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Jul 30, 2016

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Constant Strain Triangle - Element

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Constant Strain Triangle - Element

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 33

Prof. Suvranu De

Constant Strain

Triangle (CST)

Reading assignment:

Logan 6.2-6.5 + Lecture notes

Summary:

Computation of shape functions for constant strain triangle

Properties of the shape functions

Computation of strain-displacement matrix

Computation of element stiffness matrix

Computation of nodal loads due to body forces

Computation of nodal loads due to traction

Recommendations for use

Example problems

Step 1: Divide the body into finite elements connected to each

other through special points (nodes)

py

v3

3

px

4

3

u3

v4

2

v2

Element e

v

1

4

u

u4

ST

v1

2 u2

y

d

x

y

Su

u1

v

x

x

u1

v1

u2

v2

u3

v3

u4

v

4

v (x, y) N1(x, y) v1 N 2 (x, y) v 2 N 3 (x, y) v 3 N 4 (x, y) v 4

u1

v

1

u2

N1

u (x, y)

u

v (x, y)

0

0

N1

N2

0

0

N2

N3

0

0

N3

N4

0

0

N 4

v2

u3

v3

uNd

u4

v

4

EACH ELEMENT

Approximation of the strain in element e

N 3 (x, y)

N 2 (x, y)

N 4 (x, y)

u (x, y) N 1(x, y)

x

u1

u2

u3

u4

x

x

x

x

x

N 3 (x, y)

N 2 (x, y)

N 4 (x, y)

v (x, y) N 1(x, y)

y

v1

v2

v3

v4

y

y

y

y

y

N1(x, y)

u (x, y) v (x, y) N1(x, y)

xy

u1

v1 ......

y

x

y

x

y

xy

N 1(x, y)

N 2 (x, y)

x

N 3 (x, y)

x

N 4 (x, y)

x

u1

v

1

u2

N

(x,

y)

N

(x,

y)

N

(x,

y)

N

(x,

y)

3

1

2

4

v2

0

0

0

0

y

y

y

y u 3

N (x, y) N (x, y) N (x, y)

N 2 (x, y) N 3 (x, y) N 3 (x, y) N 4 (x, y) N 4 (x, y) v

1

1

2

3

y

x

y

x

y

x

y

x u

4

B

v

4

Bd

Displacement approximation in terms of shape functions

uNd

Strain approximation in terms of strain-displacement matrix

Bd

Stress approximation

DB d

Element stiffness matrix

k e B D B dV

T

f e N X dV e N T S dS

V

ST

T

v1

1

(x1,y1)

y

v2

u1

v

(x,y)

v3

(x3,y3)

3

u3

u2

2 (x2,y2)

x

2 dofs per node (each node can move in x- and y- directions)

Hence 6 dofs per element

u (x,y) N1u1 N 2 u 2 N 3u 3

v(x,y) N1v1 N 2 v 2 N 3 v 3

N1

u (x, y)

u

v (x, y)

0

0

N1

N2

0

0

N2

N3

0

u 21 N 26 d 61

N1

N

0

0

N1

N2

0

0

N2

N3

0

0

N 3

0

N 3

u1

v

1

u 2

v

2

u3

v 3

v1

v3

1

u1

(x3,y3)

(x1,y1)

u3

v2 v

u

3

y

(x,y)

where

u2

2 (x2,y2)

x

a1 b1 x c1 y

N1

2A

a 2 b2 x c 2 y

N2

2A

a3 b3 x c3 y

N3

2A

1 x1

1

A area of triangle det 1 x 2

2

1 x 3

y1

y 2

y 3

a1 x 2 y 3 x3 y 2

b1 y 2 y 3

c1 x3 x 2

a 2 x3 y1 x1 y 3

b2 y 3 y1

c 2 x1 x3

a3 x1 y 2 x 2 y1

b3 y1 y 2

c3 x 2 x1

1. The shape functions N1, N2 and N3 are linear functions of x

and y

N2

N3

N1

1

1

1

3

3

Ni

0 at other nodes

N

i 1

N x

i 1

N y

i 1

x

y

At any point P(x,y) that the shape functions are evaluated,

P (x,y)

1

A3

A2

A1

2

x

A1

N1

A

A2

N2

A

A3

N3

A

u

x

u v

y x

y

xy

N1(x, y)

N 1(x, y)

y

N1(x, y) N 1(x, y)

y

x

Bd

N 2 (x, y)

x

0

N 2 (x, y)

y

b1 0 b2 0 b3 0

1

0 c1 0 c 2 0 c3

2A

c1 b1 c 2 b2 c3 b3

0

N 2 (x, y)

y

N 2 (x, y)

x

N 3 (x, y)

x

N 3 (x, y)

y

N 3 (x, y) N 3 (x, y)

y

x

the name Constant Strain Triangle

DB d

IMPORTANT NOTE:

1. The displacement field is continuous across element

boundaries

2. The strains and stresses are NOT continuous across element

boundaries

t

k e B D B dV

T

Since B is constant

k B D B e dV B D B At

T

A=surface area of the element

f e N X dV e N T S dS

V

ST

T

f b e N X dV t e N X dA

T

fb1y

1

fb2y

fb1x

Xb

(x,y)

Xa

fb2x

2

x

f b1x

f

b1 y

fb3y

3

fb3x

t N X dA

e 1 a

t N X dA

e 1 b

t N X

f b 2 x

Ae 2 a

fb

f

b2 y

t Ae N 2 X b

f b3 x

t Ae N 3 X a

f b 3 y

t Ae N 3 X b

dA

dA

dA

dA

EXAMPLE:

If Xa=1 and Xb=0

f b1x

f

b1 y

t N X dA

e 1 a

t N dA

e 1

t N X dA

e 1 b

A

t N X

f b 2 x

Ae 2 a

fb

f b2 y

t Ae N 2 X b

f b3x

t Ae N 3 X a

f b 3 y

t Ae N 3 X b

dA

dA

dA

dA

t e N 2 dA

A

t e N 3 dA

A

0

0

tA

3

0

tA

3

0

tA

3

0

f

e N T S dS

T

ST

EXAMPLE:

fS1y

fS3y

fS1x

3

y

2

x

fS3x

l1 3

N

e

T

along 13

T S dS

EXAMPLE:

f S t

fS2y

2

y

fS3y

1

(0,0)

3

(2,0)

(2,2)

l 2 3

fS2x

1

TS

0

fS3x

N

e

f S2 x t

l23

T

along 2 3

Similarly, compute

f S3 x t

f S3 y 0

N 2 along 23 (1) dy

e

1

t 2 1 t

2

f S2 y 0

T S dS

1. Use in areas where strain gradients are small

2. Use in mesh transition areas (fine mesh to coarse mesh)

3. Avoid CST in critical areas of structures (e.g., stress

concentrations, edges of holes, corners)

4. In general CSTs are not recommended for general analysis

purposes as a very large number of these elements are required

for reasonable accuracy.

Example

y

1000 lb

300 psi

El 2

2 in

El 1

4

3 in

E= 30106 psi

=0.25

(b) Compute the stresses in the two elements.

Realize that this is a plane stress problem and therefore we need to use

0 3 .2 0 .8 0

E

0.8 3.2 0 107 psi

D

0

1 2

1

0 1.2

0 0

0

2

1

1

ELEMENT

Node 1

Node 2

Node 3

Area

(sqin)

Node

Nodal coordinates

Recall

b1 0 b2 0 b3 0

1

B 0 c1 0 c2 0 c3

2A

c1 b1 c2 b2 c3 b3

2(2)

with

b1 y2 y3

c1 x3 x2

b2 y3 y1 b3 y1 y2

c2 x1 x3 c3 x2 x1

y1 0; y2 2; y3 0

x1 3; x2 3; x3 0

Hence b 2

1

b2 0 b3 2

c1 3 c2 3 c3 0

4(3)

1(1) Therefore

(local numbers within brackets)

For Element #2:

2 0 0 0 2 0

1

( 2)

B 0 3 0 3 0 0

6

3 2 3 0 0 2

2 0 0 0 2 0

1

(1)

B 0 3 0 3 0 0

6

3 2 3 0 0 2

(1)

k At B

(1) T

(1)

D B (3)(0.5)B

(1) T

DB

(1)

1

.

4

0

.

3

1

.

2

0

.

2

0

.

2

0.45

0

1.2

u2

v2

u1

v1

0

0 .2

0.5333

u4

0.3

7

10

0

0

0.2

v4

( 2)

At B

( 2) T

( 2)

D B (3)(0.5)B

( 2) T

DB

( 2)

1

.

4

0

.

3

1

.

2

0

.

2

0

.

2

0.45

0

1.2

u4

v4

u3

v3

0

0 .2

0.5333

u2

0.3

7

10

0

0

0.2

v2

Step 4: Assemble the global stiffness matrix corresponding to the nonzero degrees of

freedom

Notice that

u3 v3 u4 v4 v1 0

u1

0.983 0.45 0.2

K 0.45 0.983 0 107 u2

0.2

0

1.4

v2

u1

u2

v2

f1x

0

f f2x 0

f

f

2

y

2y

f 2 y 1000 f S 2 y

The consistent nodal load due to traction on the edge 3-2

f S2 y

x 0

N 3 3 2 (300)tdx

(300)(0.5)

x 0

x

150

dx

x 0 3

3

x

3

N 3 3 2 dx

x2

50

N 2 3 2

9

50 225 lb

2

Hence

f 2 y 1000 f S 2 y

1225 lb

Step 6: Solve the system equations to obtain the unknown nodal loads

Kd f

0

0.983 0.45 0.2 u1

10 7 0.45 0.983 0 u2

0

1225

0.2

0

1.4 v2

Solve to get

0.2337 10 4 in

u1

4

u2 0.1069 10 in

v

0.9084 10 4 in

2

In Element #1

(1)

(1)

DB d

(1)

With

(1) T

u1 v1 u2 v2 u4 v4

0.2337 10 4 0 0.1069 10 4

Calculate

(1)

114 .1

1391.1 psi

76.1

0.9084 10 4 0 0

In Element #2

( 2)

( 2)

DB d

( 2)

With

( 2)T

u3 v3 u4 v4 u2 v2

0 0 0 0 0.1069 10 4

0.9084 10 4

Calculate

( 2)

114 .1

28.52

363.35

psi

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