A unilateral lesion in .results in

a contralateralflaccid paralysis

Upper motoneuron loss produces

pathologically brisk reflexes, Babinski
reflexes (extension of the big toe in
response to a scratch of the lateral aspect
of the bottom of the foot), and sometimes
spasticity or stiffness of an extremity.
Lower motoneuron loss leads to flaccid
weakness, atrophy, and fasciculations.
Both types of lesions can cause weakness.
Head imaging is typically normal.
Penyakit apa ?

Sebutkan 4 ventral striatum

Between the external

and extreme capsules
in the telencephalon ada apa ?

is a component of the limbic

system and is related to the basal
ganglia via neural connections

The striatum also receives inhibitory

dopaminergic nerve fiber terminals
from the and serotonergic nerve
fibers from the

As a result of the degeneration

(atrophy) of the caudate nuclei that
occupy the lateral ventricles,
radiographs reveal distended lateral
ventricles resulting in ?

results from a bacterial infection. The infectious bacteria

contain antigens that are comparable to the protein receptors
located in the
cell membrane of the neurons housed in the caudate nucleus and
the putamen.
The individual infected by this bacterium produces antibodies that
bind to the
bacterial antigens as well as to the receptors of the striatal neurons.
These neurons
act as if they were stimulated by neurotransmitter substances and
resulting in choreiform movements, involving the face, trunk, and
This condition, however, is temporary and the child will recover

is a condition that affects some

individuals who are
chronically treated with antipsychotic

is seen in young adults (1025 years of age), and results

degeneration mostly of the putamen and the globus pallidus,
other structures such as the cerebral cortex, thalamus, red
nucleus, and cerebellum
may also be involved. Degeneration is characterized by the
loss of
nerve cells and accumulation of protoplasmic astrocytes.
Consequently, the
nerve tissue exhibits small spaces, giving it a spongy
appearance. Lenticular
degeneration is usually accompanied by cirrhosis of the liver.

fibers are the axon terminals of

neurons whose cell bodies reside
exclusively in the inferior olivary

..nuclei suppress or modulate

the transmission of nociceptive
from first order neurons to second
projection neurons that terminate in
higher brain centers


The trigeminal pathway for pain and

temperature. Pain
and temperature sensation from the
orofacial structures is transmitted to
the brainstem subnucleus caudalis (Sc) of
the via the
central processes of first order
pseudounipolar neurons whose cell bodies
located in the trigeminal ganglion.

Damage to the fibers innervating the

tensor tympani muscle results in.

A lesion to one MLF results in

Auditory system lapisan ke berapa

colliculus superior ? the serrated margin between

the choroid and the ciliary body

The cochlea is a spiral, bony

shell, resembling a snail shell
which winds turns about its osseous
axis, the .

What nuclei process auditory

information from both ears and
determine the direction that a sound
is coming from and its intensity ?

is associated with
sound localization

The ..has an inhibitory effect

on cochlear nerve activity,
modulating and sharpening auditory

The most prevalent sensorineural
hearing deficit occurring in the
elderly is.

Stria olaktori intermedia akan

memberikan ke 3 bangunan ,

2 jaras yang menghubungkan

entorhinal cortex dan molecular layer
of gyrus dentatus

The amygdala is divided into three

groups of subnuclei ?

Afferen dari corticomedial

Jaras yang menghubungkan

amygdala dengan hipotalamus,
septal area, bed nucleus



Kerusakan dimana ?
The most striking behavioral
characteristics of this syndrome are:
lack of fear and anger in previously
wild animals, docility, changes in
feeding behavior, sexual
abnormalities, excessive oral
curiosityin examining objects, and
visual agnosia (the inability to
recognize objects

Nucleus thalamus yang

terkena ?
a disorder that most often results
from thiamin (vitamin B1) nutritional deficiency in chronic
alcoholism. Affected
individuals have loss of recent memory, and to compensate for
this when they
converse, they make up fictitious information or events to fill in
the gaps of
memory loss. Morphological changes are reported in the
hippocampal formation,
the columns of the fornix, and the mammillary bodies of the
However, the area that exhibits the most drastic modification is
medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus.

Studies have shown that the

pyramidal neurons in area CA1 of the
hippocampal formation referred to as

Jaras yang menghubungkan dorsal

dan ventral tegmental nucleus
dengan lateral mamillary nuclueus

Jaras yang menghubungkan nucleus

basolateral dengan lateral
hypotalamic nucleus

The tuberohypophyseal tract carries

fibers from the. and
nuclei to the infundibular stalk
and the anterior pituitary

Yang menghubungkan septal area,

basal forebrain, primary olfactory
cortex, brainstem raphe nuclei, VTA
locus ceroleus dengan

The preoptic and anterior

hypothalamic nuclei are involved
in the control
of body temperature. In the event
that body temperature rises above
limits, these nuclei initiate heat loss
mechanisms in order to restore
body temperature. Bilateral

Stimulation of the
nuclei of the
hypothalamus and surrounding areas
produces satiety and tranquility.
lesions of the ventromedial areas of
the hypothalamus induce excessive
eating, drinking, excitability, and

Diabetes insipidus is a condition that

results following anterior
hypothalamic damage of the
. nuclei

Nucleus thalamus yang


Sensorimotor integration
Maintenance of arousal
Pain perception
Control of cortical activity

Sindrom apa ?
Subsequent to the loss of sensation
caused by a thalamic lesion, the
individual experiences paresthesias
(abnormal sensations such as
pinching, or burning, in the absence
of an actual stimulus), which may
to agonizing pain in the parts of the
body where loss of sensation has