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Pre-school

Children
3-6 years old

Characteristics of Preschool
Children
Intellectual Characteristics
 think very concretely and literally, not
abstractly or figuratively as youth and adults
do; to a preschool child, things are as they
appear to be.
 are not capable of reasoning or organizing
abstract faith concepts along logical lines.
 learn through their experiences at home,
church, preschool, caregivers.
 learn with their whole bodies; love to taste,
touch, move, explore, smell, watch, and
wonder.

Characteristics of Preschool
Children
Intellectual Characteristics

 are just beginning to develop some literacy
skills; some can write their own name,
recognize the letters of the alphabet, and
count to twenty.
 love to use language to please adults; “right
answers” do not necessarily indicate
comprehension.
 enjoy being told stories and read to;
repetition an important way to learn.
 are often easily distracted from staying “on
task.”

other significant adults.Characteristics of Preschool Children Social Characteristics  are blissfully egocentric.  are developmentally incapable of understanding another’s perspective or emotions.  are self-centered. . many young children still want to play alone and must make a real effort to have any meaningful play with others. see the world through their own eyes. dad.  are on the verge of experiencing a wider world of people. especially mom. teachers. yet are significantly influenced by others.

.  sense that God loves them and cares for them.”  readily accept what you say about God. perhaps as a “grandfather” figure who lives “up there.  enjoy some Bible stories.  tend to have a very literal concept of God.Characteristics of Preschool Children Spiritual Characteristics  have a growing sense that God is very special and real rather than pretend. want stories retold often. especially about Jesus.

 recite simple prayers .  do not yet have a built-in control (conscience) that nudges them toward right behavior for its own sake. do the “right thing” out of fear of punishment or to win approval. .. in some cases may add own ideas to “form” prayers.  sense that “church” is a good place to be.Characteristics of Preschool Children Spiritual Characteristics  can develop attitudes of love and trust toward Jesus and God.

Characteristics of Preschool Children Physical Characteristic  Climbs well  Walks up and downstairs with alternating feet  Kicks ball  Run easily  Pedals tricycle  Bends over without falling .

couscous. particularly vegetables. potatoes.  . rice. plantain and any foods made from flour such as bread. They include breakfast cereals.  Fruit and vegetables  Preschoolers may take some time to learn to eat a variety of these. scones and pancakes. sweet potatoes. crackers. Cut them into finger foods to make them easier to eat and always include fruit as part of the second course or pudding. yam. Keep offering them at each meal so that your preschooler learns that they are always part of a normal meal.Allowed Food Starchy foods (carbohydrates)  Offer these at every meal and some snack times. pasta. Fruits are often more popular.

chickpeas. tender cuts of meat as some preschoolers find hard.Allowed Food High iron and high protein foods  Offer these at one or two meals each day. cheese and yogurt  Offer your child these foods about three times a day. but are extremely low in iron. Milk. hummus. Preschoolers need less milk than babies and should not be given large bottles of milk. nuts and pulses. fish. chewy meats challenging. They include meat. eggs. Dairy products provide plenty of calcium for growing bones. Pulses are foods such as kidney beans. lentils and dhal.  . Offer soft.

soybeans. The most common food allergies are milk. If you think your child might have a food allergy. candy and cough drops. chips. talk with your doctor to be sure. •Sticky foods such as peanut butter and marshmallows. pretzels. . and shellfish. peanuts and other nuts. •Small. seeds.Restricted Food Is there anything I shouldn't feed my preschooler? It is important to be careful with foods that may cause choking: •Slippery foods such as whole grapes. poultry. fish. eggs. popcorn. Also. Always cut up foods into small pieces and watch your child while he or she is eating. wheat. and hot dogs. large pieces of meats. hard foods such as nuts. and raisins. raw carrots. Many children grow out of food allergies. your child may have some food allergies.

What do I do if my child is a picky eater? •Offer new foods one at a time. However. and recognizable. talk with a dietitian or your doctor. offer new foods at the start of meals when your child is more hungry. •Never force your child to eat a food he or she doesn't like. Some kids don't like food that is mixed (like a casserole) or food that is touching. •Sometimes kids will get “stuck” on a particular food.” Serve at least one food you know your child will like. This is normal and is not harmful. Offer multiple choices so that he or she can choose something he or she . and remember that children may need to try a new food 10 or more times before they accept it! Also. You can always include other options with the food they are “stuck” on to add variety. •Avoid “short order cooking. plain. •Make food simple. but then expect him or her to eat the same foods as the rest of the family. if your child does not eat anything from a whole food group for more than two weeks.

only two or 3 foods tire of even favorite foods and experiment with new food rarely eat a nee food the first time they see it. experience and environment.Feeding Problems of Preschooler with Caregiver Approach Normal feeding depends on the successful and interaction of child's health. • • • • Normal eating behavior eat a lot one day. development. a little the next not a square meal. .

meal times are a messy affair as preschooler explore new foods and work on mastering self feeding  Plan your course of action.Feeding Problems of Preschooler with Caregiver Approach FEEDING PROBLEM is any condition in which a child has an inability /difficulty in eating or drinking sufficient quantities to maintain optimal nutritional status. 1. Bad Table Manners Teaching your child table manners can begin as soon as he starts eating solid food.Different behavior call different response  Model the behavior that you want child to imitate .  Be patient. CGA  Time it right.

3. Food Allergy affect his ability to get certain nutrients. Have food allergy?  What happens if my child has an allergic reaction  Food intolerance and Food allergy  what should I do if I think might have food allergies? CGA  Double check ingredients.  Strict avoidance of food. .2. Constipation which the body produces a hard. dry stool CGA  Make sure your child is getting adequate fluids  Eat fiber rich foods.

if he doesn't like the taste or texture of eat his eating CGA  Encourage during meals  Cut the food into bite size pieces  Teach to pick up one piece of food at a time and to chew thoroughly and swallow before taking another. . Gagging Gag reflex lifelong automatic response that helps prevent choking.4. Gagging -eat too much food in his mouth.

Caregiver.even if your child doesn't eat all her food. Child.  Prepare special meals to appease child. texture. appearance) CGA  Serve at least one food you know your kid likes. smell.does the how much and whether of eating . Rewarding Feed children according to division of responsibility.do the what.  don't discuss eating habits and clear the table when the meal is over . when and where of feed.5. temperature. Food Refusal/ Food Jag base on sensory issues (taste.  offer variety of a healthy food choices Food Pressure: Forcing.

fat CGA  Keep healthier foods within his reach  Forbidding make worse.you cant expect a child to accept fruit when she really wants a piece of chocolate. Eat only one or two food.6. 7.  Be patient and offer a variety of healthy foods without pressuring your child to eat. Foods that are nutritional zeros. .  Offer similar but healthier substitutions. CGA  The less you make of it the better.high calories. sugar.

Overweight accustomed to eating fatty foods.8. sugar CGA  Introduce vegetables juice and fresh fruit 9.  provide plenty of healthy choices in a positive relaxed environment . Failure to thrive/Underweight picky eating habits CGA  Don't force your child to eat when she don't want to.

eats small amount of food throughout the day CGA  structure your child's eating so that she has 3 regular meals a day and 2 healthy snacks in between meals.  serve variety of foods to eat each meal  introduce new foods one at a time.  Minimize distractions  Meals with siblings . PICKY EATERS Grazer.10.

Nutritional Requirements • Energy Energy requirements for pre-school children increase as the child grows older: • A four year old girl requires 1.715 kcal/day.545 kcal/day • A four year a boy needs 1. .

avocados. . but healthy unsaturated fats remain important. seeds and nuts. As children get older they can have less fat in their diets.Nutritional Requirements • Fats Young children requires concentrated energy that is provided by fat. These can be sourced from foods like oily fish.

fruit and vegetables all should be encouraged.  Dietary fiber should be encouraged but not excessively so in small children. particularly as the child gets older. pulse vegetables. Whole meal bread. whole meal breakfast cereals. may not ingest adequate energy.Nutritional Requirements • Fiber  Fiber foods are bulky and young children with small appetites who are offered a diet high in fiber. .

fish or other protein source should be eaten once or twice a day. one of which should be oily and any meat cooked should be tender to ensure chewing is not a problem.Nutritional Requirements • Protein As an essential part of a child’s diet. Many nutritionists recommend 2 servings of fish per week. . protein is important for cell growth and survival among other things. Some form of meat. Good alternatives to meat and fish are eggs and pulses.

Red meat is the best source of easily absorbable. Ironrich foods. . poor weight gain and delay in development. are not usually popular with young children.Nutritional Requirements • Iron Iron-deficiency anemia may be associated with frequent infections. such as liver and red meat.

Starchy foods such as pasta. sweets and snacks should be discouraged as these influence the child's appetite.Nutritional Requirements • Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are an important source of energy. bread and rice should be plentiful in the diet. Frequent consumption of sugary drinks. .

sauces and on cereals. . If your child isn't particularly keen on drinking lots of milk then you can incorporate dairy in many other ways such as in yoghurts.Nutritional Requirements • Milk and dairy foods Children need calcium in their diet for bone growth so you should attempt to incorporate some into your child’s diet.

this can be difficult to achieve when you are trying to feed a fussy toddler. use fruit in puddings and smoothies. However.Nutritional Requirements • Fruit and vegetables Children should aim for five portions of fruits or vegetable per day. . vegetables raw with a dip or made into soups or sauces.

especially when being physically active and in hot climates.Nutritional Requirements • Fluids Pre-school children have a higher proportion of body water than adults. . It is important that children drink regularly throughout the day to stay properly hydrated. They are also less heat tolerant and more susceptible to dehydration.

cheese and some vegetables. whole grains and nuts.Nutritional Requirements KEY NUTRIENTS • Vitamin A – Promotes growth. fish. healthy skin and cell development and can be found in eggs. Calcium is commonly found in dairy products. This can be taken in the form of a supplement. dairy. Can be found in meat. • Vitamin C - Required for the immune system and growth as well as helping the body to absorb iron. . • Calcium - This nutrient is necessary for the healthy development of strong bones and teeth. • Zinc - Is needed to help the body's hormones and enzymes to perform. This vitamin can be found in citrus fruits and various vegetables and can be taken in the form of a supplement.

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