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You are on page 1of 98

INTRODUCTIO

N TO

PHYSICS

1

PHYSICS?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physics

Physics (Greek: physis

meaning "nature") is the

natural science which examines

basic concepts such as energy, force,

and spacetime and all that derives

from these, such as mass, charge,

matter[1] and its motion.

2

CONTINUE

[2]

[4]

analysis of nature, conducted in

order to understand how the world

and universe behave. [3]

Note that the term 'universe' is

defined as everything that physically

exists: the entirely of space and time,

all forms of matter, energy and

momentum, and the physical laws

3

CONTINUE

Physics is a branch of science which

studies physical and natural

phenomena around us. (Sasbadi)

Physics is a branch of science

concerning the study of natural

phenomena, that is, properties of

matter and energy. (Pelangi)

4

CONTINUE

Physics is a branch of science

centred on the study of matter,

energy and the connection between

them. (Text book)

Knowledge of physics can help us

understand natural phenomena such

as formation of rainbows, solar

eclipse, the cause of sunset and sun

rise, etc.

Heat

Light

Electricity and electromagnetism

Nuclear physics

Electronics

Wave

7

Career in Physics?

Field of

physics

Engineering

Research

Education

Industry

Medical

Career

Mechanical, electrical,

computer

Scientist, professor,

astronaut,

Lecturer, teacher, education

officer

Geophysician, quality

control engineer

8

Radiologist, technician,

Quantities

Physical

Quantities

= Quantities that

can be measured

Derived

quantities

= physical quantities that

derived from combination

of base quantities through

multiplication, division or both

Base

quantities

= physical quantities that

cannot be defined in

terms of other physical

quantities

9

Base Quantities

Base

quantities

Symbol

SI unit

Symbol of

SI unit

Time

Mass

Electric

current

t

m

I

second

kilogram

Ampere

s

kg

A

Length

Temperature

l

T

Metre

kelvin

m

K

10

Derived quantities

Derived

quantities

Symbol

quantities

Derived unit

Area

length x length

m2

Volume

m3

Density

mass

length length length

kg m-3

Acceleration

velocity

time

m s-2

Force

mass x acceleration

kg m s-2

Momentum

kg m s-1

Pressure

mass x velocity

force

pressure

area

N m-2

11

Derived quantities

Derived

quantities

Symbol

Work

Power

Frequency

Electric charge

Voltage

quantities

Derived unit

force

Work

Power

Time

1

frequency

period

s-1 or hertz (Hz)

Charge = electric

A s or coulomb

current x time

(C)

Work

V

Electric charge

12

Scientific notation or standard form

Given:

1. 12000

= 1.2 x 104

2. 6700000000

= 6.7 x 109

3. 10000000000000000 = 1 x 1016

Standard form

Solution:

13

Solution: 8730000000 = 8.73 x 109

Example 2: Write 0.00000000056 in standard form.

Solution:

Exercise 2: Write 0.000000606 in standard form

Solution: 0.000000606 = 6.06 x 10-7

14

Conclusion

1. Scientific notation or standard form is a method to write the

numerical values which are very big or very small in a

simpler way.

2. Standard form can be summarised as:

15

Prefixes

1. 90 cm

2. 600 nm

prefix

3. 2 km

4. 1.66 GHz

5. 512 MB

16

very big or very small.

2. Observe the list of prefix and multiplication factors given

below.

Sub-multiple Prefix

10-1

deci

10-2

centi

10-3

mili

10-6

micro

10-9

nano

10-12

pico

Symbol

d

c

m

n

p

Multiple

101

102

103

106

109

1012

prefix

deca

hecto

kilo

mega

giga

tera

Symbol

da

h

k

M

G

T

17

18

a) 5000 m

= 5 x 103 m = 5 km

b) 50000000 Hz

= 50 x 106 Hz = 50 MHz

c) 0.00000007 m

= 70 x 10-9 m = 70 nm

a) 65000000 g

b) 0.00000056 J

c) 0.0005 W

19

Unit Conversion

Example 4: Convert following quantities

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

21 cm to nm

20 km to mm

800 g to Gg

20 m s-1 to km h-1

36 km h-1 to m s-1

800 g cm-3 to kg m-3

12 kg m3 to g cm-3

20

Unit Conversion

Simply method especially for multiple choice questions

1) x km h 1 x 3.6 m s 1

Example 5: convert 30 km h-1 to m s-1

Solution:

30 km h1 (30 3.6) m s 1

1

8 m s 1

3

8.33 m s 1

21

Unit Conversion

Simply method especially for multiple choice questions

2) x m s 1 x 3.6 km h 1

Example 6: convert 30 m s-1 to km h-1

Solution:

30 m s 1 (30 3.6) km h1

108 km h1

22

Unit Conversion

3) x g cm 3 x 1000 kg m 3

Example 7: Convert 0.98 g cm-3 to kg m-3

Solution:

0.98 g cm 3 (0.98 1000) kg m 3

980 kg m3

23

Unit Conversion

Simply method especially for multiple choice questions

4) x kg m 3 x 1000 g cm 3

Example 8: Convert 7800 kg m-3 to g cm-3

Solution:

7800 kg m 3 (7800 1000) g cm 3

7.8 g cm 3

24

Unit Conversion

Exercise 4: Convert the following quantities.

a) 45 m s-1 to km h-1

b) 320 km h-1 to m s-1

c) 0.12 g cm-3 to kg m-3

d) 13600 kg m-3 to g cm-3

25

Quantities

1. Scalar quantities is a physical quantities which

Scalar quantities SI unit

Scalar quantities

SI unit

Length/distance

Time

Electric current

m

s

A

speed

Area

Volume

m s-1

m2

m3

Temperature

Mass

Pressure

kg

Pa

Power

Density

W

kg m-3

26

Example

:

Distance = 100 m

Unit

Scalar

quantity

Magnitud

e

27

Vector quantities

SI unit

Vector quantities

SI unit

Displacement

Velocity

m

m s-1

Momentum

kg m s-1

Acceleration

m s-2

Force

Weight

Torque

Nm

28

Example:

The car shown in figure 1 moves at velocity of 60

km h-1 to the left.

60 km h1

left

road

Unit

Velocity

Vector

quantity

60 km h-1

Magnitud

e

to the left

Direction

29

1.4.1: Estimation of Dimensions

1. Suitable instruments are required for

must be presented in suitable unit.

2. Sometimes no suitable instruments can be

this case estimation in used.

3. In the estimation of dimensions,

a) A small sample is used for determining the big

value.

30

b) A big sample is used for determining the small

Thickness of a piece of

paper

Method:

a) Measure the thickness of 100 pieces of

paper = l mm, by using ruler.

l

mm

b) Therefore the thickness a piece of paper

is

100

31

Volume of a drop of

water

Method:

a) Drip 100 drops of water into a measuring

cylinder and the volume is measured = V

V

cm3.

cm 3

100

b) Then the volume of a drop of water =

32

Diameter of wire

Method:

a) Coil the wire 20 times as shown in figure.

b) Ensure that there is no space between the

coils.

l

c) Measure the value of l using

mm ruler.

20 =

d) Average diameter of wire

33

school

Method:

a) Calculate the area of a tile by using this

formula:

Area, A = length x width

b) The length and width of a tile can be

determined by using a ruler.

c) Count the number of tile, n, in the toilet

34

Vernier Callipers

35

up to 10 cm.

2. Vernier callipers can measured up to

3. Vernier callipers consist of main scale and

vernier scale.

4. The outer jaws are used to measure outer

5.

diameter of a container

6.

container

36

Method of

reading Vernier

Callipers

Vernier

callipers

reading

=

Reading on

the main

scale +

Reading on

the vernier

scale

3.18 cm

37

Example 1.4.2

1. A pair of vernier callipers is used to measure

the handphone?

38

Exercise 1.4.2

1. A pair of vernier callipers is used to measure

diameter 0f the metal ball?

39

Micrometer Screw

Gauge

1. The micrometer screw gauge is used to

object.

2. This instrument can measure up to an

accuracy of 0.01 mm

40

0.5division is

divisions where each

0.01 mm

mm or

50

41

scale

42

Exercise 1.4.2

2. What is the reading of the micrometer?

43

1. Accuracy of an measuring instrument is the

which are close to actual value.

Actual value

x

x

accurate

inaccurate

44

with little or no deviation among measurement.

x

x

x

inconsistent

xx

x

consistent

45

the quantity to be measured.

46

accuracy

Distribution of

gunshot

xx

xx

x

x xx

Conclusion

1. All shot are close to

each other but far from

the target.

2. Shots are consistent but

not accurate

1. Shots are closer to the

target but scattered

from each other.

2. Shots are accurate but

47

not consistent

accuracy

Distribution of

gunshot

the target and close

each other.

xx

xx

x

x

x

Conclusion

accurate

1. Shots are far from the

target and scattered

from each other.

2. Shots are inaccurate

and inconsistent

48

1. Since no measurement can be absolutely

measurement.

2. An error is the difference between the

3. There is two main types of errors in

error.

49

Systematic Error

1. A systematic error is an error in reading the

measured.

2. It is caused by the instrument, observers

and surroundings.

3. The systematic error in the measurement of

a) The reading is always bigger than the true

value, or

b) The reading is always smaller than the true

value

50

a) Zero error occurs when the reading shown

true reading is zero.

b) Slow reaction when using an instrument

causes an error. For example, there may

be a delay in pressing stop watch.

c) An error caused by incorrect calibration of

instruments.

5. Systematic error can be overcome by proper

51

Callipers

1. For the vernier callipers which have zero

error the reading is corrected through the

following formula:

Correct reading reading obtained - zero error

the scale will be as in figure below

52

Main scale

Vernier scale

53

Main scale

Vernier scale

54

Example 1.4.4

1. Figure (a) shows the reading of the vernier

shows the reading when a ball bearing is

placed between the jaws. What is the

diameter of the bearing?

0

10

(a)

10

(b)

55

Example 1.4.4

2. Figure (a) shows the reading of the vernier

shows the reading when a ball bearing is

placed between the jaws. What is the

diameter of the bearing?

0

10

(a)

10

(b)

56

Exercise 1.4.4

1. Figure (a) shows the reading of the vernier

callipers when the jaws are closed. Figure (b)

shows the reading when a glass rod is placed

between the jaws. What is the diameter of

the rod?

0

10

(a)

10

(b)

57

Exercise 1.4.4

2. Figure (a) shows the reading of the vernier

callipers when the jaws are closed. Figure (b)

shows the reading when a glass rod is placed

between the jaws. What is the diameter of

the rod?

0

10

(a)

10

(b)

58

Gauge

1. For the micrometer screw gauge which have

zero error the reading is corrected through

the following formula:

Correct reading reading obtained - zero error

59

Positive zero

error

ro error = 0.03 mm

60

ro error = 0.02 mm

61

Example 1.4.4

3. Figure (a) before measurement a micrometer

screw gauge. Figure (b) shows how

micrometer screw gauge is used to measure

the thickness of a ruler. What is the

thickness of the ruler?

0

10

25

20

5

mm

mm

15

(a)

(b)

62

Example 1.4.4

4. Figure (a) before measurement a micrometer

screw gauge. Figure (b) shows how

micrometer screw gauge is used to measure

the thickness of a wire. What is the thickness

of the wire?

35

0 1

30

45

mm

mm

25

40

(a)

(b)

63

Exercise 1.4.4

3. Figure (a) before measurement a micrometer

screw gauge. Figure (b) shows how

micrometer screw gauge is used to measure

the thickness of a ruler. What is the

thickness of the ruler?

1

30

25

mm

(a)

45

40

mm

(b)

64

Exercise 1.4.4

4. Figure (a) before measurement a micrometer

screw gauge. Figure (b) shows how

micrometer screw gauge is used to measure

the thickness of a wire. What is the thickness

of the wire?

45

0 1

35

45

mm

40

(a)

mm

30

(b)

65

Random Error

1. A random error is an error due mistakes

made when measurements are taken either

through incorrect positioning of the eye or

sudden change of environment factor.

2. A reading obtained when a random error

occurs can be bigger or smaller than the true

value.

3. Random error can be reduce by repeat the

measurement and take the average.

66

a) Parallax

positioning of the eye when taking a

reading.

= correct position of eye

67

Antiparallax

mirror

68

b) Error due miscount, for example when

simple pendulum.

c) Natural

errors

i.e.

changes

temperature, humidity or wind.

in

69

1.5.1: Scientific Methods in Physics

1. Scientific methods an orderly method which

2. A scientific investigator must be able to

way.

3. Proper organisation of information may

70

1. Identify the problem:

2. Observation involve

senses to gather

information about

object or event

71

before a study is made

4. Identify variables:

a) manipulated variable

Physical quantity which value can be fixed

by experimenter

b) responding variable

Physical quantity that changes its value in

respond to the change in the manipulated

variable

c) fixed variable

Physical quantity is set to remain constant

72

throughout the experiment

5. Forming hypothesis

Statement of expected outcome that usually

state the relationship between manipulated &

responding variable

73

Example 1.5.1

1.

Rosman Swung & fro using

rope which is tied to a tree.

It is observed Rosman took

a longer time to swing & fro

if he used a longer rope

compared to a shorter rope.

Identify & state the:

- inference

- variables

- hypothesis

74

Inference : The time taken for the rope to swing to & fro

depends on the length of the rope

Variables:

manipulated : length of rope

responding : period to swing and fro /

period of oscillation

fixed

: mass of object

Hypothesis : The longer the rope the longer period to

swing & fro

OR

The longer the rope the longer the period to 75

complete one oscillation

Exercise 1.5.1

1.

- inference

- variables

- hypothesis

mass

Variable : manipulated = volume/mass of water

respond

= time take to boil

fixed

= initial water temperature/ power

76 tak

to boil

2.

Inference

- inference

- variables

- hypothesis

original height

respond

= maximum height of rebound

fixed

= ball size/type

Hypothesis : the higher the original height the higher

77

the

maximum rebound height

Purpose: to test validity of hypothesis

The result of experiment should show

whether the hypothesis is right or wrong

5. Tabulating data

a) Data without repeated reading

Table 1:

Manipulated

variable

Responding

variable

78

Example:

Mass, m/kg

0.1

0.2

0.3

Extension,

x/cm

2

4

6

Table 2:

Manipulated

variable

Responding

variable

Example:

Mass, m/kg

Extension, x/cm

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

8

79

Table 3:

Manipulated

variable

Responding variable

1

Average

Table 4:

Manipulated variable

1

2

Responding

3

variable

avera

ge

80

a) may involve calculation

b) drawing graph, histogram, pie chart and so

on

1. Example: Linear graph

x

x

x

x

Which is correct?

a)

x

x

x

b)

x

x

x

81

2. Non-linear graph:

x

x

x

Which is correct?

a)

b)

82

y y2 y1

Gradient, m

x x2 x1

(x2, y2)

x

y

(x1, y1)

x

c

x

) Equation: y = mx + c

where c = y-intercept

83

y y2 y1

Gradient, m

x x2 x1

(x2, y2)

x

y

(x1, y1)

x

x

x

proportional

to x

b) Equation: y = mx

84

y

c

y y2 y1

Gradient, m

x x2 x1

(x1, y1)

x

y

(x2, y2)

x

The

) Equation: y = mx + c, where c = y-intercept

This graph has negative gradient

85

a

Equation : y

x

Normal line

where a is constant

y

x

x

proportional

to x

86

when x

increase

87

7. Conclusion

a) Definition: summary of results of the

experiment & statement of how results relate

to the hypothesis

b) made based on analysis & data interpretation

c) state hypothesis accepted or rejected

8. Precaution

)

error

88

Write a report

> inference

> aim

> problem statement (optional)

> variables

> hypothesis

> apparatus & material

> labelled diagram & procedure

> result (data tabulation / observation)

> analysis (calculation/graph)

> discussion

> conclusion

> precaution

89

Example of experiment

Scenario:

During a festive celebration a student observed

two identical lanterns that are tied to strings of

different lengths. He noticed that the lantern with

a longer string took a longer time to complete a

swing. He wanted to test out his observation in the

laboratory

Name : Anonymous

Class : 4 Sc 1

Date : 04.02.2009

Title : Relationship between length of pendulum

and time

to complete one oscillation

90

Aim

Problem

statement

Inference

hypothesis

pendulum dependent on its length?

the longer the thread the longer

the period of oscillation

Variables

Manipulated :

Respond :

Fixed

:

Material

Apparatus

Retort stand with clamp,

stopwatch, protector, metre rule

Diagram

91

Wooden

clamp

Retort stand

thread

< 10o

bob

92

Procedur

e

bob and the other end clamped to the

retort clamp with the help of two pieces of

plywood as shown in figure.

2. Adjust the thread so that the length from

the point it is clamped to the centre of the

bob, L is 20 cm.

3. Oscillate the pendulum at a small angle

(<10).

4. Measure the time t1 for 20 complete

oscillations. Record the reading.

5. Measure the time t2 for another 20

complete oscillations. Record the reading.

6. Determine the mean of t1 and t2, and

record as t. Subsequently, determine the

time taken for one complete oscillation

93

which gives the value of the period of

Procedur

e

9. Plot a graph of T 2 against length, L

Result:

Pendulum

length, L/cm

20

30

40

50

60

70

oscillation (s)

t1

t2

Mean,t

13.0

16.1

13.8

17.3

13.4

16.7

Period,

T

T2/s2

t

s

20

0.67

0.84

0.45

0.70

1.25

1.50

1.95

2.25

94

Analysis

T2 against L

T2/s2

2.5

(55, 2.10)

x

2.0

1.5

x

T2

(20, 0.75)

1.0

L

x

0.5

T 2

gradient

L

2.10 0.75

55 20

1.35

35

0.039 s 2 /cm

10

20

L/cm

30

40

50

60

95

Discussio

n

Conclusio

against L.

2. Find period, T, if L = 35 cm from the

graph

From graph, T2 = 1.35 s2

2

T4

= 1.16

s

gradient, m

g

3. .

4 2 ;g = gravitational

g

m

acceleration

Calculate value of g.

Is your g equal to 9.81 m s-2? If not, why?

4. Is the hypothesis accepted of rejected?

Explain your answer.

96

- Hypothesis is accepted.

Precaution -

(<10) to reduce error

Repeat the measurement and take the

mean value to reduce error

97

T2/s2

2.5

(40, 1.55)

2.0

1.5

1.0

(0,0)

0.5

10

20

L/cm

30

40

50

60

70

98

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