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CAUSE-efFECT ESSAY

by:
Shud
Mimi
Nana
Neeta
Tantan

INTRODUCTION
• The cause/effect essay explains why or how some
event happened, and what resulted from the event.
• A cause essay usually discusses the reasons why
something happened
• An effect essay discusses what happens after a
specific event or circumstances
e.g. : A cause/effect essay may explain..
▫ Why a volcano errupts , and what happens afterwards

• Cause = reason
• Effect = the result

FORMAT PATTERN

FORMAT PATTERN 1

INTRODUCTION
Cause 1
Cause 1
Cause 1

TRANSITION
Effect 1
Effect 2
Effect 3

CONCLUSION

FORMAT PATTERN 2

INTRODUCTION
Causes

TRANSITION
Effect 1
Effect 2
Effect 3

CONCLUSION

FORMAT PATTERN 3
INTRODUCTION
Cause 1
Cause 2
Cause 3
TRANSITION
Effects
CONCLUSION

FORMAT PATTERN 4

INTRODUCTION
Cause 1

Cause 2
Cause 3

CONCLUSION

FORMAT PATTERN 5

INTRODUCTION

Effect 1

Effect

Effect 3

CONCLUSION

LANGUAGE EXPRESSIONS
FUNCTIONS

LANGUAGE EXPRESSIONS

to indicate causes

•due to
•as a result of
•result from
•the consequences

•because of
•Since
•one cause is

to indicate effects

•consequently
•for this reason
•hence
•therefore
•thus

•eventually
•the causes of
•thereby

FORMAT PATTERN 3
INTRODUCTION
Cause 1
Cause 2
Cause 3
TRANSITION
Effects
CONCLUSION

GENERAL STRUCTURE OF BODY PARAGRAPH
Topic sentence – 1 sentence
Explanation ( causes/effects) – 4/5 sentence
Example – 1 sentence
Concluding sentence – 1 sentence

EXAMPLE 1

The advertising media has also greatly impacted the way
society percieves gender role and behaviour. It has brought
about gender stereotyping on how men and women are
depicted. Men are potrayed to be stronger and are expected
to act macho and be aggressive, while women are perceived
as the weaker half of the society and are expected to be
gentle. Individuals who do not meet this criteria would be
classified as social misfits. Courtney and Lockeretz’s
analysis of magazine advertising in 1971 indicated that over
the years women have been potryed as domestic providers
who do not make significant decisions, as they are
dependant on men. They are also viewed as decorations.
For example, car manufacturers use women in skimpy
clothing in their advertisemnets to advertise their cars,
instead of focussing on the features of those car. These are
some of the roles that the media has given to women.

Another area where the advertising media has
impacted society is in its values. The ability of
the mass media to influence social ethnics
remains of the most worrying influence as some
of the media are way beyond to reach of the
ordinary people. Andy Warhol, a media
publicist, was quoted saying, “it’s the movies that
have really been running things in America ever
since there were invented. They show you what
to do, how to do it, when to do it, how to feel
about it and how to look when you feel about it.”

• Indeed, it becomes a cause for concern when normal
individual in society try to adopt this value and imitate
the lifestyles of the reach and famous. This lead to
rather serious social dilemmas like substance abuse,
promiscuity and recklessness. Other than that, the
advertising media has frequently used questionable
slogans in their campaigns. For instance, the
Bleachman campaign in 1988 by the AIDS Foundation,
that attempted to launch a major AIDS Education and
prevention campaign for intravenous drug user, was
advertised carrying a slogan that implied it was all right
to use drugs as long as one had clean needles. The entire
social stigma resulting from drug abuse was lost in this
advertisement. Intstead, attention was focussed on the
idea of cleanliness in the process of taking drugs.

EXAMPLE 2

• One of the causes of watching tv is to release
stress. Stress can be defined as the mental
pressure worry caused by the problems in life.
Every individual will experience stress in one or
the other time. When people are stressed, they
prefer to watch tv as it can help in releasing
stress. These tv addicts assume the tv as another
form of stress reliever besides eating. As an
example, most boys watch football when they are
stressed. Therefore, stress is one of the causes
that people tend to watch tv.

• In this millennia, people do not realise that
watching tv excessively can lead to harm
especially in health. With the invention of
modern tv’s which involve bright colour and
usage of variety of special effect in the movies
broadcasted. For example, all the intermittent
flashes of light capable of causing serious
damage to the eyes. This is cause by sitting
closer than necessary to the tv. Other than that,
watching tv increases ones desire in eating.
Hence, it will lead to obesity. Therefore,
watching tv is harmful to people.

• People tend to watch tv because it is interesting
and fun. They do this to fill their leisure time and
at the same time can enjoy themselves. People
who are obsessed in watching tv have their own
favourite channel that they follow everyday or
every time. The increase of channel by
broadcasting companies with different type of
genre such as cartoon, comedy shows, adventure
and baby tv. For example, nowadays tv shows
related to latest movies has the highest rating of
view among the viewers. Hence, people watch tv
because they find it interesting and fun.