Regular pumping examples to show how to do it

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Regular pumping examples to show how to do it

© All Rights Reserved

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of

the Pumping Lemma

Given a infinite regular language

there exists an integer

for any string

we can write

with

w L

(critical length)

with length

| w| m

w x y z

| x y | m and | y | 1

such that:

xy z L

i 0, 1, 2, ...

Non-regular languages

L {vv : v *}

Regular languages

R

L {vv : v *}

is not regular

Proof:

{a, b}

L {vv : v *}

Assume for contradiction

that L is a regular language

Since L is infinite

we can apply the Pumping Lemma

L {vv : v *}

Let

Pick a string

such that:

w L

and length

We pick

m m m m

wa b b a

| w| m

we can write: w a b b a

m

with lengths:

x y z

| x y | m, | y | 1

m m m

w xyz a...aa...a...ab...bb...ba...a

x

Thus:

y a , 1k m

k

m m m m

x y za b b a

y a , 1k m

k

xy z L

i 0, 1, 2, ...

Thus:

xy z L

m m m m

x y za b b a

y a , 1k m

k

xy z L

m m m

m+k

2

xy z = a...aa...aa...a...ab...bb...ba...a L

x

Thus:

y

a

y

m k m m m

b b a

a

BUT:

m k m m m

b b a

L {vv : v *}

m k m m m

b b a

CONTRADICTION!!!

k 1

Therefore:

is a regular language is not true

Conclusion: L

END OF PROOF

Non-regular languages

n l n l

L {a b c

Regular languages

: n, l 0}

n l n l

L {a b c

: n, l 0}

is not regular

Proof:

n l n l

L {a b c

: n, l 0}

that L is a regular language

Since L is infinite

we can apply the Pumping Lemma

n l n l

L {a b c

Let

: n, l 0}

Pick a string

such that:

w L

length

We pick

m m 2m

wa b c

and

| w| m

We can write

w a b c

With lengths

| x y | m, | y | 1

2m

x y z

2m

w xyz a...aa...aa...ab...bc...cc...c

x

Thus:

y a , 1k m

k

m m 2m

x y za b c

y a , 1k m

xy z L

i 0, 1, 2, ...

Thus:

x y z = xz L

m m 2m

x y za b c

y a , 1k m

k

xz L

mk

2m

xz a...aa...ab...bc...cc...c L

x

Thus:

mk m 2m

b c

BUT:

mk m 2m

b c

n l n l

L {a b c

mk m 2m

b c

: n, l 0}

CONTRADICTION!!!

k 1

Therefore:

is a regular language is not true

Conclusion: L

END OF PROOF

Non-regular languages

n!

L {a : n 0}

Regular languages

n!

L {a : n 0}

is not regular

n! 1 2 (n 1) n

Proof:

n!

L {a : n 0}

that L is a regular language

Since L is infinite

we can apply the Pumping Lemma

n!

L {a : n 0}

Let

Pick a string

such that:

w L

length

We pick

wa

m!

| w| m

We can write w a

With lengths

m!

x y z

| x y | m, | y | 1

m

w xyz a

m!

m! m

a...aa...aa...aa...aa...a

x

Thus:

y

k

y a , 1 k m

x y za

m!

y a , 1 k m

xy z L

i 0, 1, 2, ...

Thus:

xy z L

x y za

m!

y a , 1 k m

mk

xy z L

m!m

xy z a...aa...aa...aa...aa...aa...a L

x

Thus:

y

a

m! k

a

Since:

m! k

1 k m

n!

L {a : n 0}

m! k p!

such that:

However:

m! k m! m

m! m!

m!m m!

m!(m 1)

(m 1)!

for

m 1

m! k (m 1)!

m! k p!

for any

a

BUT:

m! k

n!

L {a : n 0}

m! k

CONTRADICTION!!!

1 k m

Therefore:

is a regular language is not true

Conclusion: L

END OF PROOF

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