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Materi kuliah GD4103 Fotogrametri II, Semester II2012/2013

Chapter 2C_AT_Stages

Aero-Triangulation
(AT)
Compiled & developed by
Saptomo H Mertotaroeno, Ir., M.Sc.
saptomo@gd.itb.ac.id

KK Inderaja & Sains Informasi Geografis


Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian
Institut Teknologi Bandung

Project Preparation
Control and Image Point Selection and Coding
Image Point Marking and Cross Marking
Control and Image Point Mensuration
Block Adjustment
Result Analysis

STAGES OF AEROTRIANGULATION
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Aero-Triangulation (2C_AT_Stages),
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System of Aero-Triangulation
Aerial
Photos

Auxiliary
Data :

Ground Control
Coordinates

XL ,YL , ZL
(GPS)
, ,
(INS)
Relative
data

(with specific
configuration)

Output :

Coordinates of minor
control points, and
Transformation
parameters of basic
unit.

Preparation :
Project Preparation
Control and Image Point Selection
and Coding
Image Point Marking and Cross
Data Acquisition :
Marking
Control and Image Point
Mensuration
(Image, Model, or Strip
Coordinates)

Data Processing :
Pre-processing :
Data reduction and
conditioning
Gross error detection
Block Adjustment
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Yes
No
(check,
recheck,
edit, repeat)

Aero-Triangulation (2C_AT_Stages),
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Accepte
d?

Result
Analysis

Project Preparation
Persiapan hardware,
software, brainware, dan
enviroware.

S o ftc o p y
P h o to g r a m m e tr ic
In s tru m e n t

Kalibrasi instrumen (scanner,


XY-plotter).
Conventionally
(analog,
analy-tical), preparing a
project en-tailed laying out
the AT block.
In the digital process, it
has become the process of
import-ing scanned image
files and es-tablishing a file
naming con-vention.
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Control and Image Point


Selection and Coding

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Control and Image Point Selection and Coding (1)


Control points are point features located by ground
survey me-thods (usually pre-marked or targeted).
Image points are artificial (i.e., not targeted) points that
are se-lected along the principal y-axis of the photo,
often located at von Gruber locations (named for the
methodologys inventor).
Properly selected image points (pass points) should appear
in both the preceding and succeeding photos (triple overlap
location).
A minimum of three or more evenly distributed points are
required per image, and some projects may specify five points.

The lateral image point(s) / tie point(s) :

should falls in the images lateral overlap areas, and


should also appear in the adjacent flight line(s) / sidelap area.

Under this definition, an image point could appear in as


many as six photos (referred to as a six-fold point).
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Aero-Triangulation (2C_AT_Stages),
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Pass Points in
Photos, and
Models
(a).Idealized
pass
point
lo-cations
for
aero-triangulation.
(monoscopic
measurement)
Tripleoverlap

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(b).Pass
point
locations
for
stereoscopic
measure-ment.

(c).Locations of pass
points
in
two
adjacent stereoAero-Triangulation (2C_AT_Stages),
7
models.
SHM

Pass Points in Photo, and


Model

von Grubers
points

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10

fo to 5

11

10

10

Contoh :

16

11

Blok terdiri dari 8


foto dengan titik
kontrol, passpoints, dan tiepoints

fo to 4

fo to 3

16

fo to 2

fo to 1
3

11

fo to 6

fo to 7

Foto-foto secara
individual

fo to 8

p a s s p o in t
t itik k o n tr o l
A

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11

10

16

Titik 3, 8, 13, dan 18


adalah tie-points
(sidelap area + triple
overlap),
six-fold points.
Blok foto pada posisi
overlapping

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Six-fold points
(Less pass and tie points
give stronger geometry,
means higher accuracy of
AT results. Thats why
the points should be
chosen in the triple
overlap areas.)

Five-fold points

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Control and Image Point Selection and Coding (2)


There are also five-fold point.
Automatic Point Selection and Coding in a
Digital System :

Since the point locations are predictable, the


selection process can be automated.
The point coding procedure is also automated,
since the image file names are unique and the point
numbering scheme must be unambiguous.
Point numbering system : (strip no.)(photo no.)(i = 00, 01,
1222901
02, )
Photo 29

Run 12B

1222900
1222902

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Control and Image Point Selection and Coding (3)

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Image Point Marking


and Cross-marking

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Point Marking and Crossmarking (1)

Conventionally, image points are marked with a Point


Marking device so their locations can be identified for
revisiting.
Professional marking instruments include the Wild Herrbrugg
PUG, the Zeiss PM, the Kern PMG and CPM, and the Jena
Transmark models.

Most such instruments use a motorized drill which


clutches a precise bit that has a predetermined drilling
depth.
The instrument is designed to mark only the emulsion of the
image, without puncturing the base.
The mark itself is typically 40 to 60 microns (m) in size.
Since the Wild PUG was a popular instrument, these points
became referred to as PUG Points.

Image points marked in this fashion must be annotated for


identification, since 60 m is too small for the naked eye.
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Point Marking and Crossmarking (2)


(transfered)

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Point Transfer & Marking Device (1)


Point
marking
is
necessary :
To
be
able
to
unambiguously
transfer the location
of
the
point
to
overlapping
photographs,
To
have
an
unambiguous po-int to
In
the
triangulation
of
observe for subsehardcopy
i-magery,
physically
marking
pass
quent
absolute
point and tie point locations
orientation in a stereoon the diapositiveAero-Triangulation
is an (2C_AT_Stages),
plotter, and
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16
A sketch of a point marker
for hardcopy diapositives

essential step.

SHM

Point Transfer & Marking Device (2)


Wild PUG-4
stereoscopic point-transfer instrument

A point marker typically


allows for point selection on
the dia-positive under high
magnifica-tion,
following
which a small drill (from 25
to 100 m in dia-meter)
physically removes the
emulsion at this point so it
be-comes a permanently
mark lo-cation.
Point markers usually are

Point-marking
devices made with stereo-viewing
make small holes in the and -marking ability.
emulsion which become
the
pass points. Aero-Triangulation (2C_AT_Stages),
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SHM

Point Marking and Crossmarking (4)


Points located in the lateral overlap portions of
the photo block are also cross-marked onto
adjacent photo lines.
Since neither analog or analytical instruments
can accommo-date cross-line stereo mensuration in
these locations, cross marking is the only means of
providing the geometric ties between photo
lines.

The quality of marked point largely depends


on the marking instrument.

Any eccentricity in the marking-bit creates a point


much larger than 60 microns.
Transferred points are also subject to Observer
error. (Why ?)
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Point Marking and Crossmarking for Stereoscopic


Marked
Marked
Marked
Measurements

Crossmarked
(points
transfer)

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Point Marking and Crossmarking for Monoscopic


B e rk a s
Marked
Points transfer
Measurements
Crossmarked
(points
transfer)

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SEBELU M
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Point Marking and Crossmarking (5)


Revisiting Points in a Digital System :
Once the image points is marked (digitized), it has a
unique (sub)pixel address with reference to the photo
coordinate system. (Point marking by its digital
photo coordinates)
If an operator needs to revisit a mark (for example,
during cross-marking), the monitor cursor simply
searches out and locks onto that pixel address.
Cross-marking can then be accomplished by clearing
local parallax and digitizing the new point.
(It can be done also by digital image matching,
automated procedures using digital photography).

The point marking instrument is now redundant.


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Automated Selection of Pass


Points by Digital Image
Matching
Points are selected in the overlap areas of digital
images and are automatically matched between
adjacent images, thus achieving pass point
selection and photo coordinate measurement simultaneously.
This method requires little operator intervention
and is there-fore a very economical process.
An added benefit is that a large number of pass
points can be generated with minimum effort, which
adds redundancy and strengthens the aerotriangulation solution.
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Finding
corresponding elements in the two
images
by
matching
small
regions from the
left and right images of a stereopair
in
aerotriangulation

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Control and Image Point


Mensuration

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Control and Image Point


Mensuration
The goal of the mensuration process is to
accurately measure and record the photo
coordinates (x,y) of each control and i-mage point.
These photo coordinates are logged in a data file,
which is used by a block adjustment program.

Mensuration can be performed using a monocomparator or a stereo-comparator.

Current
professional
practice
favors
stereocomparators, which re-duce point reoccupation and xparallax errors, and which output x,y and x,y values
(4 channels of data) simultaneously.

Since both analog and analytical instruments can


only accommo-date conjugate images as stereo
pairs, multi-fold points are rarely measured in this
environments.
Instead, photogrammetrists rely on the cross-marks to
Aero-Triangulation
(2C_AT_Stages),
provide
the required
geometry.
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09:23:34 AM
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SHM

Comparator (1)
Mann type 422-F
leadscrew monocomparator

A sketch of a stereo-comparator

(x,y)

(x,y; x,y)

Mono-comparators make
measure-ments on one
photograph at a time.
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Stereo-comparators make
measure-ments on two
photographs at a time

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Comparator (2)
The term comparators connotes a device to measure 2D point positions on a
hardcopy image placed on a
measuring stage.
The stereo-comparator
per-mits the measurement
of two diapositives
simultaneously while
viewing in stereo.
The advantage : not all of
the points used in the
triangulation need to be
marked on every photograph.
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This saves time and reduces


the opportunities for errors in
the stereo point marking
operation, which are not
easily correctable.

Applications : for discrete


po-int data collection
(image co-ordinates) for
block adjustment or aerotriangulation,
camera calibration, or
analytical photogrammetry.

Accuracy :
2 - 3 m (1 m least count).

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Analog and Analytical Stereo-plotter


Basic principles of
mechanical projection

Schematic diagram of components and


operation of an analytical plotter

(x,y,z)

(x,y; x,y), (x,y,z)

Both analog and analytical instruments can


accommodate conju-gate images as stereo pairs.
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only

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Coordinates Measurement in a
Softcopy Work-station
Coordinate
measurements
for
control
points,
tie
points
and
single
points.
In
softcopy
photogrammetric
instrument coordinate
mea-surements mostly
are
done
stereoscopically.

(x,y), (x,y; x,y), (x,y,z)

Stereoscopic
vision
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for
any po-int in theSHM

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The New Digital Aerial Triangulation


Process (1)
A digital photogrammetry work station is essentially a
comparator with an unlimited number of stages, both
along the photo line (N-stage), and across the lines (M-lines),
making it easy to measure multi-fold point image
combination.
The virtual stage is unlimited in size and quantity, if the
computers memory (RAM) is large enough, the entire flight line or
even the entire photo block- can be kept on-line.

This digital system-based MN-Stage Comparator not only fully


supports the photogrammetric theories in AT, but more
importantly, it performs the following sub-processes
simultaneously :
(1) point selection and coding,
(2) point marking and cross-marking,
(3) control and image point mensuration.
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Softcopy
Photogrammetri
c
Workstations
Zeiss PHODIS ST

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Leica DPW 770

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The New Digital Aerial Triangulation


Process (2)
During the AT process, the digital system drives to the
von Gruber locations for any two selected overlapping
images, regardless of overlap conditions (forward, lateral,
or diagonal).
The operator accept or offsets that location, clears x/y parallax
locally, occupies the point location with the cursor and digitizes
the point.

Meanwhile, the digital system


(1).assigns unique point ID,
(2). creates the digital marks or cross-marks, and
(3).logs the point photo coordinates against the pre-defined
point ID system.

To make the process even more foolproof, the digital system


provides a schematic diagram for each photo, which shows
an index of the measured points. (AT index map)
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(1/4 skala foto)

Contoh
Peta Indeks AT
Berbasis Foto/Berkas
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Mg.13.1 21/11/12

33

Mg.13.2 23/11/12

Block Adjustment
Block adjustment is essentially the automated
process of adjust-ing :
the logged photo coordinates (x,y) of the image points
[or model coordinates (x,y,z) of the model points] ,
survey control coordinates (X,Y,Z), and
any other relevant data
to obtain a best-mean-fit.

This adjustment is made necessary by the


differential residual data errors incurred in
surveying, marking, cross-marking, and measuring.
(sources of error in AT)
This process is purely data processing, and
does not require photogrammetric instrumentation.
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Result Analysis

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Result Analysis
A block adjustment is never perfect. Several
runs are needed.
If the adjustment residual errors exceed the
tolerance (indicat-ing a blunder or error in the AT
process),
a great deal of imagination is required to visualize the
source of the problem from the error values, which only
describe the deformation in numerical terms.

After analyzing the errors, the Photogrammetrist


will often
revisit the point marking or mensuration process for
both control and tie points, and then
discard or statistically weight certain points, and
re-process the data to obtain a better adjustment.
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Result Analysis
Interactive Error Correction
The digital system makes this process easy since
the massive measurement redundancy for
every multi-fold point (especially line tie points)
provide
an
unprecedented
strength
in
geometry.
Should blunders occur, the digital system can easily
and exactly recreate the conditions under which
the measurement was re-corded.
Whether the error is a cross-marking error,
excessive local paral-lax or point occupation error,
the Operator can correct it and re-digitize the
point.
A new adjustment can then verify the success of
the correction.
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Given the speed of modern computers and the

Forming Stereo Models


Automatically
Modern bundle adjustment programs also directly output
mo-del parameters, including :

control and image point ground coordinates (X,Y,Z),


residual errors in the original measurements and adjustment, and
the all-important bundle parameters XL , YL , ZL , (6 per
photo) which define the location and attitude of each aerial
photograph.

With these parameters, any overlapping image pair can be


use to form a stereo model automatically, without
interior or exteri-or orientations. (Space intersection problem)
The operator can also detach a preceding bundle and attach
a succeeding bundle while traversing trough a block.
This capability removes the need (and the unavoidable
errors) in repetitively occupying the fiducial, control or
model points.
It is also facilitates corridor-type mapping.

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38

Materi kuliah GD4103 Fotogrametri II, Semester II2012/2013

To be continued to
Chapter 2D_AT_Strip

Aero-Triangulation
(AT)
Compiled & developed by
Saptomo H Mertotaroeno, Ir., M.Sc.
saptomo@gd.itb.ac.id

KK Inderaja & Sains Informasi Geografis


Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian
Institut Teknologi Bandung