A Docuverse - the web has become a giant repository of interlinked material …..

"Here lies the dream of the universal library-every word ever recorded knit together in a mosaic of knowledge, just waiting for the holy command to bring it forth."



Classical narrative features: use of single sequence/events order: developing as linear trajectory narrative initiated as the result of a problem characters face conflict events unfold causally (causality) audience engages through empathy

There is a sequence, an order, a connectedness within non-fiction and traditional fiction. Readers of print narratives begin where print begins on the first page of a book, story or article - then proceed right through to the end of the text. A writer can build upon assumed knowledge or understanding and develop the plot.

William Burroughs: Cut-ups, 1959
"Certainly if writing is to have a future it must at least catch up with the past and learn to use techniques that have been used for some time past in painting, music and film.“

For Burroughs, narrative operates as a vast, multi-threaded network that reflects the associative tendencies of the mind, collapsing the boundaries of time and space, drawing attention to previously undetected connections, drawing attention to the links between disparate ideas and elements.*

*adapted from “from Wagner to virtual reality” website

links, nodes and pathways Hypertext & hypertext fiction: choose your own adventure stories Rhizomatic structures vs decision trees The Split/Join pattern knits two or more sequences together. Mark Bernstein. Patterns Of Hypertext “An appropriate vocabulary will allow us both to discern and to discuss patterns in hypertexts that may otherwise seem an impenetrable tangle or arbitrary morass.”

Patterns of Hypertext

Mark Bernstein. Patterns Of Hypertext: complex webs of links http://www.constellations.co.nz/?rid=246 (accessed 20060321)


Building learning power. , : George Spencer School

Before the web came hypertext. And before hypertext came mind maps. Mind maps were developed in the late 60s by Tony Buzan as a way of helping students make notes that used only key words and images. They are much quicker to make, and because of their visual quality much easier to remember and review. The non-linear nature of mind maps makes it easy to link and cross-reference different elements of the map -- which is why hypertext was developed for computers (again initially by a student wanting to make note-taking easier). Peter Russell joined with Tony Buzan in the mid-70s and together they taught mind-mapping skills in a variety of international corporations and educational institutions. - Peter Russell
Mind Maps: A Precursor To Hypertext: http://www.constellations.co.nz/index.php?rid=305 (accessed 20060321)

“At its most sophisticated level, hypertext is a software environment for collaborative work, communication, and knowledge acquisition. Hypertext products mimic the brain's ability to store and retrieve information by referential links for quick and intuitive access.” 


Eastgate Systems - “Storyspace” :: A software application/environment for developing hypertext


Mark Bernstein. Patterns Of Hypertext: complex webs of links http://www.constellations.co.nz/?rid=246 (accessed 20060321)

William Burroughs: Cut-ups, 1959 Kurt Vonnegut. Slaughterhouse-Five Jim Jarmusch Mystery Train (1989) Quentin Tarantino. Pulp Fiction (1994) David Lynch. Lost Highway (1996) Harold Ramis. Groundhog Day (1993) Tom Tykwer. Run Lola Run (1999) Christopher Nolan. Memento (2000)

A rhizome has no beginning or end; it is always in the middle, between things, interbeing, intermezzo. The tree is filiation, but the rhizome is alliance, uniquely alliance. The tree imposes the verb "to be," but the fabric of the rhizome is conjunction, "and . . . and . . . and" This conjunction carries enough force to shake and uproot the verb "to be.“ -Gilles Deleuze & Felix Guattari. A Thousand Plateaus Hypertext presents a number of entry points into the same work. The reader is launched into the text via the pathway they've chosen.

Rhizome: A Thousand Plateaus http://www.constellations.co.nz/index.php?rid=204 (accessed 20060321)

Roland Barthes: an 'ideal text' is comprised of individual sections of text or lexia which are connected by networks which allow the active reader to continually shift the focus or centre of a particular reading path as new interconnections are perceived [S/Z, 1974]
Roland Barthes. Readerly Texts And Writerly Texts. http://www.constellations.co.nz/?rid=45 (accessed 20060321)

Jean-Francois Lyotard: the possibility of a fluid mobility for the reader through dispersed and discontinuous fragments. [Driftworks, 1984]



The history of psychogeography is bound up with certain walking practices, notably flânerie and the dérive, which are not to be confused. Flânerie tended to be solitary, relatively leisurely, and bound up with commodities (window-shopping, second-hand books, prostitutes) on familiar ground. The dérive ignored commodities, was often communal and could be gruelling. Chtcheglov saw the dérive as potentially a kind of ambulant free-association: The dérive (with its flow of acts, its gestures, its strolls, its encounters) was to the totality exactly what psychoanalysis (in the best sense) is to language. Let yourself go with the flow of the words, says the analyst'...Chtcheglov, 'Letters from Afar', Internationale Situationniste, 9 (August 1964), p. 38
http://www.camdennet.org.uk/groups/soundevents/articles/item?item_id=14891 [Feb 2005]

Psychogeography, flânerie and the dérive http://www.jahsonic.com/Blog2.html (accessed 20060321)


[Theodor] Adorno borrowed [the 'constellation'] term from [Walter] Benjamin. It signifies "a juxtaposed rather than integrated cluster of changing elements that resist reduction to a common denominator, essential core, or generative first principle" (Jay 14-15). This concept can be seen in Adorno's writing style. Adorno seeks to enact a negative dialectic, in which concepts are not reduced to categorical understandings. By preserving the contradictory and irreconcilable differences of arguments and observations in his work, Adorno maintains the tension between the universal and the particular, between essentialism and nominalism. - Jennefer Callaghan (Emory University, Atlanta)
Adorno's Constellation: Juxtaposed Rather Than Integrated Cluster Of Changing Elements http://www.constellations.co.nz/index.php?rid=507 (accessed 20060321)

Interactive narrative features: multiple sequences interactive experience initiated as result of user choice events unfold according to availability and user choice user engages through agency (discernable impact)

Luc Courchesne. Portrait One. artINTact 2

Forced Entertainment & Hugo Glendinning. Frozen Palaces. artINTact 5

:SINGAPOREASY: by Liz Swift is a hypertext story based on an experience of a stopover in a strange city. It is a cross between a travel guide and a jumble of trivial memories and fleeting ideas. It contains narratives, which overlap and inform one another but never conclude. It invites the reader to click on the links, to choose their own path, to wander.

391-36: Singaporeasy: http://www.constellations.co.nz/?rid=341 (accessed 20061016)


"My name is Mouchette. I live in Amsterdam. I am nearly 13 years old. " This seemingly innocent introduction by a child artist hides the shocking content within Mouchette's website. Allegedly authored by a twelve-year-old French girl, "Mouchette" is a complex site consisting of various secret links, electronic interactive texts, and poems that reveal the multiple faces of the artist, along with her fears and obsessions. Loosely-based on the 1937 book by Georges Bernanos and the 1967 Robert Bresson movie, Mouchette, the website seems to expand upon the basic storyline of the film. The movie portrays a girl suffering from the pains of abuse, an alcoholic father and dying mother. Eventually she finds that her only escape from the hatred and sexual abuse in her life is suicide. Not only does the net artist draw several character similarities to the female protagonist of the film Mouchette, but also relates similar thematic ideas. The various subpages of the site use visually-shocking pictures, images of flesh and blood, and interactive forums of taboo subjects to explore themes of sexual abuse, violence and hatred, and loneliness. The anonymous authorship of the site, as well as the user interface, poses an underlying question of identity, leaving the viewer curious what the true nature of the website. By creating an interactive site that encourages audience participation, Mouchette.org challenges the viewer to confront these disturbing themes and make a decision of further conduct. - Sarah Stein '05 & Edward Yip '04
My Name Is Mouchette. I Live In Amsterdam. I Am Nearly 13 Years Old: http://www.constellations.co.nz/?rid=582 (accessed 20060321)

Things Spoken is the second part of a project that deals with different aspects of memory and visual archetypes. [Hegedüs] scanned and catalogued fifty of her belongings and in the resulting CD-ROM-based art work, the user can choose to sort them by size, weight, colour or function, or by more subjective criteria such as in the case of gifts, the gender of the persons who gave the objects to the artist. Each object tells a story, which is narrated by Hegedus. There are links in the texts, creating a hypernarrative. This personal database explores an emergent matrix of memories though the singularities and possible (inter)relationships of mundane things. -databaseimaginary.banff.org

Hegedüs, Agnes (1999). Things Spoken screenshot 01. Karlsruhe, Germany

Things Spoken: a catalogue of her belongings: http://www.constellations.co.nz/?rid=14 (accessed 20061016)

The projects have been created by 1st year Nottingham Trent University Multimedia student in one of their introductory modules. Students were asked to develop an interactive work based on a particular physical location within the Nottingham city centre. They did so through generating a series of digital photographs that they arranged using hypertext links and simple JavaScript controls.

Choules, Matt & Perkins, Simon (2006). VNTH06. Nottingham, UK

NTU Multimedia: interactive narrative: http://www.coalesce.eu/ (accessed 20061016)

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