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The lighting scheme should be such that it may,

I. provide adequate illumination


II. provide light distribution all over
the working plane as uniform as
possible
III. provide light of suitable colour.
IV. avoid glare and hard shadows as
far as possible

The following are some of the conditions that should be


considered when the illuminations are used:

a) Utilisation Factor ():-

The value of utilisation factor depends upon


i) the mounting height of lamps
ii) area to be illuminated
iii) type of lighting scheme
iv) colour of the surrounding, etc.
b) Spacing Luminaries: correct spacing is of great importance to provide
uniform illumination over the whole area.
The ratio of the horizontal spacing between rows to
the height of the luminaries above the working
plane, called space to height ratio, depends quite
on luminous output, type of lighting scheme

C) Colour of Surrounding Walls: - the illumination


in a room depends upon the light reflected from
walls and ceilings. White walls and ceilings reflect
more light as compared to collared ones.
d) Maintenance Factor - as we are to continue to
use the installation, the illumination produced
considerably decreases due to ageing of the lamps
and accumulation of dusts on the lamps, reflectors,
ceiling and walls.
Its value is more if there is much as the ageing
problem increases, etc. The value is mostly ranges
between 0.8 and 1.
The other term used is depreciation factor, which is
merely the inverse of the maintenance factor. Its
value is more than unity.

A number of methods have been employed


for lighting calculations among which may be
mentioned:
A. Watts per square metre method
Is applicable for rough calculations. It consists in
making an allowance of watts per square meter of
area to be illuminated accordingly to the illumination
desired on the assumption of the average figure of
an overall efficiency of the system. According to NEC
220-3(d) this figure is about 3 watt per ft2

B. Lumen or Light flux method


Lumen or Light flux or efficiency method: - it is
the most advisable method to be used.

Example: - A house has an external dimension of


30ft by 50ft. If an 80w fluorescent lamps, and 220V
supply is used, determine the size of the service wire
and the number of lamps required.
Solution:
A = 30ft X 50ft = 1500ft
Total wattage required = 1500 X 3w= 4500w 4.5Kw
No of lamps required = 4.5Kw/80w = 56.1
56 lamps
- each 80w
Current carrying capacity = 4.5Kw/220V = 20.5A
Therefore, the size of the cable will be conductor
if there is no any correction factor.

Example:- A road 300 m long is required to be


illuminated by providing 40W fluorescent lamps. The
width of the road is 4m. Design a street lighting
scheme for obtaining minimum level of illumination of
0.6 lux assuming a mounting height of 9m and a 0.5
coefficient of utilization. (In designing you have to
determine the distance between the poles and find
out the number of poles required for the given
distance.) ???

RECOMMENDED ILLUMINATION LEVELS

Note- Excellent illumination is considered when


the distance apart is not more than 8 times the
height of the luminaries. Normal spacing for
standard lamps is 50 meters with a mounting
height of 8 meters.

Designing an Electrical
Installation

The maximum current demand: It is necessary to estimate the


maximum current demand. Diversity may be taken into account.
Diversity: The electricity consumed in any residential building is
never hundred percent of the installed capacity. There may be
some electrical points, which remain unused even during peak
load periods (when there is high demand of power).

Electrical Points Installed


Utilization
Two lamps points (incandescent)
One may not be used
One fluorescent tube
May be used
Two fan points
One may not be used
Two 5-ampere socket outlet
One may not be used
One 15-ampere socket outlet
May or may not be used
Now assuming, some points may be used and some remain
unused. However it is applicable for domestic installation only.
Some commercial building or business establishments
definitely use 100 % of the installed capacity during peak load
hours but not for 24 hours .

Places where utilization percentage is not


applicable while designing the electrical system
for the following:
For street lighting
Three phase power wiring for industries
Power wiring for agricultural sector

Generally diversity is the current, which is likely


to flow in a circuit, compared with the sum of
current ratings of all the current consuming
appliances connected to that load.
The application of diversity has advantages:
reducing size of conductors and associated
protective devices (CBs and Fuses)

SERVICE ENTRANCE AND BRANCH CIRCUITS

Service lines are of two types


I. Overhead service lines:- In overhead-line distribution for
premises, the service cables are connected to the line
conductors (pvc-insulated) by means of line-taps .
II. Underground Cable Service Lines: -Use of underground cable
is usually made for service connection when the power to be
supplied to the consumer is large (say above 25kw). Usually a
two-core, pvc-insulated steel-wire armored and pvc-sheathed
cable is used as under ground cable.
Any installation must be provided with control and protective
equipment. The service conductors terminate in a main fuse cut
out and a connector-block for the neutral conductor. The supply
cutouts are connected to the energy meter.
The cut outs and energy meters are usually in the same board
called meter board. The cut-outs are sealed to prevent
tampering by unauthorized persons.
From the meter the installation main cables are taken to the main
switch or switch fuse.
If the supply is single-phase, or three-phase and neutral, then all
three , or four poles will be broken.

Diversity [Demand] factor:- is the ratio of the maximum


demand of a load to the total connected load . This
factor is also called factor of power utilization.
Therefore demand factor have been established, based
on many tests and past experiences.
As every single load or group of loads in a circuit are not
operating simultaneously, and normally working under
partial load, the power demand factor is always less
than 1.0.
Type of load
DF estimate
1.
Lighting Circuits 0.7-0.9
2.
Heating loads
2.1. Water Heaters 0.2-0.3
2.2. Ovens/stoves 0.2
2.3. Electric Iron
0.3
3.
Motor Loads 0.7-0.9
4.
Office equipment 0.3-0.5
5.
General purpose SOs 0.2-0.5

Location of electrical points in house wiring

1. Energy meter: The energy meter should be installed at a


place which is easy accessible to the consumer as well as to the
meter reader . The height of the meter should be 1.75 meter
above floor. The meter should be installed in a covered
verandah such that the rain showers at an angle dont damage
the meter. Its location should be in front verandah so that
privacy of the owner is not disturbed as the meter reader will be
visiting for meter reading every month. The other suitable place
where there is no verandah is outside the wall, providing
protective covering.
2. Main switch: Its purpose is to isolate the supply to the
building . It is normally installed very close to the energy meter
and should be readily accessible to the consumer. The fuses are
also provided inside main switch to interrupt the supply due to
short circuit current that may occur.
3. Distribution board: The supply is given to main switch and
then to main distribution board for the purpose of distribution of
electricity to various portions of the house through sub
circuits . Every sub circuit is protected by its individual fuse or

4. socket outlet : 3 pin , 5A , socket outlets are


used for general purpose , 15 A socket outlets are
used for higher loads ( such as electric mitad , stove ,
water heater etc) . The location of socket outlets
should be such that its utility is most convenient. If
socket outlets in residential buildings are close to
floor , the children may get shock , for offices
buildings , socket outlets are generally installed close
to floor . In bath rooms , 15 A socket outlets should be
provided 2meter above floor.
5.Lighting points : The lights should be so placed
that these are most convenient in their utility and
control. For instance , when person has to go up stair,
instead of moving into darkness, he/she can switch
on the light from starting point and switch off at the
end .
The number of lighting pints are determined from

6.Fans: The rooms of an average size should have only one fan but the
larger rooms serving as drawing and dinning room two fans may be
used. The ceiling fans should be installed at an average height of
2.75meters above floor . The connection of ceiling fans should be given
through ceiling roses installed close to fan hooks .

The ceiling fans shouldnt be installed in kitchen, bathrooms , toilets


and small stores . The exhaust fan should be installed in big cook
housed about half meters below ceiling , it should be installed in
kitchen.

7. Switch boards : The switch boards should be convenient to


operate and adequately located . The switch board (box) must be
provided inside a room close to the entry door so that there is no
difficulty in switching on the light during night time . The height of
switch board should be about 1.3 meters above floor.

8. Earth wire installation : Earthing means , the direct connection of


all the metal non current carrying parts of electrical equipment such
as metallic frame work , electric motor body , main switch , distribution
board , earth terminal of socket outlet , metallic covering of cable and
conduit pipes etc . The earth plate is buried in the ground which have a
good electrical connection to the surrounding earth . This is all done

Designing an Electrical Installation It is necessary


to take into account the following procedures:

It is necessary to take into account the following


procedures:
a) Sub - division and number of circuit
b) Designed circuit current
c) Nominal current of protective device (In)
d) Application of correction factors
e) Size of cables
f) Voltage drop calculation

Sub - Division and Number of circuits


Even the smallest installation needs to be
divided into a number of circuits because to :
Divide the load -it can be conveniently and safely handled
by the cable and switch gear.
To take in to account likely inconvenience

In small installations it is appropriate to


provide minimum of two lighting circuits, so
that in the event of protective device tripping
under fault conditions , total block out is
avoided.
In addition separate circuits must be provided
for lighting and power sufficient socket outlets
should be provided to avoid extension usage
as it will load the circuit.

Design Current

It is sated under cable size selection portion. For fluorescent


lamps due to the choke, starting current is very high and the
cable chosen should consider this effect
Ib = Total power x 1.8
Rated voltage
Then select the rating of protective device ( I n Ib)
-Calculate the total designed load
-Calculate the expected maximum load
I-Using the actual load of lighting and power
-Lighting load = power rating x number of lamps
General purpose socket outlet = current rating x voltage rating
x number of socket outlet
- Specific loads simply add power rating
- Total sum will give the design load

Since due to diversity there will be expected maximum load.


Diversity factor for different circuits will be as follows:
-For lighting circuits
Dive Factor(DF) = 0.6 --- 0.8
- For general purpose sockets
DF = 0.3
-For specific loads
DF = 1
So expected load will be = Lighting x DF + GPS x DF + specific loads
Ib = Expected load
V X PF
PF = Power factor and V= supply
voltage
II. Calculate the design load from circuit breaker rating
-Total lighting load = number of lamps x lamp rating
-Total general purpose socket load = number of sockets X CB rating
Specific load = simply add
Total design load = the sum of loads as stated
Ib = expected load
V x PF

Electrical Drawings: It includes:


Electrical plans:- Separate plan for different floors
Circuit diagrams :- Separate diagrams prepared for different
distribution boards
Required notes
Legend showing symbols and abbreviations
Fixture schedule
Electrical Installation Floor Plans
The plan shows the location and type of : switches , sockets ,
bell points, telephone points , lighting fixtures and different
electrical devices. It is generally traced from the floor plan
and reflected ceiling plan.
Includes : fixtures and equipment location
Lay out of lighting fixtures
Lay out of switches : identification and type with appropriate
Symbols
Lay out of sockets and interconnecting cables.
Location of specific electric devices and their power ,
points like electric mitad , heater cooker etc.

Circuit Diagrams :

Definition: These are simply diagrams tabular in their


form which are showing the electric circuit system of a
building.
Purpose : It provides the number and type of circuit in
particular distribution board. It enables the electrician to
determine the cable size and its current rating.
Includes: The number of circuit and their description such
as cross sectional area and number of cables, current
rating of circuits, type of distribution board.

NB. - Number of lamps , 10 to 15 lamps each up to 100


w can be in one lighting circuit .
For general purpose socket outlets 5 A each , use
5 to 8 sockets in one circuit if there is more add
another circuit.
Keep reserve circuit breaker in any distribution
board
Make all external socket outlets weather proof.
Provide three phase supply for main distribution
board from EEPCO line.
Telephone system has its own line , separated
from the electric supply line.
TV , tape recorder and other appliances may get
power from general purpose socket outlets.

Example: Consider the SDB shown below

No. of light points (lamps) per lighting circuit = 15


No. of sockets per circuit = 4
No. of space heater = 1
No. of water heater = 1
Determine
a) the estimate of maximum power demand, P max
b) the rating of the main switch
c) the size of the feeder cable

Solution:a. Circuit
Power without DF
Power with DF
Lighting
4 x 220 x 10 = 8800W
0.7 x 8800
= 6160W
Socket outlet
3 x 220 x 16 = 10560W
0.2 x 10560
= 2112W
Water heater
220 x 16
= 3520W
0.2 x 3520
=
704W
Space heater
220 x 25
= 5500W
0.2 x 5500 =
1100W
28380
Pmax 10076W

GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS