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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTIO
N TO
PHYSICS
1

PHYSICS?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physics
Physics (Greek: physis
meaning "nature") is the
natural science which examines
basic concepts such as energy, force,
and spacetime and all that derives
from these, such as mass, charge,
matter[1] and its motion.
2

CONTINUE

[2]

[4]

More broadly, it is the general


analysis of nature, conducted in
order to understand how the world
and universe behave. [3]
Note that the term 'universe' is
defined as everything that physically
exists: the entirely of space and time,
all forms of matter, energy and
momentum, and the physical laws
3

CONTINUE
Physics is a branch of science which
studies physical and natural
phenomena around us. (Sasbadi)
Physics is a branch of science
concerning the study of natural
phenomena, that is, properties of
matter and energy. (Pelangi)
4

CONTINUE
Physics is a branch of science
centred on the study of matter,
energy and the connection between
them. (Text book)

Why do we study physics?


Knowledge of physics can help us
understand natural phenomena such
as formation of rainbows, solar
eclipse, the cause of sunset and sun
rise, etc.

Field of study in Physics

Force and motion


Heat
Light
Electricity and electromagnetism
Nuclear physics
Electronics
Wave
7

Career in Physics?
Field of
physics
Engineering
Research
Education
Industry
Medical

Career
Mechanical, electrical,
computer
Scientist, professor,
astronaut,
Lecturer, teacher, education
officer
Geophysician, quality
control engineer
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Radiologist, technician,

1.1: Base Quantities and Derived


Quantities
Physical
Quantities
= Quantities that
can be measured
Derived
quantities
= physical quantities that
derived from combination
of base quantities through
multiplication, division or both

Base
quantities
= physical quantities that
cannot be defined in
terms of other physical
quantities
9

Base Quantities

Base
quantities

Symbol

SI unit

Symbol of
SI unit

Time
Mass
Electric
current

t
m
I

second
kilogram
Ampere

s
kg
A

Length
Temperature

l
T

Metre
kelvin

m
K
10

Derived quantities
Derived
quantities

Symbol

Relationship with base


quantities

Derived unit

Area

length x length

m2

Volume

length x length x length

m3

Density

mass
length length length

kg m-3

Acceleration

velocity
time

m s-2

Force

mass x acceleration

kg m s-2

Momentum

kg m s-1

Pressure

mass x velocity
force
pressure
area

N m-2
11

Derived quantities
Derived
quantities

Symbol

Work

Power

Frequency

Electric charge

Voltage

Relationship with base


quantities

Derived unit

Work = displacement x N m or joule (J)


force
Work
Power
Time

1
frequency
period

J s-1 or watt (W)


s-1 or hertz (Hz)

Charge = electric
A s or coulomb
current x time
(C)
Work
V
Electric charge

J C-1 or volt (V)


12

1.2 : Scientific Notation & Unit Abbreviation


Scientific notation or standard form
Given:
1. 12000
= 1.2 x 104
2. 6700000000
= 6.7 x 109
3. 10000000000000000 = 1 x 1016

Standard form

Example 1: Write 56000000 in standard form.


Solution:

56000000 = 5.6 x 107

13

Exercise 1: Write 8730000000 in standard form


Solution: 8730000000 = 8.73 x 109
Example 2: Write 0.00000000056 in standard form.
Solution:

0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 6 = 5.6 x 10-10


Exercise 2: Write 0.000000606 in standard form
Solution: 0.000000606 = 6.06 x 10-7
14

Scientific Notation & Unit Abbreviation


Conclusion
1. Scientific notation or standard form is a method to write the
numerical values which are very big or very small in a
simpler way.
2. Standard form can be summarised as:

A 10n , where 1 A 10 and n is an integer

15

Scientific Notation & Unit Abbreviation


Prefixes

1. 90 cm
2. 600 nm
prefix
3. 2 km
4. 1.66 GHz
5. 512 MB
16

1. Prefixes are used to represent physical quantities which are


very big or very small.
2. Observe the list of prefix and multiplication factors given
below.
Sub-multiple Prefix
10-1
deci
10-2
centi
10-3
mili
10-6
micro
10-9
nano
10-12
pico

Symbol
d
c
m

n
p

Multiple
101
102
103
106
109
1012

prefix
deca
hecto
kilo
mega
giga
tera

Symbol
da
h
k
M
G
T
17

18

Example 3: Write the following quantities using prefix


a) 5000 m

= 5 x 103 m = 5 km

b) 50000000 Hz

= 50 x 106 Hz = 50 MHz

c) 0.00000007 m

= 70 x 10-9 m = 70 nm

Exercise 3: Write the following quantities using prefix


a) 65000000 g
b) 0.00000056 J
c) 0.0005 W

19

Unit Conversion
Example 4: Convert following quantities
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)

21 cm to nm
20 km to mm
800 g to Gg
20 m s-1 to km h-1
36 km h-1 to m s-1
800 g cm-3 to kg m-3
12 kg m3 to g cm-3

20

Unit Conversion
Simply method especially for multiple choice questions
1) x km h 1 x 3.6 m s 1
Example 5: convert 30 km h-1 to m s-1
Solution:
30 km h1 (30 3.6) m s 1
1
8 m s 1
3
8.33 m s 1
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Unit Conversion
Simply method especially for multiple choice questions

2) x m s 1 x 3.6 km h 1
Example 6: convert 30 m s-1 to km h-1
Solution:
30 m s 1 (30 3.6) km h1
108 km h1

22

Unit Conversion

Simply method especially for multiple choice questions

3) x g cm 3 x 1000 kg m 3
Example 7: Convert 0.98 g cm-3 to kg m-3
Solution:
0.98 g cm 3 (0.98 1000) kg m 3
980 kg m3
23

Unit Conversion
Simply method especially for multiple choice questions

4) x kg m 3 x 1000 g cm 3
Example 8: Convert 7800 kg m-3 to g cm-3
Solution:
7800 kg m 3 (7800 1000) g cm 3
7.8 g cm 3
24

Unit Conversion
Exercise 4: Convert the following quantities.
a) 45 m s-1 to km h-1
b) 320 km h-1 to m s-1
c) 0.12 g cm-3 to kg m-3
d) 13600 kg m-3 to g cm-3

25

1.3: Scalar and Vector


Quantities
1. Scalar quantities is a physical quantities which

gives magnitude only


Scalar quantities SI unit

Scalar quantities

SI unit

Length/distance
Time
Electric current

m
s
A

speed
Area
Volume

m s-1
m2
m3

Temperature

Work and Energy

Mass
Pressure

kg
Pa

Power
Density

W
kg m-3
26

Example
:
Distance = 100 m
Unit
Scalar
quantity

Magnitud
e

Speed = 100 m s-1

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2. Vector quantities is a physical quantities

which have magnitude and direction.


Vector quantities

SI unit

Vector quantities

SI unit

Displacement
Velocity

m
m s-1

Momentum

kg m s-1

Acceleration

m s-2

Force

Weight

Torque

Nm

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Example:
The car shown in figure 1 moves at velocity of 60
km h-1 to the left.
60 km h1

left

road

Unit

Velocity
Vector
quantity

60 km h-1
Magnitud
e

to the left
Direction
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1.4: Understanding Measurement


1.4.1: Estimation of Dimensions
1. Suitable instruments are required for

measurement and the reading obtained


must be presented in suitable unit.
2. Sometimes no suitable instruments can be

used for measuring a physical quantity. In


this case estimation in used.
3. In the estimation of dimensions,
a) A small sample is used for determining the big

value.
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b) A big sample is used for determining the small

Thickness of a piece of
paper

Method:
a) Measure the thickness of 100 pieces of
paper = l mm, by using ruler.
l

mm
b) Therefore the thickness a piece of paper
is
100

31

Volume of a drop of
water

Method:
a) Drip 100 drops of water into a measuring
cylinder and the volume is measured = V
V
cm3.
cm 3
100
b) Then the volume of a drop of water =

32

Diameter of wire

Method:
a) Coil the wire 20 times as shown in figure.
b) Ensure that there is no space between the
coils.
l
c) Measure the value of l using
mm ruler.
20 =
d) Average diameter of wire

33

Area of the toilet is your


school

Method:
a) Calculate the area of a tile by using this
formula:
Area, A = length x width
b) The length and width of a tile can be
determined by using a ruler.
c) Count the number of tile, n, in the toilet

34

1.4.2: Measuring Instrument


Vernier Callipers

35

1. Vernier callipers enable us to measure length

up to 10 cm.
2. Vernier callipers can measured up to

accuracy of 0.01 cm.


3. Vernier callipers consist of main scale and

vernier scale.
4. The outer jaws are used to measure outer

diameter and length


5.

The inner jaws are used to measure the inner


diameter of a container

6.

The tip are used to measure the depth of a


container

36

Method of
reading Vernier
Callipers

Vernier
callipers
reading
=
Reading on
the main
scale +
Reading on
the vernier
scale

Reading 3.1 0.08


3.18 cm

37

Example 1.4.2
1. A pair of vernier callipers is used to measure

the width of a handphone. What is the width 0f


the handphone?

38

Exercise 1.4.2
1. A pair of vernier callipers is used to measure

the diameter of a metal ball. What is the


diameter 0f the metal ball?

39

Micrometer Screw
Gauge
1. The micrometer screw gauge is used to

measure the thickness or diameter a small


object.
2. This instrument can measure up to an
accuracy of 0.01 mm

40

3. The scale on the thimble has 50 equal

0.5division is
divisions where each

0.01 mm

mm or

50

4. The rachet can be rotated and it exerts the

correct amount of pressure on object to

41

Reading = main scale + thimble


scale

42

Exercise 1.4.2
2. What is the reading of the micrometer?

43

1.4.3: Accuracy, Consistency and Sensitivity


1. Accuracy of an measuring instrument is the

ability of instrument to give measurement


which are close to actual value.
Actual value
x
x

accurate
inaccurate

44

2. Consistency of an measuring instrument is the

ability of the instrument to measure a quantity


with little or no deviation among measurement.

x
x
x
inconsistent

xx
x
consistent

45

3. Sensitivity of an measuring instrument is the

ability of instrument to detect small changes in


the quantity to be measured.

46

Difference between consistency and


accuracy
Distribution of
gunshot
xx
xx

x
x xx

Conclusion
1. All shot are close to
each other but far from
the target.
2. Shots are consistent but
not accurate
1. Shots are closer to the
target but scattered
from each other.
2. Shots are accurate but
47
not consistent

Difference between consistency and


accuracy
Distribution of
gunshot

1. Shots are very close to


the target and close
each other.

xx
xx

x
x
x

Conclusion

2. Shots are consistent and


accurate
1. Shots are far from the
target and scattered
from each other.
2. Shots are inaccurate
and inconsistent

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1.4.4: Experimental Error


1. Since no measurement can be absolutely

accurate, there will always be error in a


measurement.
2. An error is the difference between the

measured value an the actual value.


3. There is two main types of errors in

measurement, systematic error and random


error.
49

Systematic Error
1. A systematic error is an error in reading the

scale when a physical quantity is being


measured.
2. It is caused by the instrument, observers

and surroundings.
3. The systematic error in the measurement of

a physical quantity is always the same, i.e.


a) The reading is always bigger than the true

value, or
b) The reading is always smaller than the true
value

50

4. Types (example) of systematic error:


a) Zero error occurs when the reading shown

in the instrument is not zero while the


true reading is zero.
b) Slow reaction when using an instrument
causes an error. For example, there may
be a delay in pressing stop watch.
c) An error caused by incorrect calibration of
instruments.
5. Systematic error can be overcome by proper

calibration or adjust instrument frequently.


51

Zero error on the Vernier


Callipers
1. For the vernier callipers which have zero
error the reading is corrected through the
following formula:
Correct reading reading obtained - zero error

2. If the vernier callipers do not have zero error,


the scale will be as in figure below

52

ositive zero error

Main scale

Vernier scale

53

egative zero error

Main scale
Vernier scale

54

Example 1.4.4
1. Figure (a) shows the reading of the vernier

callipers when the jaws are closed. Figure (b)


shows the reading when a ball bearing is
placed between the jaws. What is the
diameter of the bearing?
0

10

(a)

10

(b)
55

Example 1.4.4
2. Figure (a) shows the reading of the vernier

callipers when the jaws are closed. Figure (b)


shows the reading when a ball bearing is
placed between the jaws. What is the
diameter of the bearing?
0

10

(a)

10

(b)
56

Exercise 1.4.4
1. Figure (a) shows the reading of the vernier
callipers when the jaws are closed. Figure (b)
shows the reading when a glass rod is placed
between the jaws. What is the diameter of
the rod?
0

10

(a)

10

(b)
57

Exercise 1.4.4
2. Figure (a) shows the reading of the vernier
callipers when the jaws are closed. Figure (b)
shows the reading when a glass rod is placed
between the jaws. What is the diameter of
the rod?
0

10

(a)

10

(b)

58

Zero error on the Micrometer Screw


Gauge
1. For the micrometer screw gauge which have
zero error the reading is corrected through
the following formula:
Correct reading reading obtained - zero error

59

Positive zero
error

ro error = 0.03 mm

60

Negative zero error

ro error = 0.02 mm

61

Example 1.4.4
3. Figure (a) before measurement a micrometer
screw gauge. Figure (b) shows how
micrometer screw gauge is used to measure
the thickness of a ruler. What is the
thickness of the ruler?
0

10

25
20

5
mm

mm

15

(a)

(b)

62

Example 1.4.4
4. Figure (a) before measurement a micrometer
screw gauge. Figure (b) shows how
micrometer screw gauge is used to measure
the thickness of a wire. What is the thickness
of the wire?
35
0 1

30
45
mm

mm

25

40

(a)

(b)

63

Exercise 1.4.4
3. Figure (a) before measurement a micrometer
screw gauge. Figure (b) shows how
micrometer screw gauge is used to measure
the thickness of a ruler. What is the
thickness of the ruler?
1

30
25

mm

(a)

45
40

mm

(b)

64

Exercise 1.4.4
4. Figure (a) before measurement a micrometer
screw gauge. Figure (b) shows how
micrometer screw gauge is used to measure
the thickness of a wire. What is the thickness
of the wire?
45

0 1
35

45
mm

40

(a)

mm

30

(b)

65

Random Error
1. A random error is an error due mistakes
made when measurements are taken either
through incorrect positioning of the eye or
sudden change of environment factor.
2. A reading obtained when a random error
occurs can be bigger or smaller than the true
value.
3. Random error can be reduce by repeat the
measurement and take the average.
66

4. Examples of random error are:


a) Parallax

error is error due incorrect


positioning of the eye when taking a
reading.

= incorrect position of eye


= correct position of eye

67

Antiparallax
mirror

68

4. Examples of random error are:


b) Error due miscount, for example when

counting the number of oscillations of a


simple pendulum.

c) Natural

errors
i.e.
changes
temperature, humidity or wind.

in
69

1.5: Scientific Investigation


1.5.1: Scientific Methods in Physics
1. Scientific methods an orderly method which

is used to investigate a problem or an event.


2. A scientific investigator must be able to

organise and record information in effective


way.
3. Proper organisation of information may

reveal relationships and trends.


70

Process in a Scientific Investigation


1. Identify the problem:

by asking question arise from an observation


2. Observation involve
senses to gather
information about
object or event

71

3. Inference: early conclusion based on observation


before a study is made
4. Identify variables:
a) manipulated variable
Physical quantity which value can be fixed
by experimenter
b) responding variable
Physical quantity that changes its value in
respond to the change in the manipulated
variable
c) fixed variable
Physical quantity is set to remain constant
72
throughout the experiment

5. Forming hypothesis
Statement of expected outcome that usually
state the relationship between manipulated &
responding variable

73

Example 1.5.1
1.

During a physical session,


Rosman Swung & fro using
rope which is tied to a tree.
It is observed Rosman took
a longer time to swing & fro
if he used a longer rope
compared to a shorter rope.
Identify & state the:
- inference
- variables
- hypothesis
74

Inference : The time taken for the rope to swing to & fro
depends on the length of the rope
Variables:
manipulated : length of rope
responding : period to swing and fro /
period of oscillation
fixed
: mass of object
Hypothesis : The longer the rope the longer period to
swing & fro
OR
The longer the rope the longer the period to 75
complete one oscillation

Exercise 1.5.1
1.

Identify & state the:


- inference
- variables
- hypothesis

nference : time taken water to boil depends on its volum


mass
Variable : manipulated = volume/mass of water
respond
= time take to boil
fixed
= initial water temperature/ power

Hypothesis : the larger volume of water the longer time


76 tak
to boil

2.

Inference

Identify & state


- inference
- variables
- hypothesis

: maximum height of rebound depends on


original height

Variables : manipulated = original height


respond
= maximum height of rebound
fixed
= ball size/type
Hypothesis : the higher the original height the higher
77
the
maximum rebound height

4. Design & Carry out an experiment


Purpose: to test validity of hypothesis
The result of experiment should show
whether the hypothesis is right or wrong
5. Tabulating data
a) Data without repeated reading
Table 1:

Manipulated
variable

Responding
variable

78

Example:

Mass, m/kg
0.1
0.2
0.3

Extension,
x/cm
2
4
6

Table 2:
Manipulated
variable
Responding
variable

Example:

Mass, m/kg
Extension, x/cm

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

8
79

c) Data with repeated reading

Table 3:
Manipulated
variable

Responding variable
1

Average

Table 4:
Manipulated variable
1
2
Responding
3
variable
avera
ge

80

6. Analysing & interpreting data


a) may involve calculation
b) drawing graph, histogram, pie chart and so
on
1. Example: Linear graph
x

x
x
x

Which is correct?
a)

x
x
x

b)

x
x

x
81

2. Non-linear graph:
x

x
x

Which is correct?
a)

b)

82

y y2 y1
Gradient, m

x x2 x1

(x2, y2)
x

y
(x1, y1)
x

c
x

) Relationship between x and y : y is increase linearly to


) Equation: y = mx + c
where c = y-intercept
83

y y2 y1
Gradient, m

x x2 x1
(x2, y2)
x

y
(x1, y1)
x

x
x

a) Relationship between x and y : y is directly


proportional
to x
b) Equation: y = mx

84

y
c

y y2 y1
Gradient, m

x x2 x1

(x1, y1)
x

y
(x2, y2)
x

The

) Relationship between x and y : y is decrease linearly to


) Equation: y = mx + c, where c = y-intercept
This graph has negative gradient
85

a
Equation : y
x
Normal line

where a is constant

y
x
x

a) Relationship between x and y : y is inversely


proportional
to x
86

a) Relationship between x and y : y is increase


when x
increase
87

7. Conclusion
a) Definition: summary of results of the
experiment & statement of how results relate
to the hypothesis
b) made based on analysis & data interpretation
c) state hypothesis accepted or rejected
8. Precaution
)

Mention how to increase accuracy OR reduce


error

88

Write a report
> inference
> aim
> problem statement (optional)
> variables
> hypothesis
> apparatus & material
> labelled diagram & procedure
> result (data tabulation / observation)
> analysis (calculation/graph)
> discussion
> conclusion
> precaution

89

Example of experiment
Scenario:
During a festive celebration a student observed
two identical lanterns that are tied to strings of
different lengths. He noticed that the lantern with
a longer string took a longer time to complete a
swing. He wanted to test out his observation in the
laboratory
Name : Anonymous
Class : 4 Sc 1
Date : 04.02.2009
Title : Relationship between length of pendulum
and time
to complete one oscillation
90

Aim
Problem
statement
Inference
hypothesis

How is the period of a simple


pendulum dependent on its length?
the longer the thread the longer
the period of oscillation

Variables

Manipulated :
Respond :
Fixed
:

Material
Apparatus

100 cm of thread, pendulum bob


Retort stand with clamp,
stopwatch, protector, metre rule

Diagram
91

Wooden
clamp

Retort stand
thread
< 10o

bob
92

Procedur
e

1. Tie one end of the thread to a pendulum


bob and the other end clamped to the
retort clamp with the help of two pieces of
plywood as shown in figure.
2. Adjust the thread so that the length from
the point it is clamped to the centre of the
bob, L is 20 cm.
3. Oscillate the pendulum at a small angle
(<10).
4. Measure the time t1 for 20 complete
oscillations. Record the reading.
5. Measure the time t2 for another 20
complete oscillations. Record the reading.
6. Determine the mean of t1 and t2, and
record as t. Subsequently, determine the
time taken for one complete oscillation
93
which gives the value of the period of

Procedur
e

8. Record the data in the table provided.


9. Plot a graph of T 2 against length, L

Result:
Pendulum
length, L/cm

20
30
40
50
60
70

Time taken to complete 20


oscillation (s)
t1
t2
Mean,t
13.0
16.1

13.8
17.3

13.4
16.7

Period,
T

T2/s2

t
s
20

0.67
0.84

0.45
0.70
1.25
1.50
1.95
2.25
94

Analysis

T2 against L

T2/s2
2.5

(55, 2.10)
x

2.0

1.5

x
T2

(20, 0.75)

1.0

L
x

0.5

T 2
gradient
L
2.10 0.75

55 20
1.35

35
0.039 s 2 /cm

10

20

L/cm
30

40

50

60

95

Discussio
n

Conclusio

1. Describe the type of the graph of T2


against L.
2. Find period, T, if L = 35 cm from the
graph
From graph, T2 = 1.35 s2
2
T4
= 1.16
s
gradient, m
g
3. .
4 2 ;g = gravitational
g
m
acceleration
Calculate value of g.
Is your g equal to 9.81 m s-2? If not, why?
4. Is the hypothesis accepted of rejected?
Explain your answer.
96
- Hypothesis is accepted.

Precaution -

Oscillate the pendulum at a small angle


(<10) to reduce error
Repeat the measurement and take the
mean value to reduce error

97

T2/s2
2.5

(40, 1.55)

2.0

1.5

1.0

(0,0)
0.5

10

20

L/cm
30

40

50

60

70

98