You are on page 1of 41

Global/

International
Issues

Chapter Eleven

Chapter Objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of


entering global markets.
Discuss protectionism as it impacts the world
economy.
Explain when and why a firm (or industry) may
need to become more or less global in nature
to compete.
Discuss the global challenge facing American
firms.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-2

Chapter Objectives (cont.)


5.
6.
7.
8.

Compare and contrast business culture in the


United States with many other countries.
Describe how management style varies
globally.
Discuss communication differences across
countries.
Discuss Africa as the newest hotspot for
business entry.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-3

A Comprehensive StrategicManagement Mode

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-4

Global/International Issues
The underpinnings of strategic management
hinge on managers gaining an understanding
of competitors, markets, prices, suppliers,
distributors, governments, creditors,
shareholders, and customers worldwide.

The price and quality of a firms products and


services must be competitive on a worldwide
basis, not just on a local basis.
Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-5

The Five Largest (by revenue)


Companies in Nine Countries (2011)

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-6

Fortunes Most and Least Admired Companies


in the World for Global Competitiveness

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-7

Multinational Organizations
Multinational corporations
Organizations that conduct business
operations across national borders

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-8

Risks of Multinational
Organizations

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-9

Advantages of International
Operations
1.
2.
3.

Firms can gain new customers for their


products.
Foreign operations can absorb excess capacity,
reduce unit costs, and spread economic risks
over a wider number of markets.
Foreign operations can allow firms to establish
low-cost production facilities in locations close
to raw materials and/or cheap labor.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-10

Advantages of International
Operations
4.
5.
6.

Competitors in foreign markets may not exist, or


competition may be less intense than in domestic
markets.
Foreign operations may result in reduced tariffs,
lower taxes, and favorable political treatment.
Joint ventures can enable firms to learn the
technology, culture, and business practices of
other people and to make contacts with potential
customers, suppliers, creditors, and distributors
in foreign countries.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-11

Advantages of International
Operations
7. Economies of scale can be achieved from
8.

operation in global rather than solely


domestic markets.
A firms power and prestige in domestic
markets may be significantly enhanced if the
firm competes globally.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-12

Disadvantages of
International Operations
1. Foreign operations could be seized by
2.

3.

nationalistic factions.
Firms confront different social, cultural,
demographic, environmental, political,
governmental, legal, technological, economic,
and competitive forces when doing business
internationally.
Weaknesses of competitors in foreign lands are
often overestimated, and strengths are often
underestimated.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-13

Disadvantages of
International Operations
4. Language, culture, and value systems differ
5.
6.

among countries, which can create barriers to


communication and problems managing people.
Gaining an understanding of regional
organizations is often required in doing
business internationally.
Dealing with two or more monetary systems can
complicate international business operations.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-14

The Global Challenge


Americas economy is becoming much
less American.
A world economy and monetary system
are emerging.
Markets are shifting rapidly and in many
cases converging in tastes, trends, and
prices.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-15

Globalization
Globalization
process of doing business worldwide, so
strategic decisions are made based on global
profitability of the firm rather than just
domestic considerations

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-16

Globalization
Global strategy
includes designing, producing, and marketing
products with global needs in mind, instead
of considering individual countries alone
integrates actions against competitors into a
worldwide plan

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-17

Corporate Tax Rates Across


Countries in 2011

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-18

Cultural Pitfalls That May Help


You Be a Better Manager

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-19

Cultural Differences between U.S.


and Foreign Managers
Americans place an exceptionally high priority
on time, viewing time as an asset. Many
foreigners place more worth on relationships.
Personal touching and distance norms differ
around the world. Americans generally stand
about three feet from each other when carrying
on business conversations, but Arabs and
Africans stand about one foot apart.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-20

Cultural Differences between


U.S. and Foreign Managers
Family roles and relationships vary in different
countries.
Business and daily life in some societies are
governed by religious factors.
Time spent with the family and the quality of
relationships are more important in some
cultures than the personal achievement and
accomplishments espoused by the traditional
U.S. manager.
Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-21

Cultural Differences between


U.S. and Foreign Managers
Many cultures around the world value modesty,
team spirit, collectivity, and patience much
more than competitiveness and individualism,
which are so important in the United States.
Punctuality is a valued personal trait when
conducting business in the United States, but it
is not revered in many of the worlds societies.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-22

Cultural Differences between U.S.


and Foreign Managers
To prevent social blunders when meeting
with managers from other lands, one must
learn and respect the rules of etiquette of
others.
Americans often do business with
individuals they do not know, unlike
businesspersons in many other cultures.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-23

Communication Differences
Across Countries
Italians, Germans, and French generally do
not soften up executives with praise before
they criticize. Americans do soften up folks,
and this practice seems manipulative to
Europeans.
Israelis are accustomed to fast-paced
meetings and have little patience for
American informality and small talk.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-24

Communication Differences
Across Countries
British executives often complain that American
executives chatter too much. Informality,
egalitarianism, and spontaneity from Americans
in business settings jolt many foreigners.
Europeans feel they are being treated like
children when asked to wear name tags by
Americans.
Executives in India are used to interrupting one
another.
Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-25

Communication Differences
Across Countries
When negotiating orally with Malaysian or
Japanese executives, it is appropriate to allow
periodically for a time of silence.
Refrain from asking foreign managers
questions such as How was your weekend?
That is intrusive to foreigners, who tend to
regard their business and private lives as totally
separate.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-26

Mexico-Business Culture
Employers seek workers who are
agreeable, respectful, and obedient,
rather than innovative, creative, and
independent.
Mexican employers are paternalistic,
providing workers with more than a
paycheck, but in return they expect
allegiance.
Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-27

Mexico-Business Culture
Mexicans do not feel compelled to follow
rules that are not associated with a
particular person in authority they work
for or know well.
Mexicans are very status conscious so
business titles and rank are important.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-28

Japan-Business Culture
The Japanese place great importance on
group loyalty and consensus, a concept
called Wa.
When confronted with disturbing
questions or opinions, Japanese
managers tend to remain silent.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-29

Japan-Business Culture
Most Japanese managers are reserved, quiet,
distant, and introspective, whereas most U.S.
managers are talkative, insensitive, impulsive,
direct, and individual oriented.
Unlike Americans, Japanese prefer to do
business on the basis of personal relationships
rather than impersonally speaking over the
phone or by written correspondence.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-30

Brazil-Business Culture
Avoid embarrassing a Brazilian by
criticizing an individual publically. That
causes that person to lose face with all
others at a business meeting.
Appointments are commonly cancelled or
changed at the last minute in Brazil, so
do not be surprised or get upset.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-31

Germany-Business Culture
Germans are like Americans in that they do
not need a personal relationship to do
business. They are more interested in a
businesspersons academic credentials and
their companys credentials.
German meetings adhere to strict agendas,
including starting and ending times.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-32

Egypt-Business Culture
Egyptians prefer to do business with those
they know and respect, so expect to spend
time cultivating a personal relationship
before business is conducted.
In Egypt, business moves at a slow pace
and society is extremely bureaucratic.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-33

China-Business Culture
The Chinese rarely do business with
companies or people they do not know. Your
position on an organizational chart is
extremely important in business relationships.
Arriving late to a meeting is an insult and
could negatively affect your relationship.
Meetings require patience because mobile
phones ring frequently and conversations
tend to be boisterous.
Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-34

India-Business Culture
People in India do not like to say no,
verbally or nonverbally.
Rather than disappoint you, they often
will say something is not available, or will
offer you the response that they think you
want to hear, or will be vague with you.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-35

India-Business Culture
Indians prefer to do business with those
whom they have established a relationship
built upon mutual trust and respect.
Punctuality is important.
Indians generally do not trust the legal
system and someones word is often
sufficient to reach an agreement.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-36

Sampling of African CountriesEaseof-Doing-Business Rankings

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-37

Sampling of Asian CountriesEase-ofDoing-Business Rankings

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-38

Sampling of European Countries


Ease-of-Doing-Business Rankings

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-39

Sampling of North and South American


CountriesEase-of-Doing-Business Rankings

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-40

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

11-41