BIO 156 Chapter 1

Health and Homeostasis

Homeostasis is a state of relative constancy. •Homeostasis comes from two Greek words, homeo, which means “the same,” and stasis, which means “standing. •Homeostatic mechanisms exist at all levels of biological organization, from cells to organisms to ecosystems. •These homeostatic mechanisms are vital to survival and reproduction.

Human health depends on maintaining healthy physical, psychological, and social environments. •The health of the environment and the health of organisms, including human beings, are interdependent. •Adverse changes in the environment can affect on human health. •The health of organisms also requires social and psychological conditions conducive to mental health.

Human health is a state of physical and mental well-being. •Physical well-being: an absence of disease or symptoms of disease, a lack of risk factors that lead to disease, and good physical fitness. •Mental health: a lack of mental illness and a capacity to deal effectively with the normal stresses and strains of life.

Health is dependent on properly functioning homeostatic mechanisms. • When these mechanisms break down, illnesses often result. • Stress results in disease by disrupting homeostatic mechanisms. • Not all diseases result from homeostatic imbalance Genetics Viruses Bacteria

Humans are similar to other organisms in many ways. •are made up of cells •grow and maintain their organization by taking in chemicals and energy •exhibit metabolism •rely on homeostatic mechanisms •exhibit irritability •are capable of reproduction and growth •are products of evolutionary development and are subject to evolutionary change

Humans are one form of life on Earth and have many unique characteristics. •our ability to acquire and use complex languages •our culture •our ability to plan for the future •our ability to shape the environment

Understanding Science

The scientific method generally starts with observations that lead to hypotheses and experiments to test them. Hypothesis: a tentative explanation of the phenomenon. Experiment: a procedure designed to test some idea.

Theories are broad generalizations based on many experimental observations. •Theories cannot be tested by single experiments because they encompass many bits of information. •Theories can change over time as new information becomes available.

Science relies on inductive and deductive reasoning. •inductive reasoning: a type of reasoning based on observations •deductive reasoning: a specific statement or conclusion based on a general rule

Science helps shape our lives and our values. •Science and the scientific process are essential to modern existence. •Science can also influence political decisions. •Many decisions in the public-policy arena are influenced by values rather than scientific facts. •However,science can even influence human values.

Critical Thinking

Critical thinking rules allow us to carefully analyze problems, issues, and information for errors of reasoning. Careful analysis helps us distinguish knowledge from beliefs or judgments

Seven Rules for Critical Thinking 1. Gather complete information 4. Understand and define all terms 7. Question the methods by which data and information were derived 11.Question the conclusions 14.Uncover assumptions and biases 17.Question the source of the information 7. Understand your own biases and values

End of Chapter 1

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