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Materi kuliah GD4103 Fotogrametri II, Semester II2012/2013

Chapter 2

Aero-Triangulation
(AT)
Compiled & developed by
Saptomo H Mertotaroeno, Ir., M.Sc.
saptomo@gd.itb.ac.id

KK Inderaja & Sains Informasi Geografis
Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian
Institut Teknologi Bandung

Contents (Chapter 2A)
 Introduction
 Ground Control for AeroTriangulation
 Stages of Aero-Triangulation
 Polynomial Strip and Block
Adjustment
 Block Adjustment by Independent
Models
 Bundle Block Adjustment
7/30/16 09:24:04 AM

Aero-Triangulation (2A), SHM

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Contents (Chapter 2B)
 Numerical Aspects of Bundle
Adjustment
 Block Adjustment with Added
Parameters
 Bundle Adjustment with AirborneGPS Control
 Aero-Triangulation with Satellite
Images
 Evaluation of the Block Adjustment
 Accuracy of the Block Adjustment
7/30/16 09:24:04 AM

Aero-Triangulation (2A), SHM

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Sc.itb. Ir. M.ac.Materi kuliah GD4103 Fotogrametri II. Semester II2012/2013 Chapter 2A Aero-Triangulation (AT) Compiled & developed by Saptomo H Mertotaroeno.id KK Inderaja & Sains Informasi Geografis Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung . saptomo@gd..

SHM 5 .Contents (Chapter 2A)  Introduction  Ground Control for AeroTriangulation  Stages of Aero-Triangulation  Polynomial Strip and Block Adjustment  Block Adjustment by Independent Models  Bundle Block Adjustment 7/30/16 09:24:05 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

SHM 6 .     Definisi Aero-Triangulasi AT in Photogrammetric Topographic Mapping Process Aplikasi Aero-Triangulasi Principles of Aero-Triangulation The Development of Block Triangulation B e rk a s INTRODUCTION SESU DAH SEBELU M 7/30/16 09:24:05 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

SHM 7 .Definisi Aero-Triangulasi 7/30/16 09:24:05 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

 Space Triangulation (Triangulasi Ruang Angkasa) : 7/30/16 09:24:05 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). Photo-Triangulation : mencakup triangulasi foto terestris dan foto udara. Aerial Triangulation (Triangu-lasi Udara) : triangulasi foto udara. SHM 8 triangulasi citra satelit.  Photogrammetric Triangulation (Triangulasi Fotogrametrik). Beberapa istilah : • Tidak ada hubungannya dengan jaring segitiga. .  Jadi istilah “Triangulasi” identik dengan penentuan posisi.  Aero-Triangulation (Aero-Triangulasi).  Aero-Triangulasi : penentuan posisi dengan media foto udara.Definisi Aero-Triangulasi / AT (1) Asal-usul istilah “Aero-Triangulasi” :  Triangulasi : metode penentuan posisi yang pertama kali digunakan untuk daerah yang (sangat) luas.

sehingga titik-titik yang sekawan (unit dasar vs unit dasar. dan unit dasar vs titik kontrol) akan berimpit (memiliki koordinat yang sama)  Perataan Blok (Block Adjustment) . 7/30/16 09:24:05 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). Penentuan orientasi dari seluruh unit dasar secara simultan akan menghasilkan pemetaan yang lebih akurat dan konsisten pada seluruh daerah.dari sistem koordinat fotogrametrik ke dalam sistem koordinat tanah.Z) titik-titik di lapangan (dan di foto) berdasarkan pengukuran koordinat pada unit dasar fotogra-metrik.Y. Transformasi koordinat secara simultan -seluruh unit dasar fotogrametrik dalam satu blok. SHM 9 . 2.Definisi Aero-Triangulasi / AT (2) Berikut ini beberapa definisi Aero-Triangulasi : 1. Proses penentuan koordinat tanah (X.

SHM 10 .Satuan/Unit Dasar Fotogrametrik S tr ip M odel B e rk a s 7/30/16 09:24:05 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

atau model) dan perpotongan titik-titik di tanah.Definisi Aero-Triangulasi / AT (3) 3._Metode fotogrametrik untuk penentuan posisi/koordinat titik-titik di tanah tanpa mengukur langsung di lapangan. SHM 11 .atau model).Z dari titik-titik yang diturunkan dari pengukuranpengukuran koordinat pada foto (._Menurunkan/menghasilkan koordinat tanah X._Solusi dari banyak stasiun secara simultan untuk orientasi dari foto (.Y. 6. 4._Kasus umum untuk penentuan posisi titik secara fotogra-metrik. 5. 7/30/16 09:24:05 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

AT in Photogrammetric Topographic Mapping Process 7/30/16 09:24:05 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 12 .

control SHM 13 that exists in only a . because in essence a “bridge” of interme-diate control points is developed between field-surveyed Aero-Triangulation (2A). Extending or densifying ground control for use in subsequent photogrammetric operations.AT in Photogrammetric Topographic Mapping Process AT is located in the critical path of photogrammetric mapping process. 7/30/16 09:24:05 AM  It is often called bridging.

SHM 14 .  for simple rectification • 4 planimetric per photo. The practical minimum number of control points necessary in each stereo-model 7/30/16 09:24:05 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).Control Points for Photo Restitution The minimum number of ground control points :  for absolute orientation • 2 planimetric. and • 3 height.  for space resection • 3 full control per photo. per model.

SHM 15 .Absolute Orientation M-43 Scaling M-4 Stereo-model that is not level (note X and Y components of tilt) Levelling M-3 7/30/16 09:24:05 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

c1 . (θX . κ. a1 . c2). XL . κ. SHM  This method requi-res a minimum of four control points. to . YL . YL . XL . φ. b1 . θY) or (a0 . θY) ? 7/30/16 09:24:05 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). b0 . a2 . ZL) ? Known Simple rectification is a method of determining the eight Measured para-meters of projective equations (ω.Simple Rectification (ω. b2 . φ. with known XY object space 16 coordi-nates. ZL . θX .

(ω. SHM Space Resection Space resection is a method of determining the six elements of ex-terior orientation (ω. φ. ZL) ? Measured Known 7/30/16 09:24:05 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).  This method requires a minimum of three control points. YL . XL . κ. to be . φ. and ZL) of a photograph. κ. XL . YL . with known XYZ object space coordi17 nates.

AT versus Ground Surveying For large mapping projects. The use of kinematic GPS in the aircraft to provide Blok model dengan titik-titik coordinates of the camera at the kontrol yang diperlukan instant of exposure can eliminate untuk restitusi the need for ground control 7/30/16 09:24:05 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 18 entirely. the number of control points needed is extensive. Much of this needed control is now routinely being established by aero-triangulation from only a sparse network of field surveyed ground control and at a substantial cost and time savings. and the cost of establishing them can be extremely high if it is done exclusively by field survey methods. .

and 4. AT be used to establish photo control.Access to much of the property within a project area is not required. 3.Benefits of AeroTriangulation Besides having an economic advantages over field surveying. extreme slopes. 2. Some organizations perform bridging even though adequate field-surveyed control exist for stereo-model control. Field surveying in difficult areas. thus minimizing delays and hardships due to adverse weather conditions. can be minimized. aero-triangulation has other benefits : 1. . . such as marshes. . Chances of finding erroneous control values after initiation of com-pilation are minimized and usually eliminated. 7/30/16 09:24:06 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 19 . and hazardous rock formations. The accuracy of the field-surveyed control necessary for bridging is verified during AT process. Most of the work is done under laboratory conditions.

Aplikasi Aero-Triangulasi 7/30/16 09:24:06 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 20 .

Titik kontrol minor : titik kontrol yang koordinat tanahnya ditentukan dengan aero-triangulasi._Aplikasi lainnya : untuk penentuan posisi. a. SHM 21 . . Titik kontrol minor digunakan untuk restitusi fotogrametrik. AT can be used in a variety of other applications in which precise ground coordinates are needed although most of these uses have been largely supplanted by GPS. dilanjutkan dengan line-mapping. . . or photo-mapping.Aplikasi utama : untuk pemetaan topografik (mapping). In property surveying. (Cadastre. Titik kontrol tanah = titik kontrol mayor (major). atau fotogrametri non-topografik. AT can be used to locate section corners and property corners . . 7/30/16 09:24:06 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). Germany).Aplikasi Aero-Triangulasi (1) Apart from bridging for subsequent photogrammetric operations. Menghasilkan titik kontrol minor untuk pemetaan. 1. 2. •. or to locate evidence that will assist in finding these corners.

c. d. jembatan. such in shipbuilding and aircraft manufacture. Engineering Photogrammetry). AT can be used to develop DEM by computing X.1 22 31/10/12 .10._AT has been used successfully for densifying geodetic control networks in area surrounded by tall buildings where problems due to multipath cause a loss of accuracy in GPS surveys. e. Industrial Photogrammetry)._Studi deformasi bangun rekayasa. SHM Mg. (Terestrial Photogrammetry. mis. and Z ground coordinates of a systematic network of points in an area.Aplikasi Aero-Triangulasi (2) b. Y. bendungan. (Terestrial & Close-range Photogrammetry._In topographic mapping._Special application include the precise determination of the relative positions of large machine parts during fabrication. 7/30/16 09:24:06 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

10. SHM 23 .Mg.2 01/11/12 Principles of AeroTriangulation 7/30/16 09:24:06 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

INS. AT is a simultaneous coordinate transformation of basic units to object space coordinate system.  In digital system.g kinematic-GPS. additional geo-metric information.  ground control coordinates with specific configuration. e. and Aero-Triangulation (2A). models. or images coordinate.Principles of AeroTriangulation • Input :  strips.  Mathematically. the basic unit is usually bundle. • Process : (see Stages of Aerial Triangulation slide)  simultaneous adjustment of photogrammetric block in one go. • Output :  coordinates of minor control points (tie 24 points).  with(out) auxiliary data. SHM 7/30/16 09:24:06 AM .

Analitis.  Analitis. P e r a ta a n B e r k a s Bobby 2004 7/30/16 09:24:06 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). Dijital) B e rk a s M odel S tr ip P e r a ta a n S trip Strip Formation :  Analog.  Dijital. SHM 25 . Dijital) (Analog.Klasifikasi Aero-Triangulasi berdasarkan Unit/Satuan Dasar (Analog. P e r a ta a n M o d e l Orientasi Relatif :  Analog. Dijital) F o to (Analog. Analitis.  Analitis. Analitis.

Y0. Φ. Z0).  7-unknowns of absolute orien-tation parameters per model (s. X0. XL. YL. Bundle Block Adjustment is simultaneous resection and intersection of the whole images/photos into ground coordinate system.Aero-triangulation & Photogrammetric Restitution Independent Model Triangulati-on (Model Block Adjustment) is simultaneous absolute orientati-on of the whole models into ground coordinate system. φ. (Minor control points)  3-D similarity transformation. κ. Z). Y. 7/30/16 09:24:06 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). ZL). Κ.  3-unknown coordinates per tie point (X.  Collinearity conditions. Ω.  6-unknowns of exterior orien-tation parameters per photo (ω. SHM  3-unknown coordinates 26 .

Dijital : data koordinat.Filosofi Aero-Triangulasi 1. Sebanyak mungkin lakukan hitungan secara dijital / analitis. Instrumen hanya sebagai penghasil data koordinat. Akuisisi data / perolehan data / pengadaan data / pengukuran koordinat adalah konversi dari analog ke dijital. . . Urutan kedinian unit dasar fotogrametrik : foto  model  strip. fisis bumi. . . Analog : foto udara fotografik. SHM 27 . . . Diusahakan dimulai dari koordinat foto. 2. .Lakukan konversi dari analog ke dijital sedini mungkin. proses selanjut-nya adalah hitungan-hitungan dengan model matematis tertentu -sehingga lebih fleksibel-. 7/30/16 09:24:07 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). . Titik berat pengembangan adalah pada perataan dan pengolahan data. Perataan simultan untuk keseluruhan blok.

Model.YL . or Strip Coordinates) Data Processing : Yes No (check.System of Aero-Triangulation Aerial Photos Auxiliary Data : Ground Control Coordinates  XL . ZL (GPS)  ω. edit. κ (INS)  Relative data (with specific configuration) Output :  Coordinates of minor control points. Preparation :  Project Preparation  Control and Image Point Selection and Coding  Image Point Marking and Cross Data Acquisition : Marking  Control and Image Point Mensuration (Image. recheck. repeat)  Pre-processing : • Data reduction and conditioning • Gross error detection  Block Adjustment 7/30/16 09:24:07 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM Accepte d? Result Analysis 28 . and  Transformation parameters of basic unit. φ.

SHM 29 .The Development of Block Triangulation 7/30/16 09:24:07 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

10.2 30 01/11/12 . SHM Mg.Summary of the Development of Block Triangulation Jerie’s Analog Computer (aeropolygon) 7/30/16 09:24:07 AM (stereoplotter) Aero-Triangulation (2A).

slotted template (horizontal). relative. Before the advent of computers. SHM 31 .1 06/11/12 The development of block triangulation has been driven by the advances in computational power. AT methods used analog devices.g. Jerie’s analog computer (vertical). e.  This created long strip models from which coordinates of pass points could be read directly. or graphical techniques. (strip block adjustment)  This procedures involved manual interior. universal stereo-plotting instruments were developed which enable this process to be accomplished with only two projectors (base-in & baseout). (Strip coordinates system)  Later. Early analytical methods were designed to use the output of existing stereo-plotters and to minimized the amount of computation required by combining individual images into larger units.11. then polynomial strip adjustment methods were modeled. and absolute orientation of the successive models of long strips of photos using stereoscopic plotting instruments having several projectors. 7/30/16 09:24:07 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).The Development of Block Triangulation (1) Mg.

Radial Line Triangulation (horizontal position only) Slotted Template Triangulation 7/30/16 09:24:07 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 32 .

Jerie’s Analog Computer for AT (vertical position only) 7/30/16 09:24:07 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 33 .

Sequential Strip Formation in Analog Instrument (Multiplex) (aeropolygon) 7/30/16 09:24:07 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 34 .

SHM 35 . strip S tr ip 1 dapat dipero-leh : S tr ip 2 S tr ip 3 T itik k o n tr o l ta n a h S E B E L U M P E R ATA A N  Secara analog pada instrumen analog dengan kemampuan base-in dan base-out. Polynomial Adjustment T itik ik a t ( t ie p o in t ) S E S U D A H P E R ATA A N S tr ip 1 S tr ip 2 S tr ip 3 7/30/16 09:24:08 AM Secara analitis model ana-log dari  Secara analitis dari model ana-litis Titik ikat (tie point) antar jalur terletak pada daerah sidelap Aero-Triangulation (2A).Principles of Strip Pada perataan dgn unit Adjustment dasar strip (jalur).

 Simultaneous absolute orientation is performed numerically (model block adjustment).  Bundle methods consist of photo coordinates measurement. nearly all block triangulation is done using the bundle method. followed by measurement of model coordinates. SHM 36 .  This algorithms involves manual interior and relative orientation of stereo-models within a stereo-plotter. followed by simultaneous space-resection and -intersection from which ground coordinates are computed (bundle block adjustment). At the present time. 7/30/16 09:24:08 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).The Development of Block Triangulation (2) Independent model algorithms reduce the number of parameter required by working with models instead of actual images and simplifying the computation required. which allows the integration of additional geometric or navigational information.

SHM Hubungan antar model dimungkinkan dengan ada-nya titik ikat model dan ti-tik pusat proyeksi.  pada M-4 hanya 37 titik i-kat model . model dipero-leh :  Secara analog pada ins-trumen analog SESU D AH Aero-Triangulation (2A).Principles of Independent Model Triangulation (1) T it ik k o n tr o l ta n a h M odel T it ik ik a t ( t ie p o in t )  Secara analitis dari koor-dinat berkas M-4 SEBELU M 7/30/16 09:24:08 AM Pada perataan dengan u-nit model.

Principles of Independent Model Triangulation (2) M-7. SHM 38 . M-43 M-4 7/30/16 09:24:08 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

Principles of Bundle Block (foto) Adjustment Berkas dipero-leh : B e rk a s Simultaneous Space-Resection and -Intersection SESU D AH SEBELUM 7/30/16 09:24:08 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). frame dimungkinkan dengan adanya titik ikat foto dengan pola 39 seperti pada . SHM  Secara analog de-ngan pengukuran di komparator.  Secara dijital dengan pengukuran citra dijital pada Hubungan antar mo-nitor.

SHM 40 anu . reducing control requirements for the block to minimal configurations. 7/30/16 09:24:08 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).  Improved attitude ( determination by Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) is also beginning to have a significant impact on triangulation.YL .ZL) essentially makes a control point of each exposure station. unsur orientasi luar. selain sebagai parameter.  Using the Global Positioning System (GPS) to determine exposure station positions (XL . especially for non-frame sensors.  Jadi.The Development of Block Triangulation (3) The availability of accurate navigational information has also advanced block triangulation. juga sebagai data pengamatan.

      Introduction Selecting Photo Control Images Number and Location of Photo Control Planning the Control Survey Artificial Targets for Photo Identifiable Control Points Indexing Ground Control GROUND CONTROL FOR AERO-TRIANGULATION 7/30/16 09:24:08 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 41 .

7/30/16 09:24:08 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).Introduction Photogrammetric control consists of any points whose positions are known in an object-space reference coordinate system and whose images can be positively identified in the photographs.  Photogrammetric control or ground control provides the means for orienting or relating aerial photographs to the ground.  The cost of establishing ground control for photogrammetric mapping is between 10 to 50 percent of the total project cost.  In aerial photogrammetry. the object space is the ground surface.  Many maps and other items that have been carefully prepared in the office to exacting standards have failed to pass field inspection simply because the ground control was of poor quality. The accuracy of finished photogrammetric products can be no better than the ground control upon which they are based. SHM 42 .

SHM 43 .Selecting Photo Control Images 7/30/16 09:24:08 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

SHM 44 . They must lie in favorable locations in the photographs. The study should include the use of stereoscope to ensure a clear stereoscopic view of all points selected. They must be sharp. well defined. (horizontal vs vertical view) 7/30/16 09:24:09 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). Photo Points) Images of acceptable photo control points must satisfy two re-quirements : 1. and 2. Control surveys for photogrammetry are normally conducted af-ter the photography has been obtained. This ensures that the above two requirements can be met.Selecting Photo Control Images (1) (Natural Points and Man Made Features. . Photo control images are selected after careful study of the photos. . and positively identified on all photos.

SHM 45 . Stereoskop saku untuk pemi-lihan citra titik kontrol foto dan pembuatan sketsa di lapangan. 7/30/16 09:24:09 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).Stereoskop-Cermin & -Saku Stereoskop cermin untuk pe-milihan citra titik kontrol foto dan pembuatan sketsa di kan-tor / laboratorium.

etc.Selecting Photo Control Images (2) Images for horizontal control must be very sharp and well de-fined horizontally.  Care must be exercised to ensure that control points do not fall in shadowed areas on some photos. manhole covers. 7/30/16 09:24:09 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). fence corners. isolated rocks. points on bridges. intersection of small trails or watercourses. SHM 46 . power poles. intersections of roads.  Some objects whose images are commonly satisfactory for horizon-tal control are intersections of sidewalks.  Because their horizontal positions on the photographs must be pre-cisely measured. small lone bushes. corners of buildings.

Selecting Photo Control Images (3) Images for vertical control must be well defined vertically. open areas such as the tops of grassy hills or open fields should be avoided. make excellent vertical control points. • The small areas should have some natural features nearby. 7/30/16 09:24:09 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 47 . flat or slightly crowned areas. such as trees or rocks.  Best vertical control points are small.  Intersections of roads and sidewalks. which help to strengthen stereoscopic depth perception. small patches of grass. small bare spots.  Large. etc. • Because of the difficulties they cause in stereoscopic depth perception..

 A pocket stereoscope taken into the field can be invaluable in point identification. 7/30/16 09:24:10 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 48 .  A power pole. for example.Selecting Photo Control Images (4) Mistakes in point identification are common and costly. • not only because it magnitude images. but it may not be the same pole whose image was identified on the photos.  Mistakes such as this can be avoided by identifying enough other details in the immediate vicinity of each point so that verification is certain. may be located in the field. • but also because hills and valleys which aid in object verification can be seen both on the photos and on the ground.

SHM 49 .Number and Location of Photo Control 7/30/16 09:24:10 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

Number and Location of Photo Control (1) Control recommended for orienting stereomodels in a stereoscopic plotting instrument The prudent photogrammetrist will utilize some amount of redundant control.  The horizontal points should be fairly widely spaced. each stereomodel oriented in a plot-ter should have three horizon-tal and four vertical control points.  The vertical control points should be near the corners of the model. 7/30/16 09:24:10 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).  As a practical minimum. SHM 50 .

and  the procedures. depending upon  the size. and nature of the area to be covered.Number and Location of Photo Control (2) The amount of ground-surveyed photo control needed for AT will vary. the better the resulting accuracy in the minor control point. The more dense the ground-surveyed network of photo control. SHM 51 . instruments. • which affords maximum economic benefit from AT • and at the same time maintains a satisfactory standard of accuracy (not included in this lecture) 7/30/16 09:24:10 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).  the resulting accuracy required.  There is an optimum amount of ground-surveyed photo control. and personnel to be used. shape.

 a minimum of about two horizontal and three or four vertical ground-surveyed photo control points should appear in approxi-mately every fifth stereomodel along the strip.Number and Location of Photo Control (3) If AT of a strip of photos is to be performed  for the purpose of obtaining control for orienting stereo-models in a stereo-plotter. Example of control configura tion for a strip of photogra phs 7/30/16 09:24:10 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 52 .

(See the next 5 slides) 7/30/16 09:24:11 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). the groundsurveyed control is taken into minimum. SHM 53 . the ground-surveyed control should be systematically arranged throughout the block. With the airborne GPS control.  Best control configurations consist of horizontal control along the periphery of the block with a uniform distribution of vertical control throughout the block.Number and Location of Photo Control (4) For AT of blocks of photos.

SHM 54 .7/30/16 09:24:11 AM Distribusi TKT/GCP untuk IMT Tanpa TKU Aero-Triangulation (2A).

contoh iho = 4 b.Distribusi TKT/GCP untuk IMT Tanpa TKU Titik kontrol horizontal (TKH) terletak pada keliling (perimeter) batas daerah pemetaan. 7/30/16 09:24:11 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 55  Jarak antara dua jalur titik tinggi disebut bridging .  Jarak antara TKH disebut bridging distance horizontal iho dengan satuan basis model. • pada perimeter.  TKV umumnya terletak : • pada sidelap. Titik kontrol vertikal (TKV) berupa jalur titik tinggi yang tegak-lurus arah terbang pada awal dan akhir jalur terbang serta beberapa jalur di antaranya. antara dua jalur titik tinggi terdapat satu TKV.

Configurat ion of Flight Strips for Airborne Cross strips are flown GPS at the ends of the re-gular Control block strips. The cross strips con-tain ground control points at each end. SHM 56 . 7/30/16 09:24:11 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

SHM 57 .A conventional aerotriangulation block with control distribution 7/30/16 09:24:11 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

Planning the Control
Survey
In planning the control survey, maximum advantage should be taken of
existing control in the area.

Caution should always be exercised in using existing control if it is of unknown
accuracy.
7/30/16 09:24:11 AM

Aero-Triangulation (2A), SHM

59

Horizontal Accuracy for Hardcopy
Map (1)
U.S. National Map Accuracy Standards (NMAS)
require that at least 90% of the principal planimetric
features be plotted :
 to within 1/30 in (0.8 mm) on their true positions for
map scales of 1 : 20,000 or larger,
• On a map plotted at a scale of 1 : 600, this represents an
allowable horizontal map error of 0.5 m (0.8 mm x 600) on
the ground.

 to within 1/50 in (0.5 mm) for scales smaller than 1 :
20,000.
• On a map at a scale of 1 : 24,000, the allowable horizontal
map error is 12 m (0.5 mm x 24,000).

Horizontal photo control must be located to
7/30/16 09:24:11 AM
(2A), SHM
60
greater accuracyAero-Triangulation
than the
allowable horizontal

Horizontal Accuracy for Hardcopy
Map (2)
A “rule of thumb” in topographic mapping
states
 that photo control should contain error no greater than
about ¼ to ⅓ the horizontal map accuracy tolerance.
• 0.125 – 0.167 m for 1 : 600 map scale.
• 3 – 4 m for 1 : 24,000 map scale.

In statistical sense : since 90% of the values in a
normal distribution lie within ±1.645 times the standard
deviation, to be accurate :
 to within
deviation
 to within
deviation

0.8 mm would require a
of 0.8/1.645 = 0.486 mm
0.5 mm would require a
of 0.5/1.645 = 0.304 mm

horizontal map standard
x scale factor, and
horizontal map standard
x scale factor.

The horizontal map standard deviation is the function of
7/30/16 09:24:11 AM
Aero-Triangulation
SHM 2
61
2
2
2
mapping process. (σmap
= σGCP2 (2A),

+
σ
+
σ
+

)
AT
ori
dig

i. some agencies require that their accuracy be within 1/10 of the c.Vertical Accuracy for Hardcopy Map (1) U. • A map being plotted with a contour interval of 1 m requires vertical photo control accurate to within ±0.1 m.i..S.).  but as an additional safety factor.i. SHM 62 . National Map Accuracy Standards require that at least 90% of all points tested for elevation be correct to within one-half the contour interval (c. A “rule of thumb” in topographic mapping states  that elevations of vertical photo control points should be correct to within ± 1/5 of the c. 7/30/16 09:24:11 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

304 m (0. SHM 63 .645). (σmap2 = σGCP2 + σAT2 + σori2 + σdig2 + … ) 7/30/16 09:24:11 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).)/1.5 c.  E. to map with a 1 m contour interval.645 times the standard deviation. the elevation must be determined with a standard deviation of 0..Vertical Accuracy for Hardcopy Map (2) In statistical sense : since 90% of the values in a normal distribution lie within ±1. to be accurate to within half the c.i. would require a vertical map standard deviation of (0.g.645.i.5 m/1. The vertical map standard deviation is the function of mapping process.

 E. accuracy standards for such products must be specified independently of plotting scale. • These standards are readily applicable to digital maps which are stored in a computer and manipulated with CAD software.  Relative accuracy. the accuracy standards of Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) titled Geospatial Positioning Accuracy Standards.g. SHM 64 . or  Statistics on the size of the largest blunders. 7/30/16 09:24:11 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). The accuracy can be stated as :  Absolute accuracy.Accuracy for Digital Products Since digital map information may be displayed at any scale.

Geospatial data accuracy must be defined by reference to some independent external standard of higher accuracy.Absolute Accuracy for Digital Products (1) The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) specifies how accuracy is defined and tested for data in the National Spatial Data Infrastructure. SHM 65 .  The independent source may be : •field surveys. • The FGDC standards require that a minimum of 20 check points be compared between the evaluated and reference data sets.  Sufficient check points must be evaluated to obtain a statistically valid result. 7/30/16 09:24:11 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). or •independent photogrammetric checks using larger-scale imagery. such as check profiles for contour and DEM testing.

the statistical confidence level can be calculated from the RMS value by using the RMS value as the standard deviation. 7/30/16 09:24:12 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).96 times the RMS value. the combined RMS error for both X and Y coordinates is used.Absolute Accuracy for Digital Products (2) The accuracy statement is based on the root-meansquare (RMS) of the check points differences.447. • Since this is a two-dimensional error distribution. for example would contain the statement “Tested 1-meter horizontal accuracy at 95 % confidence level”. the 95% confidence region is ±1. SHM 66 .  For one-dimensional errors. the factor for 95% confidence is 2.  For horizontal error. such as vertical errors. A digital planimetric map which passes at the 1-m level.  If the errors are assumed to be normally distributed.

 The blunder limit is a function of the amount of editing and checking performed on the data.  By their nature. 7/30/16 09:24:12 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).Relative Accuracy and Blunders Relative accuracy describes the internal consistency of the dataset. although reliability statistics have been developed for that purpose. pos-sibly present in the data are given. • A DEM might be affected by an overall vertical shift. the relative accuracy specifies the accuracy of the differences in elevation between posts.  For a DEM. or gross errors. but still have good relative accuracy. making its absolute accuracy poor. Statistics on the size of the largest blunders. gross errors are difficult to model statistically. SHM 67 .

Artificial Targets for Photo Identifiable Control Points 7/30/16 09:24:12 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 68 .

Artificial targets provide the best possible photographic images. and deserts. natural point suitable for photogrammetric control may not exist. whether .Pre-marking In some areas such as prairies. forests.  Their positions are then determined by field survey or in some cases by aero-triangulation.  This procedure is called pre-marking or paneling.  In these cases artificial points called panel points may be placed on the ground prior to taking the aerial photography. SHMor not natural point 69 photogrammetric work. and therefore they are used for controlling the most precise 7/30/16 09:24:12 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).  Their unique appearance makes misidentification unlikely.

and the positions of ground principal points can be specified on the flight plan.  The coverage of each photo can be planned in relation to target locations.Extra work and expense are incurred in placing the targets. 7/30/16 09:24:12 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 70 .Disadvantages of Artificial Targets (1).  The photography should be obtained as near as possible to the time of placing targets.The targets could be moved between the time of their placement and the time of photography.The targets may not appear in favorable locations on the photographs. (3). (2).

plastic. stones.Good color contrast.A symmetric target that can be centered over the control point.  Target materials : white paint.  The center panel of the target should be centered over the control point. (2).The Main Elements in Targets Design (1). SHM 71 (3). and they also help in determining the exact center of the target should the image of the center panel be unclear.  Contrast is best obtained using light-colored targets against a dark background. old tires. since this is the image point to which measurements will be taken. 7/30/16 09:24:12 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).  The legs help in identifying targets on the photos.A target size that yields a satisfactory image on the . etc.

03 – 0.Ideal Shape Artificial Photogrammetric Targets D = 0.10 mm on photo scale. depending also on the size of floating mark. 7/30/16 09:24:12 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 72 .

The target is less than optimal due to lack of biaxial symmetry.target and it is needed has the advantage of being more easily and quickly constructed.Shows a target which is often used where a smaller (b). however. (c). 7/30/16 09:24:12 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). it may be needed in confined areas such as edges of highways.The target is nearly as effective as that of (a).Other Common Artificial Photogrammetric Targets (a). SHM 73 .

Post-marking Panel points are needed in an area after the photography has already been obtained. 7/30/16 09:24:12 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).  Targets are placed in the desired positions.  Supplemental vertical photographs are taken of each target and surrounding area with a small-format camera carried in a light aircraft flying at low altitude. SHM 74 . • Zoom magnification of the individual viewing systems of the point-transfer device eliminates the need for having the scales of the supplemental and original photography equal.  Locations of the targets can then be transferred stereoscopically from the supplemental photography to the original photography by using a point-transfer device.

Point Transfer & Marking Device A sketch of a point marker for hardcopy diapositives 7/30/16 09:24:12 AM Wild PUG-4 stereoscopic point-transfer instrument Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 75 .

Indexing Ground Control 7/30/16 09:24:12 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 76 .

the control point images should be lightly pricked with a pin to avoid the possibility of later misidentification mistakes..g.Indexing Ground Control (1) For each project it is advisable to prepare a set of paper prints for indexing the ground control. pricking that corner will offset the possibility of mistakenly using a different corner at some later time simply because the written description was misinterpreted. SHM 77 .  E. 7/30/16 09:24:12 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).  Pricking should be done with the aid of a magnifying glass. When positive identification is made. if a control point lies at a particular sidewalk intersection corner.  The pinprick should just penetrate the emulsion. and the pin should be held at right angles to the paper.

: Identifying numbers or names of control points should be writ-ten on the control photos beside the points. SHM 78 . depending upon the type of control point.  E.g. A set of control index photos carefully prepared can be a valua-ble asset in performing subsequent photogrammetric operati-ons. Short.Indexing Ground Control (2) Control point images should be further marked by surrounding them with appropriate symbols. 7/30/16 09:24:13 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). written descriptions should be placed on the backs of the photos near the pin pricks.

Orientasi Sketsa Lokasi TKT terhadap Foto (Misal : pojok pagar) 7/30/16 09:24:13 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 79 .

Problems : Ground Control for AT 7/30/16 09:24:13 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 80 .

9  16. SHM 81 .Tugas No. 1 Kerjakan soal-soal nomor :  16-1 s/d 16. Waktu 2 (dua) minggu : Ketentuan Tugas : sama dengan Tugas no.21 7/30/16 09:24:13 AM Aero-Triangulation (2B).18 s/d 16.

SHM 82 .      Project Preparation Control and Image Point Selection and Coding Image Point Marking and Cross Marking Control and Image Point Mensuration Block Adjustment Result Analysis STAGES OF AEROTRIANGULATION 7/30/16 09:24:13 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

repeat)  Pre-processing : • Data reduction and conditioning • Gross error detection  Block Adjustment 7/30/16 09:24:13 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). or Strip Coordinates) Data Processing : Yes No (check.System of Aero-Triangulation Aerial Photos Auxiliary Data : Ground Control Coordinates  XL . Model. recheck. and  Transformation parameters of basic unit. ZL (GPS)  ω. Preparation :  Project Preparation  Control and Image Point Selection and Coding  Image Point Marking and Cross Data Acquisition : Marking  Control and Image Point Mensuration (Image. φ. κ (INS)  Relative data (with specific configuration) Output :  Coordinates of minor control points. edit.YL . SHM Accepte d? Result Analysis 83 .

S o ftc o p y P h o to g r a m m e tr ic In s tru m e n t Kalibrasi instrumen (scanner. In the digital process. dan enviroware. SHM 84 . preparing a project en-tailed laying out the AT block. brainware. software. 7/30/16 09:24:13 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). it has become the process of import-ing scanned image files and es-tablishing a file naming con-vention. Conventionally (analog.Project Preparation Persiapan hardware. analy-tical). XY-plotter).

Control and Image Point Selection and Coding 7/30/16 09:24:13 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 85 .

Image points are artificial (i. often located at von Gruber locations (named for the methodology’s inventor).Control and Image Point Selection and Coding (1) Control points are point features located by ground survey me-thods (usually pre-marked or targeted). not targeted) points that are se-lected along the principal y-axis of the photo.e..  Properly selected image points (pass points) should appear in both the preceding and succeeding photos (triple overlap location). and some projects may specify five points. and  should also appear in the adjacent flight line(s) / sidelap area.  A minimum of three or more evenly distributed points are required per image. Under this definition. SHM 86 . an image point could appear in as many as six photos (referred to as a six-fold point). The lateral image point(s) / tie point(s) :  should falls in the image’s lateral overlap areas. 7/30/16 09:24:13 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

Pass point locations for stereoscopic measure-ment.Locations of pass points in two adjacent stereo87 models. SHM (b). (c).Idealized pass point lo-cations for aero-triangulation. . (monoscopic measurement) Tripleoverlap 7/30/16 09:24:13 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). and Models (a).Pass Points in Photos.

and Model von Gruber’s points 7/30/16 09:24:13 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).Pass Points in Photo. SHM 88 .

13. six-fold points. 8. dan tiepoints Foto-foto secara individual 16 9 4 5 D 7 2 3 11 Contoh : F Aero-Triangulation (2A). passpoints.A 1 2 3 B 6 1 7 2 8 3 A 6 B B 4 C 5 8 3 9 4 10 5 fo to 5 11 6 7 7 8 8 B C D 8 9 9 10 10 16 11 fo to 4 fo to 3 8 16 E fo to 2 fo to 1 3 11 fo to 6 fo to 7 E E F F fo to 8 p a s s p o in t t itik k o n tr o l A 1 6 8 B 7/30/16 09:24:13 AM C E 10 Blok terdiri dari 8 foto dengan titik kontrol. SHM Titik 3. Blok foto pada posisi overlapping 89 . dan 18 adalah tie-points (sidelap area + triple overlap).

That’s why the points should be chosen in the triple overlap areas. means higher accuracy of AT results.Six-fold points (Less pass and tie points give stronger geometry.) Five-fold points 7/30/16 09:24:14 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 90 .

… ) Photo 29 Run 12B 1222900 1222902 7/30/16 09:24:14 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). the selection process can be automated. SHM 91 . since the image file names are unique and the point numbering scheme must be unambiguous.  The point coding procedure is also automated. 1222901 02. • Point numbering system : (strip no.Control and Image Point Selection and Coding (2) There are also five-fold point.)(i = 00.)(photo no. Automatic Point Selection and Coding in a Digital System :  Since the point locations are predictable. 01.

SHM 92 .Control and Image Point Selection and Coding (3) 7/30/16 09:24:14 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

Image Point Marking and Cross-marking 7/30/16 09:24:14 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 93 .

 Since the Wild PUG was a popular instrument.  The mark itself is typically 40 to 60 microns (m) in size. the Kern PMG and CPM.  Professional marking instruments include the Wild Herrbrugg PUG. and the Jena Transmark models. image points are marked with a Point Marking device so their locations can be identified for revisiting.Point Marking and Crossmarking (1) Conventionally. without puncturing the base. the Zeiss PM. since 60 m is too small for the naked eye.  The instrument is designed to mark only the emulsion of the image. Image points marked in this fashion must be annotated for identification. Most such instruments use a motorized drill which clutches a precise bit that has a predetermined drilling depth. 7/30/16 09:24:14 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). these points became referred to as PUG Points. SHM 94 .

Point Marking and Crossmarking (2) (transfered) 7/30/16 09:24:14 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 95 .

 To have an unambiguous po-int to In the triangulation of observe for subsehardcopy i-magery.Point Transfer & Marking Device (1) Point marking is necessary :  To be able to unambiguously transfer the location of the point to overlapping photographs. SHM 96 A sketch of a point marker for hardcopy diapositives essential step. physically marking pass quent absolute point and tie point locations orientation in a stereoon the diapositive is an plotter. and 7/30/16 09:24:14 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). .

emulsion which become the pass points. SHM 97 . Point markers usually are Point-marking devices made with stereo-viewing make small holes in the and -marking ability. 7/30/16 09:24:14 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).Point Transfer & Marking Device (2) Wild PUG-4 stereoscopic point-transfer instrument A point marker typically allows for point selection on the dia-positive under high magnifica-tion. following which a small drill (from 25 to 100 μm in dia-meter) physically removes the emulsion at this point so it be-comes a permanently mark lo-cation.

cross marking is the only means of providing the geometric ties between photo lines.  Since neither analog or analytical instruments can accommo-date cross-line stereo mensuration in these locations. The quality of marked point largely depends on the marking instrument.  Transferred points are also subject to Observer error. SHM 98 .  Any eccentricity in the marking-bit creates a point much larger than 60 microns. (Why ?) 7/30/16 09:24:15 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).Point Marking and Crossmarking (4) Points located in the lateral overlap portions of the photo block are also cross-marked onto adjacent photo lines.

SHM 99 .Point Marking and Crossmarking for Stereoscopic Marked Marked Marked Measurements Crossmarked (points transfer) 7/30/16 09:24:15 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

L U MSHM Aero-Triangulation 100 .Point Marking and Crossmarking for Monoscopic B e rk a s Marked Points transfer Measurements Crossmarked (points transfer) 7/30/16 09:24:15 AM S E B E(2A).

SHM 101 . it has a unique (sub)pixel address with reference to the photo coordinate system. the monitor cursor simply searches out and locks onto that pixel address. 7/30/16 09:24:15 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).Point Marking and Crossmarking (5) Revisiting Points in a Digital System :  Once the image points is marked (digitized). automated procedures using digital photography). • (It can be done also by digital image matching.  The point marking instrument is now redundant. during cross-marking).  Cross-marking can then be accomplished by clearing local parallax and digitizing the new point. (Point marking by its digital photo coordinates)  If an operator needs to revisit a mark (for example.

7/30/16 09:24:15 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). This method requires little operator intervention and is there-fore a very economical process. SHM 102 . which adds redundancy and strengthens the aerotriangulation solution. An added benefit is that a large number of pass points can be generated with minimum effort. thus achieving pass point selection and photo coordinate measurement simultaneously.Automated Selection of Pass Points by Digital Image Matching Points are selected in the overlap areas of digital images and are automatically matched between adjacent images.

Finding
corresponding elements in the two
images
by
matching
small
regions from the
left and right images of a stereopair
in
aerotriangulation

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103

Control and Image Point
Mensuration

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104

Control and Image Point
Mensuration
The goal of the mensuration process is to
accurately measure and record the photo
coordinates (x’,y’) of each control and i-mage point.
 These photo coordinates are logged in a data file,
which is used by a block adjustment program.

Mensuration can be performed using a monocomparator or a stereo-comparator.

 Current
professional
practice
favors
stereocomparators, which re-duce point reoccupation and xparallax errors, and which output x’,y’ and x”,y” values
(4 channels of data) simultaneously.

Since both analog and analytical instruments can
only accommo-date conjugate images as stereo
pairs, multi-fold points are rarely measured in this
environments.
 Instead, photogrammetrists rely on the cross-marks to
provide
the required
geometry.
7/30/16
09:24:15 AM
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(2A), SHM
105

y’) (x’.y”) Mono-comparators make measure-ments on one photograph at a time. x”. 7/30/16 09:24:15 AM Stereo-comparators make measure-ments on two photographs at a time Aero-Triangulation (2A).y’. SHM 106 .Comparator (1) Mann type 422-F leadscrew monocomparator A sketch of a stereo-comparator (x’.

Aero-Triangulation (2A). 7/30/16 09:24:15 AM • This saves time and reduces the opportunities for errors in the stereo point marking operation. SHM 107 .  camera calibration. which are not easily correctable.Comparator (2) The term comparators connotes a device to measure 2D point positions on a hardcopy image placed on a measuring stage. The stereo-comparator per-mits the measurement of two diapositives simultaneously while viewing in stereo.3 μm (1 μm least count). or  analytical photogrammetry. Accuracy :  2 . Applications : for discrete po-int data collection (image co-ordinates) for  block adjustment or aerotriangulation.  The advantage : not all of the points used in the triangulation need to be marked on every photograph.

(x.Analog and Analytical Stereo-plotter Basic principles of mechanical projection Schematic diagram of components and operation of an analytical plotter (x. SHM only 108 .y’.y.z) (x’. 7/30/16 09:24:16 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).z) Both analog and analytical instruments can accommodate conju-gate images as stereo pairs.y”).y. x”.

y”). x”. SHM for any po-int inAero-Triangulation the 109 .y’. In softcopy photogrammetric instrument coordinate mea-surements mostly are done stereoscopically.y. (x’.y’). (x.z) Stereoscopic vision 7/30/16 09:24:16 AM (2A). tie points and single points.Coordinates Measurement in a Softcopy Work-station Coordinate measurements for control points. (x’.

making it easy to measure multi-fold point image combination. if the computer’s memory (RAM) is large enough. the entire flight line –or even the entire photo block. both along the photo line (N-stage). (2) point marking and cross-marking. and across the lines (M-lines). but more importantly. This digital system-based MN-Stage Comparator not only fully supports the photogrammetric theories in AT.  The virtual stage is unlimited in size and quantity. 7/30/16 09:24:16 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).can be kept on-line.The New Digital Aerial Triangulation Process (1) A digital photogrammetry work station is essentially a comparator with an unlimited number of stages. it performs the following sub-processes simultaneously : (1) point selection and coding. (3) control and image point mensuration. SHM 110 .

SHM 111 .Softcopy Photogrammetri c Workstations Zeiss PHODIS ST 7/30/16 09:24:16 AM Leica DPW 770 Aero-Triangulation (2A).

The New Digital Aerial Triangulation
Process (2)
During the AT process, the digital system drives to the
von Gruber locations for any two selected overlapping
images, regardless of overlap conditions (forward, lateral,
or diagonal).
 The operator accept or offsets that location, clears x/y parallax
locally, occupies the point location with the cursor and digitizes
the point.

Meanwhile, the digital system
(1).assigns unique point ID,
(2). creates the digital marks or cross-marks, and
(3).logs the point photo coordinates against the pre-defined
point ID system.

To make the process even more foolproof, the digital system
provides a schematic diagram for each photo, which shows
an index of the measured points. (AT index map)
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112

(1/4 skala foto)

Contoh
Peta Indeks AT
Berbasis Foto/Berkas
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113

Block Adjustment
Block adjustment is essentially the automated
process of adjust-ing :
 the logged photo coordinates (x’,y’) of the image points
[or model coordinates (x,y,z) of the model points] ,
 survey control coordinates (X,Y,Z), and
 any other relevant data
to obtain a best-mean-fit.

This adjustment is made necessary by the
differential residual data errors incurred in
surveying, marking, cross-marking, and measuring.
(sources of error in AT)
This process is purely data processing, and
does not require photogrammetric instrumentation.
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114

Result Analysis 7/30/16 09:24:17 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 115 .

 a great deal of imagination is required to visualize the source of the problem from the error values. and then • discard or statistically weight certain points.Result Analysis A block adjustment is never perfect. 7/30/16 09:24:17 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). and • re-process the data to obtain a better adjustment. Several runs are needed. After analyzing the errors. which only describe the deformation in numerical terms. the Photogrammetrist will often  revisit the point marking or mensuration process for both control and tie points. If the adjustment residual errors exceed the tolerance (indicat-ing a blunder or error in the AT process). SHM 116 .

7/30/16 09:24:17 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 117 Given the speed of modern computers and the . the Operator can correct it and re-digitize the point. excessive local paral-lax or point occupation error.Result Analysis Interactive Error Correction The digital system makes this process easy since the massive measurement redundancy for every multi-fold point (especially line tie points) provide an unprecedented strength in geometry. Whether the error is a cross-marking error. Should blunders occur. A new adjustment can then verify the success of the correction. the digital system can easily and exactly recreate the conditions under which the measurement was re-corded.

including :  control and image point ground coordinates (X. With these parameters. YL . SHM 118 . This capability removes the need (and the unavoidable errors) in repetitively occupying the fiducial. 7/30/16 09:24:18 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).Y. any overlapping image pair can be use to form a stereo model automatically. ZL . without interior or exteri-or orientations.Forming Stereo Models Automatically Modern bundle adjustment programs also directly output mo-del parameters.  residual errors in the original measurements and adjustment. and  the all-important bundle parameters XL . (Space intersection problem) The operator can also detach a preceding bundle and attach a succeeding bundle while traversing trough a block. It is also facilitates corridor-type mapping.    (6 per photo) which define the location and attitude of each aerial photograph.Z). control or model points.

    Strip Formation Strip Deformation after Strip Formation Process The Schut’s Polynomial Adjustment Methods Performace of Polynomial Adjustment POLYNOMIAL STRIP AND BLOCK ADJUSTMENT 7/30/16 09:24:18 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 119 .

SHM 120 .Sequential Strip Formation in Analog Instrument (Multiplex) 7/30/16 09:24:18 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

strip SHM The coordinate system 121 .Sequential Construction of a Strip Model from Independent Models (a).Three adjacent relatively oriented Formation) stereo-models. 7/30/16 09:24:18 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). (c). (Strip (b).Continuous strip of stereo-models formed by numerically joining the individual arbitrary coordinate sys-tems into one system.Individual arbitrary (horizontal) co-ordinate systems of three adjacent stereo-models.

SHM 122 . system) Formation) 7/30/16 09:24:18 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).Sequential Construction of a Strip Model from Independent Models (Strip (strip coord.

SHM 123 the Z trans- . Those deformations are corrected by polynomial adjustment method-s.Strip Deformation after Strip Formation Process During the process of tying each successive model in the strip to the one before it. systematic errors in the image coordinates accumulate to warp the strip. Y) coordinates. 7/30/16 09:24:18 AM One set of equations is solved for the planimetric (X. while another Aero-Triangulationmodels (2A).

SHM 124 . y  y  a2  a4x  a3y  a6( x2  y2 )  2a5xy a7(3x2y  y3 )  a8( x3  3x2y)  .. and  a separate polynomial for the vertical adjustment. z  z  b0  2b2x  2b1y  c1x2  c2x3  c3x4  d1xy d2x2y  d3x3y  d4x4y  e1y2  e2xy2 (8 parameters/strip for planimetric adjustment. x  x  a1  a3x  a4y  a5( x2  y2 )  2a6xy a7( x3  3xy2 )  a8(3x2y  y3 )  ... uses :  conformal polynomials for the planimetric adjustment..The Schut’s Polynomial Adjustment Methods (1) Developed at the National Research Council of Canada. 7/30/16 09:24:18 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). and 12 parameters/strip for vertical adjustment) The coefficients of the polynomials are computed after first scal-ing and translating (“no rotation”) the strip coordinates into the world coordinate system.

S tr ip 1 S tr ip 2 S tr ip 3 7/30/16 09:24:19 AM Once the adjustment is com-pleted. each strip is adjusted sequentially. SHM 125 tie points are . until the a-djustments between strips become negligible. the adjusted world coordinates of the Aero-Triangulation (2A). using a-djusted tie points from the previous strip.The Schut’s Polynomial Adjustment Methods (2) S tr ip 1 S tr ip 2 S t r ip 3 T itik k o n tr o l ta n a h S E B E LU M P E R ATA A N Polynomial Adjustment T it ik ik a t ( t ie p o in t ) S E S U D A H P E R A TA A N If a block adjustment is to be performed.

Performance of Polynomial
Adjustment
Polynomial
adjustment
is
computationally
economical, since only the polynomial coefficients
must be computed.
 This method was therefore well suited to the limited
computational power available in the early 1960s.

However, its accuracy is low since the image
geometry is not directly modeled and only gross
effects can be corrected.
Polynomial adjustment is no longer used in
practice, other than occasionally to generate tie
point coordinate approximations for a bundle
adjustment,
 since the cost of the computational power required for a
7/30/16
09:24:19
AM
Aero-Triangulation
(2A), SHM
126
more
accu-rate
bundle
adjustment
is much less than that





Introduction
Principles of IMT
The Perspective Centers as Tie Points
Independent Model Triangulation M-7
Independent Model Triangulation M-43

BLOCK ADJUSTMENT BY
INDEPENDENT MODELS
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127

Introduction
Instead of grouping the models into strips, we can
adjust each model independently as part of an
overall block adjustment.
This also reduces the number of parameters in
the adjustment (seven per model, as opposed to
six per image for bundle adjust-ment),
 but gives much better results than polynomial
adjustment methods.

The models can be formed on :
 standard analog stereo-plotters, or from
 comparator / digital image measurements, followed by
analytical relative orientation methods.
7/30/16 09:24:19 AM

Aero-Triangulation (2A), SHM

128

Independent Model Triangulation (IMT) can be thought of as the simultaneous absolute orientation of all the models in the block. we have a block of models con-nected by tie Absolute Connection to the Ground points (including the perspective centers). If we have two horizontal and three ver-tical control points in a model. which among 7/30/16 09:24:19 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). instead of control points in each model. we can relate model coordinates to world coordinates using the 3-D similarity transfor-mation. . In IMT. SHM 129 them contain at least two Tie points.Principles of IMT Independent Model Coordinates Relative Connection of Adjacent Models The perspective centers as tie points.

M-43 M-4 7/30/16 09:24:19 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 130 .M-7.

In standard block configurations. SHM 131 .The Perspective Centers as Tie Points (1) Inclusion of the perspective centers as tie points is critical for the geometric strength of the solution. the tie points would be nearly collinear. 7/30/16 09:24:19 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). stereo-models overlap only at the very edge regions. allowing the connected models to rotate around the overlap region   rotation) Adding the perspective center as a tie point reinforces the connection by preventing this rotation.

the perspective center coordinates are determined as part of the solution (analytical relative orientation). SHM 132 . 7/30/16 09:24:19 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). Two-point method of determining model coordinates of perspective centers of stereoplotter projectors.The Perspective Centers as Tie Points (2) If an analog stereo-plotter is used to form the models manually. the coordinates of the perspective center must be measured while the model is set in the instrument. Grid plate method of determining model coordinates of perspective centers of stereoplotter projectors. If analytical methods are used.

SHM 133 .Independent Model Triangulation M-7 7/30/16 09:24:20 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

Principles of IMT M-7 To implement IMT M-7. with the standard deviations differentiating between known and unknown coordinates. with the absolute orientation parameters for that mo-del as unknowns. We can solve the total system of equations and 7/30/16 09:24:20absolute AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). The model and world coordinates of the points are treated as ob-servations. parameters SHM 134 obtain ori-entation for each . we write equations of 3-D similarity trans-formation X = sMTx + T for each time a control or tie point appears in a model. The total number of unknowns for the least squares solution is then seven per model and three per tie point.

m = . SHM 135 . .cos  sin  cos  + sin m32 = . s : theuniform scalefactor. m23 = cos  sin  sin  + sin  m12 = sin sin  cos + cos  cos  sin  m31 = sin  m13 = . M(T .3-D Similarity Transformation Equations  X  m11 m21 m31  x  TX     X  sM(T .sin  sin  sin  + cos  22  : the translatio cos  m11 = Tcos  cos  nvector.sin  cos   sin  m33 = cos  cos  m21 = . ) x  T   Y   s m12 m22 m32  y   TY   Z  m13 m23 m33  z  TZ  where  X: thevectorof knownworldcoordinate s.cos  sin  7/30/16 09:24:20 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).  x: thevectorofmodelcoordinate s. . ) : therotation matrixfrommodelcoordinate s totheworldcoordinate system.

Linearized 3-D Similarity Transformation Equations 0  z0 y0 1 0 0   x0  y  z 0  x 0 1 0 0 0 0     z0  y0 x0 0 0 0 1 The equations for ground control point for a point are : 7/30/16 09:24:20 AM  s           1 0 0  X  X0   vX0       Y   Y    v     0 1 0        0   Y0   TX   0 0 1  Z  Z0   vZ     0    TY   T   Z  1 0 0  X  X  vX   0 1 0  Y    Y    v         Y  0 0 1  Z  Z  vZ  Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 136 .

O3 .Jenis Titik dalam IMT 1. Contoh. Peta Indeks AT Berbasis Model 4. dst.Titik Tunggal / TT (single points). dst. (2A).Titik Kontrol Tanah / TKT sebagai besaran stokastik. koordinat model titik O2 . O6 . 3. koordinat tanah titik A. dst. Contoh. B. SHM 137 .  TKT pada model / TKM. yg berada pada dua model. 7.Titik Pusat Proyeksi / TPP (stokastik). 8.. 2. koordinat model titik 6. pass & tie points dan TPP 7/30/16 09:24:20 AM pada yg berada satuAero-Triangulation model. Contoh. Contoh. koordi-nat model titik A. C.Titik Model / TM (stokastik) :  pass & tie points yg berada pada mini-mal dua model.

(2 persamaan awal)  1 persamaan untuk TKTVertikal Z . 1. SHM 138 .(stokastik) 1.  2 persamaan untuk TKTHorizontal XY.    Y      0 0 1  Z i  Z i  vZ  i dengan i  nomortitik.Persamaan pengamatan :  X  vX   1 0 0  X  0 1 0  Y    Y    v  .Matriks kovariansi :   X2   ii    XY  0   3 persamaan untuk TKTPenuh XYZ.Titik Kontrol Tanah( X / i TKT .Zi 1.   (1 0persamaan XY 2 Y  0  0  Z2  i Matriks kovariansi yang berbeda untuk setiap TKT dapat dilakukan.Persamaan Pengamatan & Matriks Kovariansi (1) .Zi )Xi . 7/30/16 09:24:20 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). terakhir).Yi .Yi .1.2.

yij . zij).Persamaan Pengamatan & Matriks Kovariansi (2) 2. SHM ij 139 .Persamaan pengamatan :   x0  y 0    z0 0 z0  y0  X0   z0 y0 1 0 0  1 0 0  X   0  x0 0 1 0 pj   0 1 0  Y    Y0   0 0 1  Z i  Z0  x0 0 0 0 1 ij dengan pTj  s     vX0      vY0  .danj  nomormodel.(stokastik) 2. 2.  vZ   0  ij ij TX TY TZ  j .Matriks kovariansi : (pada skala medan)   X20  X0Y0 0    2  ( ij)(ij )    X0Y0  Y0 0 2   0 0  Z0   7/30/16 09:24:20 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).2.1.Titik Model (xij .

1.danj  nomormodel.Persamaan Pengamatan & Matriks Kovariansi (3) PC ( xijPC .2. ij 3. zij) .z(x 3.Matriks kovariansi : (pada skala medan)    7/30/16 09:24:20 AM PC ( ij )(ij )  2 X0    X0Y0  0   X0Y0 0   2  Y0 0 0  Z20  Aero-Triangulation (2A).(stokastik) 3. yij .Titik Pusat Proyeksi ij )ij .yijPC .   ij  1 0 0  X pj   0 1 0  Y   0 0 1  Z PC PC PC i  X0      Y0   Z0    ij  vX0      vY0   vZ   0 PC . SHM PC ij 140 .Persamaan pengamatan : 0  z0 y0 1 0 0   x0  y  z 0  x 0 1 0 0 0 0     z0  y0 x0 0 0 0 1 dengan pTj  s  TX TY TZ  j .

O8  Tidak digunakan dalam perataan. F) : 18 x 3 = 54  Jumlah Aero-Triangulation (2A). O3 . C. SHM anu : u141 = 42 + 12 + . 11. 6. 18. B. 9. 8. 10. 20  O1 . 7/30/16 09:24:21 AM Anu :  Parameter : 6 model @ 7 par. O4 . D. O5 . E. 12. 19. O6 . 7. A. 15. = 42  Koordinat tanah pusat proyeksi (O2 . 2. 17. O7) : 4 x 3 = 12  Koordinat tanah titik model (3. 5. 13. 16.Contoh Perataan Titik Tunggal : IMT M-7 (1)  1. 4. 14.

12. C. 9. 13. B. 10. 13. O2) : 7 x 3 = 21  Model 2-3 (6. B. 10. F. B. 8. 11. 13. O7) = 7 x 3 = 21  Jumlah persamaan : n = 18 + 4 x 21 + 2 x 24 = 150 Redundansi : r = n – u = 150 – 108 = 42 7/30/16 09:24:21 AM Persamaan pengamatan Aero-Triangulationtotal (2A). D.pengamatan :  Titik kontrol tanah (A. 8. 14. 18. O6 . 8. F) : 6 x Contoh 3 = 18 Perataan IMT M-7 (2)  Model 1-2 (3. 15. 7. O2. O6) : 7 x 3 = 21  Model 6-7 (8.O7) = 8 x 3 = 24  Model 7-8 (13. E. 7. 14. SHM : 142 . 18. 6. C. 15. 9. D. E. E. O3) : 8 x 3 = 24  Model 3-4 (11. A. 12. O3) : 7 x 3 = 21  Model 5-6 (3.

SHM 143 . Σ(72x72) 7/30/16 09:24:21 AM  Titik kontrol tanah : 4 x 3 = 12  Model 01 : 5 x 3 = 15  Model 02 : 5 x 3 = 15  Model 03 : 5 x 3 = 15  Model 04 : 5 x 3 = 15  Jumlah persamaan : n = 12 + 15 + 15 + 15 +15 = 72 Aero-Triangulation (2A).Contoh Perataan IMT M-7 (3) Anu :  Parameter : 4 model @ 7 par. = 28  Koordinat tanah pusat proyeksi : 2 x 3 =6  Koordinat tanah titik model : 9 x 3 = 27  Jumlah anu : u = 28 + 6 + 27 = 61 Persamaan pengamatan : Redundansi : r = n – u = 72 – 61 = 11 Persamaan pengamatan total : A(72x61)X(61x1) = F(72x1) + v(72x1) .

 Tahap II : Pemecahan anu koordinat dengan transformasi koordinat. Solusi dilakukan secara bertahap. storage. software AT umumnya tidak memecahkan anu parameter dan koordinat secara simultan. kemudian hasilnya dirataratakan. 7/30/16 09:24:22 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).Strategi Pemecahan Anu dalam Software AT Dalam praktik. SHM 144 . dan waktu. Solusi ini akan sangat menghemat memori. yaitu :  Tahap I : Pemecahan anu parameter dari persamaan normal yang direduksi dalam (RNE) parameter.

and off-diagonal submatrices it is essential to know : • the frequency of each tie point. it is very essential to know the type of each point : control – tie point – single point. SHM 145 . also • the inter-relation between the models. The Table is also used in Preparation of sequence of models for adjustment purposes (automatic bandwidth minimization) 7/30/16 09:24:22 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).Inter-relation Frequency Table For the direct generation of the RNE.  In order to generate the main.

Example of Inter-relation Frequency Table Pt. Pt. SHM 146 . No. Typ e Models in which it appears O1 PC 1-2 1 O2 PC 1-2 2-3 2 6 TP 1-2 2-3 2 8 TP 1-2 2-3 5-6 6-7 4 1 SP 1-2 1 2 SP 1-2 1 A HV 1-2 1 B HV 1-2 5-6 2 … … … … … … 7/30/16 09:24:22 AM f Aero-Triangulation (2A).

SHM adjustment purposes) 147 .105 ~ 252105 tB ~ 352. the ficient matrix RNE is “banded”.105 ~ 128625 tA ≈ 2 tB In order to reduce memory requirements and to reduce the computation time the numbering of the models (for 7/30/16 09:24:22 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). parallel 20 % coefof the usually Computation time : (M-7) tA ~ b2.n ~ 492.Structure of RNE Coefficient Matrix In blocks of strips with sidelap.

X. δTY . δΩ.. TP. Y .Ground Control Data: a.. model control points. Y Z. δTZ ) Aero-Triangulation (2A). HV) 3.Projecti onCenters : Pt.X.No. δTX .. b. GCPs) (Exclude : single points) Solve RNE  7 parameters per model : (δs. xPC . Z b.y.ModelNumber : Mdl.No. x . zPC c. X .y. .ModelCoordinate s: Pt.Vertical Control : Pt..Y . x.Number ofIteration : Max Preparation of Inter-relation Frequency Table : 1.Photogra mmetric Data: a. z 2.Point Number 2.z .Locations (in which models) 4.Y c. X . y .. x. Z 1 3.No.No. VE.No.z .Blok Diagram IMT M-7 (1) INPUT : 1.Horizont alControl : Pt.Frequency f (in how many models) Preparation of sequence of models for adjustment purposes (automatic bandwidth minimization) 7/30/16 09:24:22 AM Generate RNE in unknown parameters : N’Δp = t’ (Use : tie points.FullControl Initial approximation values for unknown parame-ters of 3-D similarity transformation (7 per model)    Updating modelcoordinate s: x  sMT x  T (allpoints) : Pt. δΦ. HO.Z .Type (PC. SP. yPC . SHM a 148 .No. δΚ.

vZ). Z) of PCs. 2. 7/30/16 09:24:22 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). vY .σY .Blok Diagram IMT M-7 (2) a 1 Improvemen t of approximat e values :    s  s(1 s). Y. σY .”Relative” discrepancies at tie points & PCs.σZ .σX 1. (vX . Z ) (minorcontrolpoints).T  T  T    Updating modelcoordinate s: x  sMT x  T (allpoints) N o (next iteration) Iter = Max Ye s Compute : 1.”Mean” coordinates (X. σZCoordinate . SHM 11/12/2010149 .MT  MTMT .Relative andabsolute discrepanc ies. s(X. σ0. Y. 3. 4.”Mean” coordinates (X. 2. Z) of tie points. Y.OUTPUT : 5.”Absolute” discrepancies at control points.Adjusted .Standard Deviation σX . 3.

11/19/2010 Catatan tentang IMT M-7 (1) M-7 ini tidak dipakai secara meluas. (4n) + (3l)2. SHM t(M-43) ~ {(4l)2. t(M-7) ~ (7l)2.l n = . karena dalam praktek orang lebih suka memilih versi M-43 yang melakukan iterasi bertahap perataan horizontal dan vertikal.l2n = 343 l2n 7/30/16 09:24:23 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). (3n)} 150 3 3 2 ~ (4 +3 ). yang mengaplikasikan 4 dan 3 parameter transformasi secara bergilir.  Pilihan ini dilakukan karena ekonomi komputasi • Waktu komputasi sekitar tiga kali lebih cepat. (7n) ~ 73.

Catatan tentang IMT M-7 (2) Harga pendekatan parameter : awal untuk anu  Anu yang paling kritis adalah sj . Ωj .  Umumnya Ωj dan Φj = 0.  Salah satu kekurangan utama M-7 adalah perlunya memiliki harga pendekatan awal yang baik agar solusi kuadrat terkecil mungkin dila-kukan 7/30/16 09:24:23 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). Κj. sedangkan skala sj dan Κj dapat memiliki harga yang besar. Φj . SHM 151 .

SHM 152 .Independent Model Triangulation M-43 7/30/16 09:24:23 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

The height adjustment (M-3) incorporated the two leveling rotations. This divided the seven-parameter absolute orientation into two separate solutions.Dr. and the X. and  a three-parameter height adjustment (M-3). .  a four-parameter planimetric adjustment (M-4).Principles of IMT M-43 (1) One of the most successful was the implementation in PAT-M-43. The planimetric adjustment (M-4) incorporated the scale factor.Ackermann). developed at the University of Stuttgart (Prof. the  rotation around the Z-axis. SHM 153 translation. and the Z7/30/16 09:24:23 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).  and .and Y-translations.

M-4 Model Connection (7 parameters) Principles of IMT M-43 (2) 7/30/16 09:24:23 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM M-3 154 .

SHM 155 . 7/30/16 09:24:24 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). The two adjustments must therefore be repeated alternately (43-43-43. since  the planimetric adjustment assumes that the model is level. and  the height adjustment assumes that the points are properly positioned planimetrically.…) until the corrections to the point coordinates are negligible. only a few iterations are typically required. Since the conditions are usually close to being met at the start of the procedure and the solution is nearly linear.Principles of IMT M-43 (3) These two adjustments are not independent.

Prosedur Hitungan IMT M-43 1. Penegakan Analitis (Analitycal Levelling) 7. SHM 156 . Data Input Organisasi / Administrasi Data Perataan M-4 Penyekalaan Analitis (Analytical Scaling) 5. 3. Pengolahan Hasil Akhir 7/30/16 09:24:24 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). 2. Perataan M-3 6. 4.

YTKT 1.Yi i) . i  nomortitik. 7/30/16 09:24:24 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).2. SHM 157 .Persamaan pengamatan :  X  vX   1 0  X  0 1  Y    Y    v  .Titik Kontrol Tanah Xi .Matriks kovariansi :  ho ii   X2    XY  XY    Y2  i Matriks kovariansi yang berbeda untuk setiap TKT dapat dila-kukan.1.(stokastik) 1.Persamaan Pengamatan IMT M4 (1) ( Xi/.     i   i  Y i 1.

zij). SHM ij 158 .Persamaan Pengamatan IMT M4 (2) 2. yij .Matriks kovariansi : (pada skala medan)  (ho ij )(ij ) 7/30/16 09:24:24 AM   X2  XY   2      Y  XY Aero-Triangulation (2A). j  nomormodel   ij X     i    Y  ij    TY  j 2.1.2.Persamaan pengamatan :  a     x y 1 0   b  1 0  X  0  vX      y  x 0  1  T   0 1  Y   0   v  .Titik Model (xij .(stokastik) 2.

SHM 159 . 7/30/16 09:24:24 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). • Tidak memerlukan iterasi. perataan horizontal dapat diaplikasikan sendiri (tanpa perataan vertikal).Persamaan Pengamatan IMT M4 (3) Persamaan IMT M-4 adalah linier dalam anuanunya :  Tidak perlu linierisasi  Tidak perlu harga pendekatan awal  Jika model telah ditegakkan sebelumnya sampai tingkat yang mencukupi.

SHM 160 . level) 7/30/16 09:24:24 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). Residu-x dan –y pada pusat proyeksi dapat sangat besar dan sangat berbeda dibandingkan dengan residu pada titik model karena perbeda-an  dan Φ dari model-model yang bersebelah Resiko dari asumsi perataan M-4 (the model is an.Pusat Proyeksi pada IMT M-4 Pusat proyeksi dr model tdk disertakan dlm perataan horizon-tal. karena pengaruhnya yg mengganggu ketelitian planimetrik.

19. 10. Anu :  Parameter : 6 model @ 4 par. 5. 18. 2.Contoh Perataan IMT M-4 (1) Tidak Digunakan dalam Perataan :  Titik Tunggal : 1. 11. 6. 12. F) : 18 x 2 = 36  Jumlah anu : u = 24 + 36 = 60 7/30/16 09:24:24 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 161 . E. = 24  Koordinat tanah titik model (3. 17. B. 16. 8. 9. 15. 4. A. D. 7. 13. 20  Pusat Proyeksi : O1 s/d O8. 14. C.

E. 13. D. F) : 6 x 2 = 12  Model 1-2 (3. 12. E) : 6 x 2 = 12  Model 5-6 (3. 14. dengan matriks kovariansi Aero-Triangulation (84x60) (2A). B. 12. 18. 9. 9.Persamaan Contoh Perataan IMT M-4 (2) pengamatan :  Titik kontrol tanah (A. B) : 6 x 2 = 12  Model 2-3 (6. 6. B. 10. 15. 15) = 6 x 2 = 12  Model 7-8 (13. C) : 6 x 2 = 12  Model 6-7 (8. E. 8. 10. 13. SHM(60x1) . 8. 13) : 6 x 2 = 12  Model 3-4 (11. 8. 7. 18. 7. F) = 6 x 2 = 12  Jumlah persamaan : n = 7 x 12 = 84 Redundansi : r = n – u = 84 – 60 = 24 Persamaan pengamatan total : 7/30/16 09:24:24 AM  A X = F162 (84x1) + v(84x1) . 11. 14. D. C. A.

Σ(40x40) 7/30/16 09:24:25 AM  Titik kontrol tanah : 4 x 2 = 8  Model 01 : 4 x 2 = 8  Model 02 : 4 x 2 = 8  Model 03 : 4 x 2 = 8  Model 04 : 4 x 2 = 8  Jumlah persamaan : n = 5 x 8 = 40 Aero-Triangulation (2A). = 16  Koordinat tanah titik model : 9 x 2 = 18  Jumlah anu : u = 16 + 18 = 34 Persamaan pengamatan : Redundansi : r = n – u = 40 – 34 = 6 Persamaan pengamatan total : A(40x34)X(34x1) = F(40x1) + v(40x1) . SHM 163 .Contoh Perataan IMT M-4 (3) Anu :  Parameter : 4 model @ 4 par.

= 16  Koordinat tanah titik model : 9 x 2 = 18  Jumlah anu : u = 16 + 18 = 34 Persamaan pengamatan : Redundansi : r = n – u = 40 – 34 = 6 Persamaan pengamatan total : A(40x34)X(34x1) = F(40x1) + v(40x1) . Σ(40x40) 7/30/16 09:24:25 AM  Titik kontrol tanah : 4 x 2 = 8  Model 01 : 4 x 2 = 8  Model 02 : 4 x 2 = 8  Model 03 : 4 x 2 = 8  Model 04 : 4 x 2 = 8  Jumlah persamaan : n = 5 x 8 = 40 Aero-Triangulation (2A).Contoh Perataan IMT M-4 (4) Anu : 0 1 0 3 0 2 0 4  Parameter : 4 model @ 4 par. SHM 164 .

 Ini sangat penting untuk menghindari defor-masi model.  Koreksi yang paling signifikan untuk skala ada-lah pada pusat proyeksi. TY)j didapat. 4 parameter transformasi per model (a. :  x  a b  y   b a     z ij  0 0   x  TX  0   y   TY  a2  b2  j  z ij  0  0 j Perhatikan bahwa tinggi juga dikoreksi dengan skala. b.Penyekalaan Analitis Setelah perataan horizontal. TX . Seluruh titik dalam setiap model ditransformasi dengan mengguna-kan persamaan 3-dimensi sbb. 7/30/16 09:24:26 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 165 .

Titik Kontrol Tanah /(TKT Zi ) Zi .2. 7/30/16 09:24:26 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).(stokastik) 1.1. 1. SHM 166 . zij yang didapat dari perataan horizontal. yij .Matriks kovariansi :  iive   Z2 i Matriks kovariansi yang berbeda untuk setiap TKT dapat dila-kukan.Persamaan pengamatan : 1 Z i   Z i  vZ  i . 1. i  nomortitik.Persamaan Pengamatan IMT M3 (1) Perataan tinggi dimulai dengan menggunakan koordinat xij .

Matriks kovariansi : (pada skala medan) 2   (ve   z  ij ij )(ij ) 7/30/16 09:24:26 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).1. zij). j  nomormodel  TZ  j 2.Persamaan Pengamatan IMT M3 (2) 2.Titik Model (xij . SHM 167 .2.(stokastik) 2. yij .Persamaan pengamatan :     y x  1 ij      Z i   z ij  vZ ij .

SHM 168 .Matriks kovariansi : (pada skala medan) untuk penentuan  .Titik Pusat Proyeksi ij )ij .2.z(x 3. ij Pusat proyeksi sangat penting 3. Aero-Triangulation (2A). zij) .(stokastik) 3.1.Persamaan pengamatan :  0 z 0   z  0 0     y x  1 PC ij        TZ   1 0 0   0 1 0  0 0 1 j  X  Y    Z  PC i  x   y   z  PC ij  vx    v y   v z  PC . yij .Persamaan Pengamatan IMT M3 (3) PC ( xijPC .yijPC .   2 x   (PC  ij )(ij )   xy  0  7/30/16 09:24:26 AM  xy 0    y2 0  0  z2  PC ij Untuk membedakan antara titik ikat (model) dengan pu-sat proyeksi. j  nomor model. pusat proyeksi diberi nomor/angka kode yg khusus dan/atau ditempatkan sebagai dua titik pertama da-lam setiap daftar koordinat model.

= 18  Koordinat tanah pusat proyeksi (O2 . 17. 15. 6. B. 8. A. 11. O4 . 7. F) : 18 x 1 = 18  Jumlah Aero-Triangulation (2A). 5. 7/30/16 09:24:27 AM Anu :  Parameter : 6 model @ 3 par. 4. O7) : 4 x 3 = 12  Koordinat tanah titik model (3. O3 . 9. 10. C. 12. O8  Tidak digunakan dalam perataan. D.Contoh Perataan Titik Tunggal : IMT M-3 (1)  TM : 1. E. 16. 14. SHM anu : u169 = 18 + 12 + . 13. 2. 20  PC : O1 . 19. O6 . O5 . 18.

B. 7. O2) : 6 x1 + 1x3=9  Model 2-3 (6. 10. 15. D. 8. 12. D. 7. A. B.O7) : 6 x 1 + 2 x 3 = 12  Model 7-8 (13. C. 6. M-3 E. 13. 8. F) : (2) 6x Perataan 1=6  Model 1-2 (3. O3) : 6 x 1 + 2 x 3 = 12  Model 3-4 (11. O7) : 6 x1+1x3=9  Jumlah persamaan : n = 6 + 4 x 9 + 2 x 12 = 66 Redundansi : r = n – u = 66 – 48 = 18 7/30/16 09:24:27 AM Persamaan pengamatan total : Aero-Triangulation (2A). 12. E. O6) : 6 x 1 + 1x3=9  Model 6-7 (8. O3) : 6 x1 + 1 x 3 = 9  Model 5-6 (3. 18. O6 . SHM 170  A X =F +v . 18. B. E. . 8. 14. F. 13. 9.IMT C. 10. 9. O2. 13. 14. 11.Persamaan pengamatan : Contoh Titik kontrol tanah (A. 15.

Contoh Perataan IMT M-3 (3) Anu :  Parameter : 4 model @ 3 par. SHM 171 . Σ(32x32) 7/30/16 09:24:27 AM  Titik kontrol tanah : 4 x 1 = 4  Model 01 : 4 x 1 + 1 x 3 = 7  Model 02 : 4 x 1 + 1 x 3 = 7  Model 03 : 4 x 1 + 1 x 3 = 7  Model 04 : 4 x 1 + 1 x 3 = 7  Jumlah persamaan : n = 4 + 4 x 7 = 32 Aero-Triangulation (2A). = 12  Koordinat tanah pusat proyeksi : 2 x 3 =6  Koordinat tanah titik model : 9 x 1 = 9  Jumlah anu : u = 12 + 6 + 9 = 27 Persamaan pengamatan : Redundansi : r = n – u = 32 – 27 = 5 Persamaan pengamatan total : A(32x27)X(27x1) = F(32x1) + v(32x1) .

= 12  Koordinat tanah pusat proyeksi : 2 x 3 =6  Koordinat tanah titik model : 9 x 1 = 9  Jumlah anu : u = 12 + 6 + 9 = 27 Persamaan pengamatan : 0 4 Redundansi : r = n – u = 32 – 27 = 5 Persamaan pengamatan total : A(32x27)X(27x1) = F(32x1) + v(32x1) . SHM 172 .Contoh Perataan IMT M-3 (4) 0 1 0 2 Anu : 0 3  Parameter : 4 model @ 3 par. Σ(32x32) 7/30/16 09:24:28 AM  Titik kontrol tanah : 4 x 1 = 4  Model 01 : 4 x 1 + 1 x 3 = 7  Model 02 : 4 x 1 + 1 x 3 = 7  Model 03 : 4 x 1 + 1 x 3 = 7  Model 04 : 4 x 1 + 1 x 3 = 7  Jumlah persamaan : n = 4 + 4 x 7 = 32 Aero-Triangulation (2A).

Dengan menggunakan Ωj dan Φj . SHM cos cos  j  z 173 ij  TZ  j . yaitu Ωj .  0 meng-gunakan transformasi 3-dimensi  y  M T   y   0    sin sin   y   0  cos   sin  cos  :  . Seluruh titik dalam setiap model ditransformasi cos  0 sin  xdengan   x  0    x sbb. TZj . akan didapat 3 parameter per mo-del. suatu matriks rotasi 3-dimen-si MΩ.ΦT dibentuk untuk setiap model. Φj . j              z ij  z 7/30/16 09:24:28 AM ij  TZ  j   cos sin sin Aero-Triangulation (2A).Penegakkan Analitis (1) Setelah pembentukan dan pemecahan persamaan normal yang direduksi (RNE) untuk tinggi.

SHM 174 . 7/30/16 09:24:28 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). Koordinat hasil transformasi digunakan untuk iterasi berikutnya (M-4). karena itu disebut juga sebagai koreksi topografik karena Φ dan Ω.Penegakkan Analitis (2) Transformasi ini akan mengoreksi koordinat-x dan – y.

017 0.99 0.002 M-3 Aero-Triangulation (2A).Iterasi M-43 Perataan M-43 selalu dimulai dengan perataan horizontal M-4. karena … Urutan perataan M-4 dan M-3 konvergensi yang diinginkan tercapai.016 0.00 1.006 .005 210 16. M-4 ∆Xmaks (m) 31 856 ∆Ymaks (m) 18 031 7/30/16 09:24:28 AM ∆Zmaks (m) 2 (M-43) 3 (M-43) M-4 M-3 M-4 M-3 142 15. Iterasi 1 (M-43) Residu Maks. ∆Y. SHM 5 120 4.34 0.43 2.83 4.02 175 0.023 0.000. diulangi sampai  Umumnya tiga kali iterasi (43-43-43) diperlukan Contoh : peningkatan perbaikan residu ∆X. ∆Z dalam suatu blok yang terdiri dari 200 model dengan skala foto 1 : 28.

σY . SHM 176 .Pengolahan Hasil Akhir Selanjutnya harga akhir untuk anu koordinat medan dihitung dengan merata-ratakan koordinat titik yang sekawan hasil trans-formasi yang berada di beberapa model. Dihitung pula residu pada :  titik model dan pusat proyeksi (residu relatif). dan  titik kontrol (residu absolut). beserta simpangan bakunya :  σX . σho = √(σX2 + σY2)  σZ 7/30/16 09:24:29 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

 Y . Z 3.No. Locations.Horizont alControl : Pt.No.Vertical Control : Pt. x.No.Number ofIteration : Max Preparation of sequence of models for adjustment purposes (automatic bandwidth minimization) Store control in two lists : 1..No.ModelCoordinate s: Pt.. yPC . Z . .  Y 2.No. X ..No. Y . Y Z..Projecti onCenters : Pt.Ground Control Data: a.X.. xPC .y.Vertical Control : Pt.Y c.y. b.Blok Diagram IMT M-43 (1) INPUT : 1. y .  Z 7/30/16 09:24:29 AM Preparation of Inter-relation Frequency Table (Point Number.Horizontal Control : Pt.Y .z . X .X. z 2. Z b. X . SHM a 177 ..Z . x.FullControl : Pt. Type.ModelNumber : Mdl.  X .z . Frequency ) Data Organization / Administration Aero-Triangulation (2A). x .Photogra mmetric Data: a.No.. zPC c.No.

b.ΦT. Transform each  model x   0  using  x  y   M :T  y    0   . TX . Ho-CPs) (Exclude : single points. VeCPs) (Exclude : single points) Solve RNE-(Z)  3 parameters per model : (Ω.Blok Diagram IMT M-43 (2) a Generate RNE-(X. Φ. SHM M-3 178 .        z   z   TZ  b M-4 7/30/16 09:24:29 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). Y)  4 parameters per model : (a. projection centers) Solve RNE-(X. PCs. TZ) Construct orthogonal matrix MΩ. Y) : Nho’pho = tho’ (Use : model points. TY ) Transform each model using0 : x T x a b     y   b     z  0 a 0     X   y   T  0     Y 2 2 (a  b   z  0  Generate RNE-(Z) : Nve’pve = tve’ (Use : model points.

Y.”Mean” coordinates (X. vY .σZ . 5.”Absolute” discrepancies at control points. σ0. 2.Relative andabsolute discrepanc ies. Z ) (minorcontrolpoints). Y.”Relative” discrepancies at tie points & PCs.σX . Z) of PCs. 3. σZ .Blok Diagram IMT M-43 (3) a N o (next iteration) b Iter = Max Ye s Compute : 1. 2. Y. 3. OUTPUT : 1. 4. SHM 179 .”Mean” coordinates (X.Standard Deviation σX . Z) of tie points. σY . (vX .σY . vZ). 7/30/16 09:24:29 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).Adjusted Coordinate s(X.

    Principles of Bundle Block Adjustment Initial Approximations for the Bundle Block Adjustment Persamaan Pengamatan Perataan Blok Berkas Contoh Perataan Blok Berkas BUNDLE BLOCK ADJUSTMENT 7/30/16 09:24:29 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 180 .

g. (e. PATB-SC)  High-quality navigational data from GPS receivers can be rigorously included to reduce control requirements dramatically..g.. Numerous extensions of the basic method have increased both flexibility and accuracy.g.  The accuracy levels attainable in AT allow its use for geodetic control extension.PATB)  The addition of self-calibration parameters corrects for remaining systematic errors and increases the overall accuracy of the adjustment. precision of 1 : 500. SHM 181 ..000 of the largest dimension of the measured object. (e. (e.Principles of Bundle Block Adjustment (1) Bundle block adjustment is the most accurate and flexible method of aerotriangulation. PATB-GPS) 7/30/16 09:24:29 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).  In close-range applications.

 The observations are the image coordinates measurements.Principles of Bundle Block Adjustment (2) Bundle block adjustment is based on the collinearity equations : For the least squares adjustment. 7/30/16 09:24:29 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 182 . with residual vij. the collinearity equations are linearized in the form Bp(ij) ∆p(j) + Bc(ij) ∆c(i) = fij + vij  The unknowns are the six exterior orientation parameters of the i-mage (the elements of ∆p(j) ) and the three object space coordinates of the point (elements of ∆c(i) ).

and solving the normal equations are particularly important. storing.Principles of Bundle Block Adjustment (3) Bundle adjustment is most often implemented using unified least squares. efficient algorithms for forming. 7/30/16 09:24:30 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). Since bundle block adjustment involves more unknowns than other triangulation methods. SHM 183 . which allows the assignment of realistic standard deviations to each point’s object space coordinates (ground control as observations).

 The ground coordinate residuals from this step provide a check on the ground control coordinates as well as point identification. SHM 184 . Next. relative  The photo coordinate residuals should be inspected as an initial check on the measurements.  The model coordinate residuals from this step can also provide a quality check on the photo coordinate measurements and point identification.Initial Approximations for the Ground Coordinates and Gross Errors Data Cleaning (1) The first step is to perform analytical orientation for each stereopair in the block. Each strip is individually adjusted to ground control points located within each strip. 7/30/16 09:24:30 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). the relatively oriented models are connected to form strips.

Initial Approximations for the GroundCheck on Image Coordinates the s and Gross Errors Data Cleaning (2)Measureme (Phot nts os) and Point Data Acquisition (Mensuratio n) Strip Coord. System α GCP Coordina tes Identificatio n No β Approxi mate Ground Coordina tes Yes OK ? Yes Strip Adjustm ent No α Check on the Identificatio n of Tie Points between Strips Ground Coord. System Inner Orientation & Image Refinement Photo Coord. System Check on the GCP Coordinates and Point Identificatio n Aero-Triangulation (2A). System Relative Orientati on 7/30/16 09:24:30 AM Strip Formati on α Yes No OK ? Check on the Measureme nts Model Coord. System α Image Coord. SHM OK ? α No Yes OK ? β No 185 .

 The resulting ground coordinates can be used as initial approximations for the bundle adjustments. 7/30/16 09:24:30 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).Initial Approximations for the Ground Coordinates and Gross Errors Data Cleaning (3) An additional check can be performed to validate the identification of tie points between strips. SHM 186 . their coordinates as determined in adjacent strips should agree within a small tolerance.  If the identification of tie points is consistent.

YL . their object space coordinates (XL . zeros can be used as approximations for ω and φ. ZL) will be available after the final adjustment to ground control. which contains a compatible κ angle. SHM 187 .  Perspective centers.Initial Approximations for the Exterior Orientation Parameters Approximations for the exterior orientation parameters can be obtained directly from the strip adjustment if the adjustment is performed using 3-D similarity coordinate transformation.  Approximations for κ can be obtained directly from the final 3-D similarity coordinate transformation to ground control.  Assuming vertical photography. 7/30/16 09:24:30 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A).

2. (2 persamaan awal) dengan i  nomor titik.Matriks kovariansi  1 persamaan untuk TKT: (pada skala tanah) Vertikal Z .(stokastik) 1.Titik Kontrol Tanah( X / i TKT .   2  (1 0persamaan   X  ii    XY  0  XY 2 Y  0  0  Z2  i Matriks kovariansi yang berbeda untuk setiap TKT dapat dilakukan.Zi )Xi .Persamaan Pengamatan Perataan Blok Berkas (1) .    Y    2 persamaan untuk TKT vZ   dZ  i  Z  Z 0  i i Horizontal XY.Yi . 7/30/16 09:24:30 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). terakhir).Zi 1. SHM 188 .Persamaan pengamatan :  3 persamaan untuk TKT X  X 0  vX   dX  Penuh XYZ.  1 0 0  0 1 0    0 0 1 1.  dY    Y  Y 0    v  .1.Yi .

2. dengan j  nomor foto.  vy  ij dZ L  j .Persamaan Pengamatan Perataan Blok Berkas (2) 2.1. 2. 7/30/16 09:24:31 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM 189 . yij).Titik Citra (xij .(stokastik) 2.Matriks kovariansi : (pada skala foto)  ( ij )( ij )   x2  xy   2   xy  y  ij ge coordinate covariance matrix showing 2 x 2 diagonal structure.Persamaan pengamatan :  b14  b24  b15  b25  b16   b14  p  j b  b26  ij  24 pTj   d d d dX L dYL  b11 b12 b  21 b22 b13 b23 b15 b25  dX  b16     J dY  K  b26  ij   dZ  i   ij  vx    .

SHM 190 .Persamaan Pengamatan Perataan Blok Berkas (3) 3. Persamaan pengamatan total :  BP  0  BC   P   f   v  (persamaan untuk titik citra)      '   BC   C   f '  v ' (persamaan untuk TKT) Matriks kovariansi total :   ( ij )( ij )  0  7/30/16 09:24:31 AM kovariansi untuk titik citra) 0 (matriks   kovariansi untuk TKT)  ii(matriks  Aero-Triangulation (2A).

Contoh Perataan Blok Berkas (1) (a) Block of two strips with four photos per strip in overlapped position. SHM 191  Jumlah anu : u = . 7/30/16 09:24:31 AM Anu :  Parameter : 8 foto @ 6 parameter = 48 (∆p)  Koordinat tanah pass & tie points (1 s/d 20) : 20 x 3 = 60  Koordinat tanah titik kontrol foto (A s/d F) : 6 x 3 = 18 Aero-Triangulation (2A).

Persamaan pengamatan :  Titik kontrol tanah (A s/d F) : 6 x 3 = 18  Foto-1 : 8 x 2 = 16  Foto-2 : 11 x 2 = 22  Foto-3 : 11 x 2 = 22  Foto-4 : 8 x 2 = 16  Foto-5 : 8 x 2 = 16  Foto-6 : 11 x 2 = 22  Foto-7 : 11 x 2 = 22  Foto-8 : 8 x 2 = 16  Jumlah persamaan pengamatan : n = 18 + (4 x 16) + (4 x 22) = 170 Redundansi : r = n – u = 170 – 126 = 44 Persamaan pengamatan : B(170x126) ∆(126x1) = f(170x1) + 7/30/16 09:24:31 AM Aero-Triangulation (2A). SHM v (170x1) . Σ(170x170) 192 .Contoh Perataan Blok Berkas (2) (b) Separated photos showing image points.

Materi kuliah GD4103 Fotogrametri II. saptomo@gd. Ir..Sc. M.id KK Inderaja & Sains Informasi Geografis Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung .ac.itb. Semester II2012/2013 To be continued to Chapter 2B Aero-Triangulation (AT) Compiled & developed by Saptomo H Mertotaroeno.