BIO 156 Chapter 3

Microscopes: Illuminating the Structure of Cells

Microscopes fall into two broad categories: 1. light microscopes • uses ordinary visible light to illuminate the specimen • can magnify objects from 100 to 400 times their original size 2. electron microscopes • uses a beam of electrons to create a visual image of the specimen • can enlarge objects 100,000 times their original size

An Overview of Cell Structure

The cell consists of two main compartments. 1. The nuclear (nucleus) compartment 2. The cytoplasmic compartment

The nuclear (nucleus) compartment •The nucleus contains the genetic information that regulates the structure and function of all eukaryotic cells. The cytoplasmic compartment •The cytoplasmic compartment is home to the cytoskeleton. •The cytoskeleton is a network of tubules and filaments. •The cytoskeleton also binds to enzymes in metabolic pathways

The Structure and Function of the Plasma Membrane

The plasma membrane is the outermost boundary of the cell.

Cholesterol Protein Phospholipid


Protein Structure

Protein Structure Continued

Protein Structure Continued

Protein Structure Continued


The plasma membrane consists of lipids, protein, and carbohydrate. Lipids (fats) are biochemicals characterized by their lack of water solubility. Human cells have thousands of different types of proteins, each type structurally and functionally unique. Amino acids are small organic molecules that join by peptide bonds, forming peptides and proteins. The lipids of the plasma membrane form a double layer in which many of the proteins float freely.

The plasma membrane is essential to cellular homeostasis. •The plasma membrane regulates the flow of molecules and ions into and out of the cell. •The plasma membrane is selectively permeable

Molecules move through the plasma membrane in five ways. 1. Diffusion 3. Active Transport --molecules are also actively transported across the membrane 3. Endocytosis 4. Exocytosis 6. Carrier Proteins and Diffusion 8. Osmosis

Diffusion: The movement of molecules from high to low concentrations.

Carrier Proteins and Diffusion: Water-soluble molecules also diffuse through membranes with the aid of carrier molecules.

Active Transport: Molecules are also actively transported across the membrane.

ATP: Adenosine Tri-Phosphate

Endocytosis: Large molecules and cells are ingested by endocytosis.

Exocytosis: Cells also regurgitate materials, releasing large molecules.

Osmosis: The diffusion of water across the plasma membrane is known as osmosis. •Whenever two fluids with different concentrations of solute are separated by a selectively permeable membrane, the fluid will flow from one to the other, moving down the concentration gradient. •In humans, osmosis helps regulate the concentration of fluid surrounding the cell.

End of Chapter 3, Part 1

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