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@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Geoprocessing
Geoprocessing is the processing of geographic
information.
Three general classes of tools
Breaking features into smaller features (e.g. Clip,
Intersect, Union)
Aggregating features into larger features (e.g. Dissolve,Merge)
Creating new polygon features through buffering (e.g.
Buffer)
@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Geoprocessing

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Slide courtesy of Leslie Morrissey

Introduction to GIS

Geoprocessing in ArcGIS
Perform geoprocessing in ArcGIS
Run a tool using its dialog box.
Run tools at a command line.
Build and run a model
Create and run a script

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Geoprocessing in ArcGIS
Perform geoprocessing in ArcGIS
Run a tool using its dialog box.
Run tools at a command line.
Build and run a model
Create and run a script

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Tools: Geoprocessing
Tools for breaking down the size of map

features:
Union, Intersect, Identity, Clip

Tools for increasing the size of map features:


Dissolve and Merge (indirectly)
Arc/Info and Arc Toolbox include various

other geoprocessing overlay operations,


such as Update and Dissolve Regions

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Union

Combines features of two or several themes


Keeps all line work
Breaks down features, and creates new
polygons
Keeps all attributes

Image source: ESRI Arc Info electronic help


@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Tools: Union
Polygons
only

A list of
Polygons

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Find the Geoprocessing Tools

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Intersect

Yields areas that are common to both

layers
Preserves line work within common extent
Usually creates many new, smaller polygons
Preserves all attributes from both

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Tools: Intersect
Two
layers

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Union vs. Intersection


Union is the union of two overlapping set of

features and intersection is the intersection

1 AND 2

Intersect:
Layer 1

+ Layer 2

Union:

1 OR 2
Layer 1

+ Layer 2
@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Union vs. Intersection:


Example
Heres an example. Say we have deer
wintering areas in one layer and conserved
lands in another.

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Union vs. Intersection:


Example
Union gives us land that is EITHER
conserved OR that is a deer wintering areas

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Union vs. Intersection:


Example
Intersect gives us land that is BOTH, and preserves
all polygon boundaries within that common extent

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Identity

Identity performs an intersection but doesnt

retain ALL features


Keeps all input layer features
Keeps/creates only overlapping identity features

and their attributes

Kept, as with union

Common
(intersecting) areas

Not kept, as
with intersect
@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Clip

This uses one theme to clip, or serve as

the outer boundary of another theme


Breaks down features into smaller units
Preserve the input themes attributes

Polygon only
Point, line, or
polygon
@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Tools: Clip

Point,
line,
polygon

Polygon

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Clipping highways for Merced

Note that the use selected features only option was used
@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Clipping roads

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Dissolve

Tool for aggregating polygonsmaking

them bigger.
Single layer operation

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Tools: Dissolve

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Dissolve: Example

Dissolve zip codes (small) into counties

(large)

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Dissolve: Example
Choose the dissolve field: e.g. Dissolve based

on the County field

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Dissolve : Example

Summarize the resulting field values. For instance, you could


sum population for each county, or average size of ZIP code
zones for each county

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Dissolve : Example
Now we have

created a
county map,
and for each
county we
have an
attribute
containing the
sum of
population of
the constituent
zip codes
@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Merge

Allows you to join two adjacent or non-

adjacent themes into the same layer


Like tiling
Best when attributes match

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Tool: Merge

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Merge

Often when you merge you will want to

follow up by dissolving.

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Tools: Buffering

Buffering is when you draw a polygon

around a feature (point, line or polygon)

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Tools: Buffering
Based on
distance

Based on
attribute

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Introduction to GIS

Tools:Variable Width Buffering

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Combining Geoprocessing
Tools
Involve multiple tasks performed in sequence, such

as those that clip, buffer, intersect, union, then


select datasets.
Step by step
Build and run a model
Create and run a script

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Combining Buffering and


Geoprocessing: Example
Question: How to find areas that are near

deer wintering areas and water bodies but


far from traffic?
Geospatial Data
Polygon layer for deer wintering areas
Polygon layer for Water bodies
Roads layer: line features
@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Combining Buffering and


Geoprocessing:
Example
Question: How to find areas that are near deer
wintering areas and water bodies but far from traffic?

Near or Far from: Buffering


Areas that are near deer wintering areas AND

water bodies: Intersect


Combining the layers: Union
Selecting: Query for areas that are not within a
traffic buffer
@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Combining Buffering and


Geoprocessing: Example

Buffering:

Made fixed
buffers
around deer
wintering
areas and
water
bodies, and
a variable
buffer
around
roads, based
on traffic
@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Combining Buffering and


Geoprocessing:
Example

Intersecti
ng: The
intersection
of deer
wintering
buffers and
water
buffers (the
area in the
red)

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Combining Buffering and


Geoprocessing: Example

The

union of
that
intersecti
on with
the traffic
buffer:

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Combining Buffering and


Geoprocessing: Example
Selecting:

Query for
polygons that
are not
within (far
from) a traffic
buffer

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Combining Buffering and


Geoprocessing: Example
Create a new

layer by
exporting the
selected
features
(polygons)

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Introduction to GIS

Geoprocessing Summary

Union

Intersect

Identity

Clip

Dissolve

@ 2007 Austin Troy

Merge

Buffer