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STEEL CONCRETE

COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION
By
Deepak Kumar
M.C.E 1ST Year
Roll 001510402015
Under the guidance of
Dr. S RoyChowdhury
JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY

Overview

Introduction
Aspects for using composite structure
Application and case studies
Composite construction system for building
Design philosophy
Conclusion
References

Introduction
Composite construction refers to two load-carrying structural
members (Steel and concrete) that are integrally connected and
deflect as a single unit.

These two materials complete one another;


Concrete is efficient in compression and steel in tension.
Concrete encasement restrain steel against buckling
Protection against corrosion and fire
Steel bring ductility into the structure

Aspects for using composite


structures

Architectural
Economical
Functionality
Service and Flexibility
Assembly

Aspects for using composite


structures
Architectural:

Longer spans
Thinner slabs
More slender column
More generous opportunities for design

Aspects for using composite


structures
Economical:
Reduction of height reduces the total height of the building ->
saving area of cladding
Longer spans with the same height --> column free rooms
Additional storeys with the same total height of building
Quicker time of erection
Saving costs, earlier completion of the
building
Lower financing costs
Ready for use earlier thus increasing rental
income

Aspects for using composite


structures
Functionality:
Fire protection by using principles of reinforced concrete in which the
concrete protects the steel

Assembly:

Working platforms of steel decking


Permanent shuttering
Reinforcement of profiled steel sheeting
Speed and simplicity of construction
Quality controlled products ensure greater accuracy

Application and Case Studies


Bridge
Multi storey building
Forrest Place, Perth
It is a multi-storey building.
Columns are concrete filled steel box
column.
Beams are designed as a steel-concrete
Composite beam.
Slabs are composite utilizing permanent
metal deck formwork.

Application and Case Studies


Bridge
Multi storey building
Republic plaza, Singapore
One of the tallest building in
Singapore.
It consists of an internal reinforced
concrete shear core, and beam span
to an external perimeter frame
consists of concrete filled steel
tubes that are designed compositely.

Application and Case Studies


Bridge
Multi storey building
As per Indian scenario data are not too high even India is the 3rd
largest steel producer.
In UK. 80-90% single, multi-storey, industrial & commercial
building are steel framed.
In Japan 40 % and in USA > 60%
Though some buildings in India in which structural components are
designed in a composite way are shown in next slide

Application and Case Studies

Application and Case Studies

Composite construction systems for


building
Composite Floor Systems
Composite Beams and Girders
Composite Column Systems

Composite construction systems for


building
Composite Floor Systems
Composite floor systems typically involve structural steel beams, joists,
girders, or trusses made composite via shear connectors, with a
concrete floor slab to form an effective T-beam flexural member
resisting primarily gravity loads.
The construction of composite floors does not require highly skilled
labour.
The composite slab, when fixed in place, can act as an effective inplane diaphragm, which may provide effective lateral bracing to beams.

Composite construction systems for


building

Composite Floor Systems

it can be constructed by following methods:

A flat-soffit reinforced concrete slab.


Precast concrete planks with cast in situ concrete topping.
Precast concrete slab with in situ grouting at the joints.
Metal steel deck with concrete, either composite or non-composite.

Composite construction systems for


building

Composite Floor Systems

(A) A flat-soffit reinforced concrete slab.


(B) Precast concrete planks with cast in situ concrete topping

Composite construction systems for


building

Composite Floor Systems

(C) Precast concrete slab with in situ grouting at the joints


(D) Metal steel deck with concrete, either composite or non- composite

Composite construction systems for


building

Composite Beam & Girder

Composite beams are normally hot rolled or fabricated steel sections that act
compositely with the slab. The composite interaction is achieved by the attachment
of shear connectors to the top flange of the beam. These connectors generally take
the form of headed studs.

Composite construction systems for


building

Composite Beam & Girder

The composite action increases the load carrying capacity and stiffness of
the beam by factors of up to 2 and 3.5 respectively.
Method of construction:Shored Methods the weight of formwork and fresh concrete is supported
by a separate system of shores and steel beams carry their own weight only.
Un-shored Methods no shores are used and the weight of the formwork,
fresh concrete and steel beam and other construction loads are all carried by
the steel beam alone.

Composite construction systems for


building
Composite Beam & Girder
Bending resistance of the section is normally evaluated using plastic principles.
Plastic moment resistance is calculated using idealized rectangular stress Blocks.
It is assumed that stresses of fyd and 0.85 fcd can be achieved in the steel and
concrete respectively.

Composite construction systems for


building
Composite Beam & Girder
Types

Beams with Web Openings


Fabricated Tapered Beams
Haunched Beams
Parallel Beam System
Stub Girder System

Composite construction systems for


building
Composite Column
Concrete encased hot-rolled steel section
Concrete filled tubular section of hot-rolled steel

Composite construction systems for


building
Composite Column
Advantage
Increased strength for a given cross sectional dimension.
Increased stiffness, leading to reduced slenderness and increased
buckling resistance.
Good fire resistance in the case of concrete encased columns.
Corrosion protection in encased columns.
Significant economic advantages over either pure structural steel
or reinforced concrete alternatives.

Design Philosophy
At present, there is no Indian Standard covering Composite Columns. The method
of design suggested in EC4 (euro code, EN 1994-1 1:2004 (E)).
Local buckling of steel elements

(completely encased steel section)


40 mm
One sixth of the width b of the flange of the steel section
(partially encased sections and concrete-filled closed sections)

Design Philosophy
Illustrative Example

Design Philosophy
Illustrative Example
Steps
List material properties
List section properties of the given section

Design Philosophy
Illustrative Example
Steps
Plastic resistance of the section

Pp = 3366 KN

Design Philosophy
Illustrative Example
Steps
Effective Elastic Flexural Stiffness for short term loading
About major axis
About minor axis
Due to long term loading, the creep and shrinkage of concrete will
cause reduction in effective elastic flexural stiffness. The effect of
long term should be considered if

Buckling length to depth ratio exceeds 1.5


Eccentricity of loading is less than twice of cross-section dimension.
The non-dimensional slenderness is more than the limiting value given in table

Design Philosophy
Illustrative Example
Steps
Check for long term loading

Ppu can be find by


taking
and pcr

Since condition is satisfied, the influence of creep and shrinkage on


ultimate load need not to be considered.

Design Philosophy
Illustrative

Example
Steps
Resistance of the composite column under axial compression.
designed against axial compression is satisfied if following condition
is satisfied.
where,

Where, the factor allows for different levels of imperfections and residual stresses in the
columns corresponding to curves a, b, and c.

Design Philosophy
Illustrative Example
Steps

Design Philosophy
Illustrative Example
Steps

Conclusion
As we know that population and availability of land are the dominating
factor for high rise building, and for this the best way of construction
method is composite construction.
Technological innovations are required to create interest in the builders to
keep the real estate business competitive. The use of Steel-Concrete
Composite construction methodologies will help the developers to make
more profit and the customers could also get more carpet area and
durable structure at their affordable price.
Generally steel intensive construction being fully recyclable provides
improved environmental performance and such construction offers a
sustainable development to the society with minimum consumption of
energy, minimization of waste and utilization of renewable resources etc.

References
[1] The Civil Engineering Handbook, Second Edition by W.F. Chen,
J.Y. Richard Liew
[2] Euro code 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures -Part
1-1: General rules and rules for buildings
[3] Euro code 3, Design of Steel Structures: Part 1.1: General Rules and
Rules for Buildings.
[4] IS 11384-1985 Code of Practice for Composite Construction in
Structural Steel and concrete.
[5] Lectures of Prof. Dr. S.R.Mediratta on steel construction in India.

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