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# Measurement System Analysis

## Measurement System Analysis

The overall variation observed in any product or
service consists of process variation and variation
induced by the measurement system.
Therefore, attempts should be made to maintain the
variation in the measurement system as low as
possible, preferably within 10% of the allowed
tolerance.
MSA is a systematic study of the various aspects of
the measurement system and its variation.
Whereas, Gage R & R studies concentrates on
Repeatability and reproducibility, MSA extents to
dealing with other aspects like Bias, Linearity and
Stability. Though, these two are used
interchangeably in most literatures.

## Measurement System Analysis:Definitions

BIAS
The difference between the average measured value and a
reference value is referred as bias. The reference value is an agreed
value depending on the specification of the process/ product. Bias
is controlled by calibration.
BIAS

REFERENCE
VALUE

AVERAGE
MEASUREMENT

## Measurement System Analysis:Definitions

Repeatability: Variation in measurement obtained with
one measuring instrument by one appraiser while
measuring a characteristic of a product/process
repeatedly.

REPEATABILITY

## Measurement System Analysis:Definitions

Reproducibility : It is defined as
the variation in average performance

JANE

## of the characteristic in the same

part when measured by more

DICK

## than one appraiser using the

same measuring instrument
FRANK

REPRODUCIBILITY

## Measurement System Analysis:Definitions

Stability : Stability is the total variation in the
measurements obtained with a measurement system on
the same part when measuring a single characteristic
over an extend period of time. A system is said to be
stable if the variation is of the same order at different
time points.
MONDAY

WEDNESDAY
FRIDAY

STABILITY

## Measurement System Analysis: Definitions

Linearity : Linearity is the difference in the bias values
through the expected operating range of the gage.
PART SIZE NEAR
LOW END OF RANGE
(Low Bias)

REFERENCE
VALUE

## PART SIZE NEAR

REFERENCE VALUE
MEASUREMENTS
OF A PART CHECKED
REPEATEDLY

## PART SIZE NEAR

HIGH END OF
RANGE (High Bias)

## Attribute Gage R & R

Attribute studies are used for measuring the overall
effectiveness of observers inspecting attribute
characteristic. When working with attributes, the
measures of repeatability and reproducibility do not
apply as with variables. Some definitions are:
Uniformity is the overall agreement within and among
observers.
Effectiveness is the ability of the observers to detect
both good and bad product.
Miss means accepting a bad part
False Alarm means rejecting a good part
Bias is when observers are biased toward rejection or
acceptance.

## Attribute Gage R & R

Primary purpose of attribute studies
Ensure that the acceptance criteria for the
product and its characteristics have been
properly established and communicated.
Identify and correct problems with the
inspection acceptance criteria
Identify observer related problems and train
observers accordingly
Improve overall inspection effectiveness for
product acceptance and/or process control
purposes.

P
A
R
T

M
A
S
T
E
R

## Observer A Observer B Results

T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 AGood BBad
as
good

as

M
as
good

## Effectiveness (E) = ( A + B ) / Total Inspections

Probability of a false alarm ( Pfa) = F / (A+F)
Probability of a Miss ( Pmiss ) = M / (B + M )
Bias (B)
= Bfa / BMiss

F
Good
as

## Attribute Gage R & R

THE FOLLOWING ARE GUIDELINE MEASURES:
Parameter
Effective
P miss
Pfa

accept.
0.9
< 0.02
<0.05

Marginal unacceptable
0.8 0.9
< 0.80
0.02-0.05
> 0.05.
0.05-0.10
>0.10.

## Attribute Gage R & R

Example : 14 parts are given for
inspection to two observer A and B.
Each person checks the part thrice and
gives his opinion. A master inspector
gives his opinion which is final. The
whole experiment is randomized for
the two observers so that there
opinions are unbiased every time. Data
is given in the next slide.

Master

Observer 1

Observer 2

T1

T2

T3

T1

T2

T3

B
G
G
G
G
B
B
G
G
B
G
G
G
B

B
G
G
G
G
B
B
G
G
B
G
G
G
B

B
G
G
G
G
B
B
G
G
B
G
G
G
B

B
G
G
G
G
B
B
G
G
G
G
G
G
B

B
G
G
G
G
G
B
G
G
B
G
G
G
B

G
G
G
G
G
B
B
G
G
B
G
G
G
B

B
G
G
G
G
B
B
G
B
B
G
G
G
B

0
6
6
6
6
0
0
6
5
0
6
6
6
0

5
0
0
0
0
5
6
0
0
5
0
0
0
6

1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

## Attribute Gage R & R

Total Inspection = 84
Total (A) = 53
Total (M) = 3
Total (B) = 27
Total (F) = 1
Effectiveness = (A+B)/total inspection
= (53+27)/84 =0.952
Prob. of Miss (Pmiss ) = M(B+M) =3/(27+3) =3/30 = 0.1
Prob. Of False Alarm (Pfa ) = F/(A+F) = 1/(53+1) = 0.02
Bfa = 0.0488 corresponding to Pfa
Bmiss = 0.1758 corresponding to Pmiss
B = Bfa / Bmiss = 0.28

BUG TYPE

PERSON1
1.2,1.3
3.0,3.1
4.2, 4.2
2.9,3.0
5.1,5.3
6.1,6.3
8.1,8.0
3.2,3.2
0.5,0.4

PERSON2 PERSON3
2.0,2.1
2.3,2.1
3.4,3.6
3.9,4.0
4.5,4.6
4.7,4.8
3.1,3.3
3.5,3.1
5.0,5.0
5.5,5.5
6.3,6.5
7.0,7.1
8.4,8.4
8.7,9.0
3.5,3.5
4.0,4.0
0.9,0.8
1.1,1.2

## Gage R & R for Variable Inspection

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE WAS CARRIED OUT
AND THE RESULTS ARE AS FOLLOWS:
SOURCE D.F. S.S
M.S
F(CAL) p VALUE
BUG
8
261.8
32.7
3270.0
0.0000
PERSON 2
4.3
2.14
214.0
0.0000
PER*BUG 16
0.85
0.05
5.0
0.0002
REPEAT. 27
0.25
0.01
TOTAL
53 267.3

## Gage R & R for Variable Inspection

Based on Expected Value of MS, we calculate:
Repeatability
= 0.01 0.1
Person
= 0.11 0.33
Person*Bug
= 0.02 0.14
Reproducibility = 0.13 0.36
Overall
=
0.14 0.375
Bug
=
5.37 2.32
The system of estimation is not so good.
Standard guidelines for estimation is necessary.