You are on page 1of 19

COMGOVT

Casas
Foronda
Ladignon
Quilatan

Chapter 4

A common political culture was unlikely to develop and the North was bound to
be different from the South.

Argument no. 1: A common political culture was unlikely to develop


and the North was bound to be different from the South.

1. Climate was viewed as something that could play a part in


the civilized world
a. Climate made some Europeans different from others
b. Climate was viewed as a crucial element in that it was argued
that the cold made it easier for the citizens to react whereas heat
led people to be passive.
c. Creating a North = Cold = Reactive and South = Heat = Passive

Argument no. 2: Religion is a cause of the division of Western European Political


Culture

1. The division between Catholic and the Protestant Western

Europe is thus a north and south divide.


a. Decision to choose a religion was scarcely in the hands of
the citizens but entirely in the hands of the monarchical rulers.
2. Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV led to
massive emigration of Huguenots to England, Some United
Provinces and some German states

3. There was a sharp differential development of


industrialization between the north and south.
a. Protestant Europe (north) is characterized by a
spirit of enterprise, Catholic Europe (south) is not.
b. Industrialization which originated and was first
primarily geographically circumscribed in the North.

3. Colonial legacy ( Nationalism)


a. Europeans principally from the North, wanted to benefit by
plundering the goods and copying the manners of Italy. The
consequences of this mode of behavior called Italian
mentality.
b. The effect on social and political life was later analyzed
rigorously by Putnam who sharply distinguished the modes of
behavior of the North and South. Putnam concluded that For
the last ten centuries , the North and the South have followed
contrasting dilemmas of collective action that afflict all
societies Putnam, 1993
c. Progressive and decadent

Argument no. 3: One further source of division is political socialization

a. European states, being strong institutions, are able to


have an effect on the daily life of citizens
b. Administrative centralization: centralizing characteristics
take essentially the form of setting up uniform
arrangements and uniform modes of behavior for the
administrative agencies and even for various aspects of
political life.
c. Differences on a national, not a sub-regional basis

Conclusion
It may have come to mind that the Western Europe may

have a common political culture. One of the possible


reasons is the effect of the integration: European Union.
As expected there is a great chance that they share
common political culture due to such integration it is
believed that they might share a lot of values, views, and
attitudes towards the government. But there are factors
that affect the political culture of Western Europeans and
these are nationalism, colonial legacy, climate, religion
industrial revolution and socialization.

Chapter 5

There is no common political culture in East and Southeast Asia despite having
traces of possible commonality.

Argument no. 1: Varying geographical characteristics of

states contribute to the differences in East and Southeast


Asian countries
a. Climate
- Citizens from cold climates are likely to be more active than
those from warmer climates.
b. Geographical configuration
- Islands are believed to have a more idiosyncratic type of
political culture.

Argument no. 2: Historical legacies have created variance


in the nature of the political life in these countries.
a. Colonization has been a major element in the way a
majority of states of the region developed
- The colonized states followed to an extent the form of
government of their mother countries
i. Parliamentary system was introduce in Malaysia,
Singapore and Indonesia
ii. Presidential system was adopted in the Philippines

b. Religious affiliations and ethnic differences are divisive


factors in the regions
- Different forms of Buddhism prevail in East Asia
- Southeast Asia is dominated by Muslims in Malaysia
and Indonesia, and Christianity (as well as Muslim) in the
Philippines.
Argument no. 3 Economic advancements and political
change among nations create distinctions between the
cultures of the two regions.
- Industrialization and socio-economic development
creates a distinction among the countries in the East and
Southeast Asian region.
- The spread of liberal democracy in both regions led to
recognizable political values in each state.

ARGUMENT 3: One further source of division is political socialization


European states, being strong institutions, are able to

have an effect on the daily life of citizens


Administrative centralization: centralizing characteristics
take essentially the form of setting up uniform
arrangements and uniform modes of behavior for the
administrative agencies and even for various aspects of
political life.
Differences on a national, not a sub-regional basis

Conclusion
Each of the factors given above will really tend to affect

each and every state in a different ways. Although there


are traces of a common political culture but there are
very limited traces of common political culture in East and
South East Asia.
The respondents of nine countries of East and Southeast

Asia do not hold the same basic societal values resulting


that there is no political culture in the region

Merged

The western European, East and Southeast Asian regions do not have
a common political culture and is unlikely to have any in the future

Argument no. 1: All of the countries in these regions have

diverse historical and geographical background.


a. Religion
- Western European countries have two regions: Protestantism and
Catholicism. While East and Southeast Asia have multiple such as:
Buddhism, Muslim, Catholicism, and Shintoism. Thus one is
different from the other in the sense that one has specific religion
whereas the other has numerous

b. History
- The degree of Westernization of the some regions in Southeast Asia
the reactions to Western influence have also been forceful or at least
ambivalent indeed in East Asia.

c. Geography
- The existence of North-South division in Western Europe
depends therefore on there having sharp variations of
attitudes between these countries.

Argument no. 2: Each state has a unique political


culture
1. The spread of liberal democracy in East and Southeast

Asia
2.

3. Globalization is now a contributing factor to states

diversity.
a. Migration
-globalization

truly encourages migration through it's


proponents and features

b. Economic liberalization