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Construction Type of Buildings

COSC459_PPT3

Building Construction Types
All construction types must be classified into the following
six types:
1. Frame Construction (ISO Class I, IBC Type V)
2. Joisted Masonry (ISO Class 2, IBC Type III, IBC Type
IV)
3. Light Noncombustible (ISO Class 3, IBC Type IIB)
4. Masonry Noncombustible (ISO Class 4, IBC Type IIA)
5. Modified Fire Resistive (ISO Class 5, IBC Type IB)
6. Fire Resistive (ISO Class 6, IBC Type IA)

IBC & ISO
• International Building Code (IBC) by International
Code Council http://codes.iccsafe.org/
• Insurance Services Office, Inc. (ISO), a provider
of data, underwriting, risk management and
legal/regulatory services (with special focus on
community fire-protection efforts and Building
Code Effectiveness Evaluation) to propertycasualty insurers and other clients.
http://www.verisk.com/iso.html

How building class is determined
• Classification of a building class is based on
two factors: building elements and fireresistance rating.

http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type

Overview for Assessing Construction Type

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Building elements: The building materials used in the
construction of the following elements are the foundation
for classification, be they wood, steel, or masonry.
Structural frame
Exterior bearing walls
Interior bearing walls
Exterior non bearing walls and partitions
Interior non-bearing walls and partitions
Floor construction, including supporting beams and joists
Roof construction, including supporting beams and joists
are comprised of

http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type

or 2 hour).wikihow. “Minimum” rule: It is important to remember when selecting the construction class that the building is only as strong as its weakest element. http://www. or it may entail a host of other criteria involving other evidence of functionality or fitness for purpose. 1 hour. 0 hours.Fire-resistance rating: This is the other factor in determining construction class.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type . This can be quantified simply as a measure of time (ex. Fire-resistance rating typically means the duration for which a passive fire protection system can withstand a standard fire resistance test. The building materials used in the construction of the building elements above will have a fire-resistance rating.

we must know the following composition of the building elements: Structural frame Bearing walls (interior and exterior) Floor construction Roof construction What the fire rating of the materials http://www.wikihow.To determine ISO Class To determine the ISO class of the building.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type .

The additional fire rated coating or cover extends the fire resistance of the structural members by at least 1 hour. or other approved method. characteristics. A is protected. and fire rating.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type . B is unprotected. meaning that all structural members of a building or structure have an additional fire rated coating or cover by means of sheetrock. It differs from the related International Fire Code in that the IBC handles fire prevention in regards to construction and design and the fire code handles fire prevention in an ongoing basis. Exposed members are only fire resistant according to their natural ability. IBC is more descriptive and also includes A or B types of construction for each class. meaning that all structural members of a building or structure have no additional fire rated coating or cover. http://www. A large portion of the International Building Code deals with fire prevention.wikihow. spray on.International Building Code (IBC) versus Insurance Services Office (ISO): International Building Code (IBC): This is a model building code developed by the International Code Council (ICC).

com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type .wikihow. underwriting.Insurance Services Office (ISO): This is a provider of data. http://www. risk management and legal/regulatory services to property-casualty insurers and other clients.

floors. and supports of combustible material. ISO Class 1 encompasses IBC Type VA and IBC Type VB. IBC Type V) Frame construction is ISO Class 1. floor.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type .1. and combustible interior walls. usually wood. and roofs with combustible construction — or buildings with exterior walls of noncombustible or slow-burning construction with combustible floors and roofs. Regardless of whether the IBC classification is A (protected) or B (unprotected) the ISO Class is 1. Frame Construction (ISO Class I.wikihow. Building elements: Frame buildings are buildings with exterior walls. Frame buildings generally have roof. http://www.

Frame Construction (ISO Class I.7 cm) of horizontal supports • Composite assemblies of noncombustible materials with combustible materials http://www.A building with a metal exterior wall may not look like frame construction. or stucco.. IBC Type V) Continued.1. but when the metal skin is attached to wood studs and joists. ISO classifies the building as frame. Two variations on frame construction don't change the construction class: • Masonry veneer (brick veneer). Other conditions that lead to classification as frame construction include: • Metal walls or floors sheathed with combustible materials • Metal floors or roofs with combustible insulation or ceiling material attached to the underside or within 18 inches (45. used for appearance purposes rather than structural support. • Metal clad . stone.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type .wikihow.Masonry veneer is thin layers of brick.

IBC Type V) Continued. Advantages: easy to erect and alter economical versatile performs well in Earthquake areas – can move Disadvantages: fire can spread rapidly highly damageable may become unstable in a fire may include enclosed spaces where fire can spread undetected http://www..wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type .1. Frame Construction (ISO Class I.

edu/faculty/fheitzman/BUILDING%20 STRUCTURE%20TYPES.html .(Type V Construction) http://academics.triton.

uvu.Type V Construction http://desource.edu/ctc/iaco/iaco_01.php .

ttu.Type V Construction http://www.edu/courses/2013/spring/3502_perl/Bhatti/03/Codes.arch.html .

wikihow. IBC Type IV is Heavy Timber construction and is considered ISO Class 2. The reason is that the heavy timbers perform well and do not fail early in a fire.2. ISO Class 2 encompasses IBC Type IIIA and IBC Type IIIB. IBC Type IV) Joisted Masonry construction is ISO Class 2.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type . IBC Type III. http://www. Joisted Masonry (ISO Class 2. Regardless of whether the IBC classification is A (protected) or B (unprotected) the ISO Class is 2.

IBC Type IV) Continued. There are several types of masonry used in the exterior bearing walls of joisted masonry buildings: • brick • concrete — either reinforced or non reinforced • hollow concrete masonry units • tile • stone • note that exterior bearing walls may also be any noncombustible materials with fire-resistance ratings of not less than one hour.. http://www. Joisted Masonry (ISO Class 2.wikihow. IBC Type III. Building elements: Joisted Masonry buildings are buildings with exterior walls of masonry or fire-resistive construction rated for not less than one hour and with combustible floors and roofs.2.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type .

IBC Type III. IBC Type IV) Continued. Joisted Masonry (ISO Class 2. Advantages: harder to ignite consumed more slowly by fire more structural stability greater salvage value lack of concealed spaces (Heavy Timber) Disadvantages: floors and roofs of combustible materials subject to damage by fire presence of concealed spaces http://www.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type .wikihow..2.

WOOD POST AND BEAM (Type IV Construction) http://academics.triton.html .edu/faculty/fheitzman/BUILDING%20STR UCTURE%20TYPES.

wikihow. floors.3. IBC Type IIB) Classification: Light Noncombustible construction is ISO Class 3. Light Noncombustible (ISO Class 3. ISO Class 3 encompasses IBC Type IIB (unprotected). and roofs of noncombustible or slow-burning materials building supports of noncombustible or slow-burning materials noncombustible or slow-burning roof decks on noncombustible or slow-burning supports — regardless of the type of insulation on the roof surface http://www. Building elements: Light Noncombustible buildings are buildings with exterior walls of light metal or other noncombustible material and with noncombustible floors and roofs: buildings with exterior walls.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type .

IBC Type IIB) Continued Advantages: easy to erect economical to build uses materials that don’t readily burn Disadvantages: contains steel. Light Noncombustible (ISO Class 3.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type . which loses strength at high temperatures highly damageable buildings unstable buildings under fire conditions uses slow-burning materials that do burn — adding fuel to a fire http://www.wikihow.3.

edu/faculty/fheitzman/BUILDING%20STR UCTURE%20TYPES.WOOD ROOF TRUSS (Type III or V Construction) http://academics.html .triton.

ISO Class 4 encompasses IBC Type Type IIA (protected).4. IBC Type IIA) Classification: Masonry Noncombustible construction is ISO Class 4.wikihow. or • buildings with exterior walls of fire-resistive construction — with a rating of not less than one hour. Building elements: Masonry Noncombustible buildings are buildings with exterior walls of masonry material and with noncombustible or slow burning floors and roofs. • buildings with exterior walls of masonry — not less than four inches thick. Masonry Noncombustible (ISO Class 4.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type . and • noncombustible or slow-burning floors and roofs — regardless of the type of insulation on the roof surface http://www.

4.. and steel loses strength and becomes less stable and more damageable at high temperatures • Uses slow-burning materials that do burn — adding fuel to a fire http://www. Masonry Noncombustible (ISO Class 4.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type . IBC Type IIA) Continued. Advantages: • Uses floors and roof supported by superior exterior bearing members that provide for stability and are less likely to collapse during a fire • Uses materials that don’t readily burn Disadvantages: • Uses unprotected steel for interior members of floors and roof.

triton.edu/faculty/fheitzman/BUILDING%20STR UCTURE%20TYPES.html .STEEL FRAME (Type I or II Construction) http://academics.

html .triton.edu/faculty/fheitzman/BUILDING%20STR UCTURE%20TYPES.SPACE FRAME (Type I or II Construction) http://academics.

com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type .wikihow. or • Fire-resistive materials with a fire-resistance rating less than two hours but not less than one hour http://www. combustible. floors. or with no fire. IBC Type IB) Classification: Modified Fire Resistive construction is ISO Class 5.resistance rating. but exterior nonbearing walls and wall panels may be slow-burning. Building elements: Modified Fire Resistive Buildings are buildings where the exterior bearing walls and load-bearing portions of exterior walls must be of noncombustible materials or of masonry.5. Modified Fire Resistive (ISO Class 5. and roofs of masonry materials described in the definition of fire resistive (Construction Class 6) — less thick than required for fire-resistive structures but not less than four inches thick. ISO Class 5 encompasses IBC Type IB. • Buildings with exterior walls.

wikihow. Modified Fire Resistive (ISO Class 5.5.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type . IBC Type IB) Continued Advantages: uses noncombustible materials allows greater height and area than other construction classes uses load-bearing members or assemblies that resist damage from fire Disadvantages: expensive to construct and repair provides a false sense of security http://www.

wikihow. but not less than eight inches thick with a listed fire-resistance rating of not less than two hours assemblies with not less than a two-hour fire-resistance rating Floors and roofs: reinforced concrete not less than four inches thick assemblies with not less than a two-hour fire-resistance rating Structural metal supports: Horizontal and vertical load-bearing protected metal supports — including pre stressed and post tensioned concrete units — with not less than a two-hour fire-resistance rating http://www. or with no fire-resistance rating. IBC Type IA) Building elements: The exterior bearing walls and load-bearing portions of exterior walls must be of noncombustible materials or of masonry.5 cm) thick.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type . but exterior nonbearing walls and wall panels may be slow burning. Fire Resistive (ISO Class 6. Walls: solid masonry.6. combustible.5 cm) thick hollow masonry less than 12 inches (30. including reinforced concrete not less than four inches thick hollow masonry not less than 12 inches (30.

com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type . IBC Type IA) Continued.wikihow. Advantages: uses noncombustible materials allows greater height and area than other construction classes uses load-bearing members or assemblies that resist damage from fire Disadvantages: expensive to construct and repair provides a false sense of security http://www. Fire Resistive (ISO Class 6..6.

edu/faculty/fheitzman/BUILDING%20STR UCTURE%20TYPES.STEEL JOISTS (Type II Construction) http://academics.html .triton.

LIGHTWEIGHT STEEL FRAME (Type II Construction) http://academics.triton.edu/faculty/fheitzman/BUILDING%20STR UCTURE%20TYPES.html .

edu/faculty/fheitzman/BUILDING%20STR UCTURE%20TYPES.FLAT PLATE CONCRETE (Type I Construction) http://academics.html .triton.

html .triton.edu/faculty/fheitzman/BUILDING%20STR UCTURE%20TYPES.POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE FRAME (Type I Construction) http://academics.

triton.edu/faculty/fheitzman/BUILDING%20STR UCTURE%20TYPES.PRECAST CONCRETE FRAME (Type I Construction) http://academics.html .

https://services.missouri.missouri.asp Type I—Fire-Resistive Buildings online.online.edu .edu/ exec/data/courses2/9050/lesson01/less on01.

com/en/building-construction-architecture-856444/ .https://pixabay.

https://pixabay.com/en/construction-architecture-industrial-523388/ .

com/en/warehouse-industrial-boats-storage-691922/ .https://pixabay.

com/en/forklift-warehouse-machine-worker-835340/ .https://pixabay.

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mn.gov/divisions/sfm/programs-services/Documents/Sprinkler%20Applications/ConstructionTypeComparison.https://dps.pdf .

gov/ALSC/documents/Construction_Types_with_Highligh t..The three Arabic numerals in parentheses following the Roman numeral indicate the fire resistance of the exterior bearing walls./SAFE %20674%20Class %203%202012.pdf www.pdf NFPA 220 Type I (443) . respectively. .org/ NFPA 220: Standard on Types of Building Construction https://www.nfpa.org/Assets/files/ AboutTheCodes/220/220_A2014_ BLDBLC_FD_FirstDraftforballot.www.cms. structural frame. and floor..hhs.iup.hhs.edu/cjanicak/.nfpa.ppt Example: http://surveyortraining.

http://surveyortraining.cms.hhs.aspx .gov/ALSC/L1/L1_40t1_65.

hhs.gov/ALSC/L1/L1_40t1_70.aspx .Correlating Building Codes http://surveyortraining.cms.

org/ 2015 International Building Code http://codes.html .org/app/book/toc/2015/ICodes/2015%20IBC%20HTML/index.iccsafe.iccsafe.http://www.

http://my.firefighternation.com/group/buildingconstruc tionfirefightersafety/forum/topics/types-of-building-c onstruction?q=group/buildingconstructionfirefightersaf ety/forum/topics/types-of-building-construction .

http://surveyortraining.gov /ALSC/L1/L1_20.hhs.cms.aspx .

p df .html http://www.com/articles/2013/05/c onstruction-concerns--construction-types-and-firebehavior.fireengineering.fireengineering.com/content/dam/fe/onlinearticles/documents/2013/20130513havel_firebehavior.http://www.