You are on page 1of 52

Che PE 2: Water Pollution

MIXING AND
FLOCCULATION

Question 1: Easy

What is the term used to describe the


process where chemicals are quickly
and uniformly dispersed in water?
A. Stationary mixing
B. Rapid mixing
C. Complete mixing
D. High velocity mixing

Question 1: Easy Answer

B. Rapid mixing
Rapid mixing help in the formation of
precipitates
- helps increase the rate of reaction that
occurs during coagulation and softening

Question 2: Easy

What substances are produced as a byproduct during coagulation processes?


A. Aluminum and iron hydroxides
B. Aluminum and iron carbonates
C. Calcium and magnesium hydroxides
D. Calcium and magnesium carbonates

Question 2: Easy Answer

A. Aluminum and iron hydroxides


Aluminum and iron hydroxides
result from the coagulation of
aluminum and iron ions in high pH
- precipitation of these compounds
causes reduction in turbidity

Question 3: Easy

What substances are produced as a byproduct during softening processes?


A. Aluminum and iron hydroxides
B. Aluminum and iron carbonates
C. Calcium and magnesium hydroxides
D. Calcium and magnesium carbonates

Question 3: Easy Answer

D. Calcium and magnesium carbonates


Calcium and magnesium carbonates
result from the softening of water with
permanent hardness
- precipitation of these compounds
causes reduction in water hardness

Question 4: Easy

What is the term for agglomerated


particles derived from smaller particles?
A. flocks
B. flux
C. flocs
D. flacks

Question 4: Easy Answer

C. flocs
Flocs the agglomerated/ combined
mass of finer particles so that these
substances can be separated easily
from the treated water

Question 6: Easy

The velocity gradient G can be thought


of as ______.
A. shear forces that take place during
mixing
B. the speed at which particles move
through solution
C. the coefficient of mixing diffusion
D. the power input into a volume of fluid

Question 6: Easy Answer

A. shear forces that take place during


mixing

Question 7: Easy

Under rapid mixing, coagulation


reactions are completed in less than __
second?
A. 0.2
B. 0.1
C. 0.5
D. 0.3

Question 7: Easy Answer

B. 0.1 second
Coagulation reactions typically involve
inorganic reactants in solution, therefore
reactions proceed rapidly.

Question 8: Easy

How many mechanisms occur during


coagulation?
A. 3
B. 1
C. 2
D.4

Question 8: Easy Answer

C. 2
The two mechanisms are:
1. adsorption of the soluble hydrolysis
species on the colloid and
destabilization
2. sweep coagulation

Question 9: Easy

What occurs during sweep coagulation?


A. Precipitation of ions occurs in solution
B. Small particles combine to form larger
particles
C. Particles collide with each other and
undergo reactions
D. Colloid is trapped in the hydroxide
precipitate

Question 9: Easy Answer

D. Colloid is trapped in the hydroxide


precipitate
This phenomena is illustrated by
reactions involving aluminum and iron
hydroxides.

Question 10: Easy

In what time range does sweep


coagulation occur?
A. 1 7 seconds
B. 3 5 seconds
C. 6 8 seconds
D. 2 4 seconds

Question 10: Easy


Answer

A. 1 7 seconds
Absorption destabilization reactions
occur much faster. It takes place within 1
second.

ROUND 2

AVERAGE ROUND

Question 1: Average

This is the locus of points traversed by a


given particle as it travels in a field of
flow.
A. pathline
B. streakline
C. streamline
D. streamtube

Question 1: Average
Answer

A. pathline

Question 2: Average

This is the instantaeneous line whose


points are occupied by all particles
originating from some specified point in
the flow field.
A. pathline
B. streakline
C. streamline
D. streamtube

Question 2: Average
Answer

B. streakline

Question 3: Average

This is the flow when the velocity vector


of each particle occupying a point on the
streamline is tangent to the streamline.
A. pathline
B. streakline
C. streamline
D. streamtube

Question 3: Average
Answer

C. streamline

Question 4: Average

This is the term used to describe a


cylindrical surface whose walls are
streamlines.
A. pathline
B. streakline
C. streamline
D. streamtube

Question 4: Average
Answer

D. streamtube

Question 5: Average

The velocity vector of this flow depends


only on two coordinate axes.
A. Uniform flow
B. Inviscid flow
C. Viscous flow
D. Plane flow

Question 5: Average
Answer

D. Plane flow

Question 6: Average

The flow properties in this type of flow


are constant over the area.
A. Uniform flow
B. Inviscid flow
C. Viscous flow
D. Plane flow

Question 6: Average
Answer

A. Uniform flow

Question 7: Average

The velocity vector of this flow depends


only on two coordinate.
A. Uniform flow
B. Inviscid flow
C. Viscous flow
D. Plane flow

Question 7: Average
Answer

D. Plane flow

Question 8: Average

In this type of flow, viscous effects do


not significantly influence the flow
characteristics.
A. Uniform flow
B. Inviscid flow
C. Viscous flow
D. Plane flow

Question 8: Average
Answer

B. Inviscid flow

Question 9: Average

In this type of flow scheme, there is no


significant mixing of neighboring fluid
particles.
A. External flow
B. Critical flow
C. Laminar flow
D. Turbulent flow

Question 9: Average
Answer

C. Laminar flow

Question 10: Average

In this type of flow scheme, fluid motions


vary irregularly so that quantities such
as velocity and pressure show a random
variation with time and space.
A. External flow
B. Critical flow
C. Laminar flow
D. Turbulent flow

Question 10: Average


Answer

D. Turbulent flow

ROUND 3

DIFFICULT ROUND

Question 1: Difficult

Two parallel flocculation basins are used


to treat a water flow of 0.3 cubic meters
per second. If the design detention time
is 20 minutes, what is the volume of
each tank?

Question 1: Difficult
Answer

180 cubic meters

Question 2: Difficult

Determine the power input required for a


tank of 5 cubic meter capacity that
designed to handle water at 20C where
the velocity gradient is 800/s.

Question 2: Difficult
Answer

3200 W or 3.2 kW

Question 3: Difficult

Using Rushtons formula, calculate the


power requirement for mixing water at
20C using an impeller of Np = 3.1 and
diameter of 1 m at a tip speed of 2.5
m/s.

Question 3: Difficult
Answer

1562 W = 1.562 kW

Question 3: Difficult
Answer

Computational Fluid Dynamics


Rheology

Question 4: Difficult

A. What are the main branches of fluid


mechanics?
Hint: There are 2.
B. What dimensionless number is used
to determine the turbulence of fluid flow
in pipes?

Question 4: Difficult
Answer

A. Fluid mechanics and fluid statics


B. Reynolds number

Question 5: Difficult

A. This German scientist said that if he was to


meet God, he would ask two things:
1. Why quantum mechanics?
2. Why turbulence?
Hint: MP; the variable h is named after him
B. Scientists say this Dutch artists Starry
Starry Night exhibited turbulence in his brush
strokes?
VVG

Question 5: Difficult
Answer

A. Max Planck
B. Vincent Van Gogh