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ETHICAL CYCLE

PROFETA, MELVIN
MOJICA, HANCE JAROME

THE ETHICAL CYCLE


Ethical cycle is a tool in structuring and improving moral decisions by
making a systematic and thorough analysis of the moral problem, which
helps to come to a moral judgment and to justify the final decision in moral
terms.

PHASE 1: MORAL PROBLEM


STATEMENT
Moral problem A problem in which two or more positive moral values or
norms cannot be fully realized at the same time.
Moral Dilemmas originally dilemma means double proposition

implying

that there are only two options for action.


- crucial feature is that the agent has only two (or a
limited
number of) options for action and that whatever
he/she
chooses he/she will commit a moral wrong.

PHASE 2: PROBLEM
ANALYSIS
Important Elements in Problem Analysis
The stakeholders and their interests

- Stakeholders are both the people who can influence the options for action
being chosen and the eventual consequences of this action.
The relevant moral values
The relevant facts

- Though facts arent always entirely clear. So it is advisable to formulate moral


standpoint in a hypothetical form:
If x is the case, then option for action A is morally acceptable, but if it turns out that
y is the case, then option B is morally acceptable.

PHASE 3: OPTIONS FOR


ACTIONS
After the analytic step, a synthetic step follows in which possible solutions
for action are generated in the light of the formulated problem analysis.
Black-and-white-strategy a strategy for action in which only two options
for actions are considered: doing the action or not.
Strategy of cooperation the action strategy that is directed at finding
alternatives that can help to solve a moral problem by consulting other
stakeholders.
Whistle-blowing speaking to the media or the public on an undesirable
situation against the desire of the employer.

ICEBREAKER

TALL STORIES
The leader starts a story with a sentence that

ends in SUDDENLY. The next person then has to


add to the story with his own sentence that
ends in SUDDENLY. Continue the story until
everyone has contributed. The story becomes
crazier as each young person adds their
sentence. Tape it and play it back. For example;
'Yesterday I went to the zoo and was passing
the elephant enclosure when SUDDENLY.....

PHASE 4: ETHICAL
EVALUATION
Moral acceptability of the various options for action is evaluated. This can be
done on the basis of both formal and informal moral frameworks.
Formal Moral Frameworks
- Codes of Conduct, Care Ethics, Utilitarianism, Kants theory, and Virtue
Ethics.
Informal Ethical Frameworks
Intuitivist framework the ethical framework in which options for action

are evaluated on basis of ones view about what is intuitively most


acceptable and that formulates arguments for this statement.
Common sense method the method that weighs the available options

for actions in the light of the relevant values.

PHASE 5: REFLECTION
The goal of this reflection is to come to a well-argued choice among the
various options for actions, using the outcomes of the earlier steps.
Wide reflective equilibrium the basic idea is that different ethical
judgments on a case are weighed against each other and brought into
equilibrium.
approach that aims at making coherent three types of moral beliefs: 1.
considered moral judgments; 2. moral principles; and 3. background
theories.
Central to the reflection arguments for or against ethical frameworks
can be positioned at two levels. One level is the general criticism of the
ethical frameworks. The second level of criticism is the concrete situation in
which a certain option for action has to be chosen.

REFERENCE:
ETHICS, TECHNOLOGY, AND ENGINEERING
by: Malden, Mass. : Wiley-Blackwell, 2011