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Periodization

KNPE 459
Spring 2015

What Is Periodization?

Planned progression of resistance exercises that


intentionally varies the training stimuli,
especially with respect to intensity and volume.

Systematically changing the exercise variables


appears to be more effective for attaining both
strength development and peak performance
than standard resistance training protocols.

The advantage of periodization over nonperiodized exercise programs is that the changing
demands on the neuromuscular system require
progressively higher levels of stress adaptations
in the athletes body.

Periodization

The goal with periodization is to maximize your gains


while also reducing your risk of injury and the staleness
of the protocol over the long term.

It also addresses peak performance for competition or


meets.

If appropriately arranged:

Can peak the athlete multiple times over a competitive season

Olympic weightlifting

Powerlifting

Track and field

Can optimize an athletes performance over an entire


competitive season

Football

Soccer

Basketball

Periodization

Think of periodization as a continuum

When we desire a specific training objective it does not matter


what phase the training is in.

Rather, we should focus our energy on the training stimulation


being applied during this objective, and ensure it features
extensive repetitions and volume without the chance of different
stimulation that would disrupt the adaptation changes taking place.

An intelligently designed training year will encompass smaller


blocks of time that each has its own goals or priorities.

This type of overall schedule will encompass all of the aspects of


the athletes programming

Strength

Power

Plyo

Speed

Why we periodize?

There are numerous proven benefits to utilizing a form


of periodization for your planned progression:

Management of fatigue, reducing risk of over-training by


managing factors such as load, intensity, and recovery
The cyclic structure maximizes both general preparation
and specific preparation for sport.
Ability to optimize performance over a specific period of
time
Accounting for the individual, including time constraints,
training age and status, and environmental factors.

Periodized training is
divided into three time
segments

Macrocycle: This is the largest division. This typically constitutes an entire


training year, but may also be a period of many months up to four years (think
Olympic athletes). Within the macrocycle are two or more mesocycles.

Mesocycle: This cycle last several weeks to several months. The length of time
depends on the goals of the individual and, if applicable, the number of sport
competitions contained within the time period. Each mesocycle is divided into two
or more microcycles.

Microcycle: This cycle typically lasts one or two weeks, but can last for up to four
weeks depending on the program. This short cycle focuses on daily and weekly
training variations.

(Macrocycle)

Should Be Mesocycle

Periodization Periods

Periodization periods are planned


implementations of the meso- and microcycles within an overall macrocycle.

These form the basis for changing the


program design variables.

Usually, the intensity and volume aspects of


the training and conditioning programs are
manipulated the most.

Periodization Periods

1. Preparatory Period

Usually the longest and occurs when there are


no competitions and only a limited number of
sport-specific skill practice sessions.
Major emphasis in this period is establishing a
base level of conditioning to increase tolerance
for more intense training later on.

Periodization Periods

1. Prep Period Cont.

A. Hypertrophy/Endurance Phase: This phase lasts one to six weeks


and is low intensity and high volume. The aim is to increase lean
body mass and/or develop endurance (muscular, metabolic, or
both).
B. Basic Strength Phase: This phase focuses on increasing strength
of muscles essential to the primary sports movements. This phase
involves heavier loads and a lower volume, working at 80-90% of
one-rep maxes at three to eight reps (depending on the body type).
C. Strength/Power Phase: Intensity in this phase is at or near
competitive pace. Individuals will work speed, plyometric drills, and
intervals. During this period the individual is still working high loads
and low volumes. Load assignment for power movements will not
be the typical percentage of the one-rep max, but relative
intensities are still elevated.

Periodization Periods

2. First Transition Period

This period denotes the break between highvolume training and high-intensity training.
This period should provide one week of low
intensity and low volume before going into
high intensity training in the next period.

Deload/Taper

Periodization Periods

3. Competition Period

Here the goal is for the individual to reach his or her peak in
strength and power through further increases in training
intensity with additional decreases in training volume.
The competition period is also dedicated to working on skill
and technique as well as working on game strategy.
While there is a decrease in training volume, the time spent
is placed in other areas.
This would be the time to hone areas where the athlete
may be weakest (skill work) and look at past competition
workouts to figure out strategies that will best fit the
athlete to get the best time or weight.

Periodization Periods

4. Second Transition Period

This period is also known as the active rest or


restoration period.
It is between one and four weeks long and focuses on
unstructured, non-sport specific recreational activities
performed at low intensities with low volume.
As secondary use of the active rest concept is inserting
a one-week break between long phases (unloading or a
deload week).
This unloading week is what preps the body for
increased demand of the next phase.

Types of Periodization

Periodization

Non-Periodized

Altering training volume and intensity across multiple


mesocycles

Undulating Periodization

Constant intensity and volume throughout a training cycle.

Linear Periodization

Planned manipulation of training variables to maximize


adaptations

Daily Undulating Periodization (DUP)


Alterations each training session

Block Periodization

Each macrocycle is divided up into three distinct mesocycles

Two ways to periodize


your programs

Linear and Undulating

If you look at these types of


programs in a graph format,
you will see they look very
different (and their names
gives them away).

Linear periodization provides


a consistent training protocol
within each microcycle and
changes training variables
after each microcycle.

Undulating periodization
provides changes in protocols
during the microcycle in
addition to changing variables
after each microcycle.

Traditional (Linear)
Periodization

Traditional Model:
Linear

The traditional model in the classical sense is simply making changes in


both volume and intensity across multiple mesocycles.

Beginner athletes

General prep

Characterized by longer training periods, less reliance on super


compensation, and a focus of more general training over specific.

The model lays out planned progression in the following way:

General Preparatory Phase

Special Preparatory Phase

Competition Phase

Transition Phase

Benefits:

Overall development of multiple qualities that are important to performance,


as well as a way of being able to focus more on the general overall training
effect of strength development.

Periodized vs.
Non-Periodized
Strength
Back Squat 1RM Increase w/ LP

Group 1 (NP)

Group 2 (NP)

16 wks; 5 x 10 RM

16 wks; 6 x 8 RM

Group 3 (LP)

4 wks; 5 x 10 RM (80% 1
RM)

4 wks; 6 x 8 RM (83% 1 RM)

4 wks; 3 x 6 RM (88% 1 RM)

4 wks; 3 x 4 RM (92% 1 RM)

Group 4 (Control) = No
Training

Mechanisms/Limitation
s of Linear
Periodization

Positive Mechanisms: Allows for more variation than nonperiodized training

Limitations: May lead to loss of specific adaptations due to


extended time in one phase

Motor Unit Recruitment

Conclusion: Linear yields greater gains than non-periodized


training

Better for beginners

Stages

Preparation
A

Competition
C

Strength
Strength Endurance
Example Mesocycles

Cardiovascular Endurance
Anaerobic Endurance

Non-Linear/Undulating
Model

Non-Traditional Model:
Undulating

With undulating design, there is enough


variation in stressors to continually make
progress without allowing your body to fully
adapt to all the stressors taking place

Still accounts for recovery

In undulating design, the stimulus is varied


either within a weekly model (WUP) or in daily
undulating periodization (DUP) where daily
changes are made to either volume or
intensity.

Undulating Design

Weekly Undulating Periodization (WUP)

Daily Undulating Periodization (DUP)

Alterations every week

Alterations each training session

Non-linear Periodization (NLP)

May constitute any undulating design

DUP Is Superior To
Linear
Exercise
Bench
Linear Periodization Press
Leg Press
DUP

Bench
Press

% Increase in 1RM
Strength
14.37%*
28.78%*
25.61%**

Press 2 days/2
55.78%**
20 Trained Males:Leg
At Least
wk. Training for 2
years

12 Week Training Study, 3 days/wk.

*Significantly Different From Baseline

**% Gain Significantly Different From Baseline and LP


Group

DUP Yields Greater


1RM In Trained Males
Than LP

14 WellTrained
Firefighters

3 x wk for 9
Weeks

Increased
power/task
performance

How To Design DUP

2 Options how DUP is designed in the


literature

1. Undulate the typical training phases

DUP

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Squat

Hypertrophy

Strength

Power

Training
Emphasis

Repetitions

Intensity

Hypertrophy

8-12

65-75%

Strength

85-95%

Power

1-3

80-90%

How To Design DUP

2 Options DUP is designed in the literature

2. Undulate the reps

DUP

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Squat

4x8

5x6

6x4

No Typical Power Day, but the repetitions still


undulate to classify as DUP

DUP Works, But Is It


Optimal?

Traditional Model: Adapted from Peterson et


al. 2008
DUP
Day 1
Day 2
Day 3
Upper
Hypertrophy Strength
Power
body

Modified Model: Does This Allow For More


DUP
Day 1
Day 2
Day 3
Volume?
Full
Hypertrophy
Power
Strength
Body

Strength is Related to
Volume
*

*p < 0.05, significantly different from HSP

Significant Correlation Between Volume and


Strength

Block
Periodizatio
n

Block Periodization
% 1RM
Block
1) Hypertrophy

2) Strength

3) Power

Week

Sets

Reps

Mon

Wed

Fri

8-10

75

75

70

8-10

80

80

70

8-10

80

80

75

80

80

70

85

85

70

90

90

75

95

90

75

80

90

70

90

85

75

10

95

80

75

General Adaptation
Syndrome

Tapering

Contrary to classic "detraining", as in


dropping the bar on Friday and lying around
on the couch for 14-28 days, tapering
revolves around 2-4 weeks (if you want also
only one) of intense but very low volume
training.

Common misconception about tapering is that


to reduce training intensity or volume
immediately before a competition may
decrease exercise performance through
detraining.

Tapering

Applying Sport Seasons


to the Periodization Periods

Off-Season

Preseason

Leads up to the first contest and commonly contains the late


stages of the preparatory period and the first transition period

In-Season

Between the postseason and six weeks (although this varies


greatly) prior to the first contest of the next years season

Contains all the contests scheduled for that year, including any
tournament games

Postseason

After the final contest


Active or relative rest for the athlete before the start of the
next years off-season or preparatory period

Macrocycle for Tennis

BS = basic strength

SP = strength/power

P = peaking

AR = active rest

Macrocycle for a Team


Sport

Blue line = emphasis on sport technique training


or practice

Example of a
Macrocycle

In-Season Mesocycle (Competition Period)

Goal to maintain and possibly improve


strength, power, flexibility, and anaerobic
conditioning
Resistance training limited to 30 minutes one
to three times per week, alternated with
plyometric training
Majority of the athletes time spent on skill and
strategy development

Example of a
Macrocycle

Postseason Mesocycle (Active Rest Period)

No formal or structured workouts


Recreational activities at low intensity and
volume

Off-Season Mesocycle

Testing at the beginning and end of the offseason


Resistance training higher priority (example
progresses to a four days per week split
program)
Aerobic endurance training and flexibility

Periodization

Periodization has stood the test of time for the


simple fact that there are so many
progressions and ways to structure your
training so that you can be at your best when
it matters most.

Failing to utilize any form of periodization for


your training could lead to overtraining,
failure to recover appropriately for
progression, and the inability to see the
progress you deserve from the time you put in
training.

Rugby Example

Bi-Cycle Plan

Preparatory phase I: The first preparatory phase, which should be the longest, lasts
approximately 3 months and is broken into general and specific subphases.

Competition phase I: The first competitive phase lasts about 2 1/2 months and brings the
athlete to a peak performance.

Transition phase I: The first transition phase lasts approximately 1 to 2 weeks and is
marked by a period of unloading to recover the athlete. This phase leads into the second
preparatory phase.

Preparatory phase II: The second preparatory phase is shorter than the first preparatory
phase, lasting approximately 2 months. This phase has a much shorter general
preparatory subphase, with most of the training being performed in the specific
preparatory subphase.

Competition phase II: The second competitive phase is slightly longer, about 3 1/2 months,
and brings the athlete to a peak performance.

Transition Phase II: The second transition phase is approximately 1 1/2 months long and is
used to unload and recover the athlete. This phase links to the next annual training plan.

Tri-Cycle Plan

Preparatory phase I: Preparatory phase I is the longest preparatory phase of the annual training plan, lasting
around 2 months. It contains both general and specific preparatory subphases.

Competition phase I: Competitive phase I is the shortest of the three competitive phases in the annual training
plan, lasting around 1 1/2 months.

Transition Phase I: The first transition phase is very short and links the first competitive phase with the second
preparatory phase. As with all transition phases, there is a period of unloading to allow the athlete to recover.

Preparatory phase II: Preparatory phase II is shorter than the first preparatory phase, lasting around 1 1/2
months. This preparatory phase only contains a specific preparatory phase.

Competition phase II: Competitive phase II is longer than the first competitive phase, lasting approximately 1 3/4
months.

Transition phase II: The second transition phase contains a short period of unloading designed to allow the athlete
to recover from competition. This transition is also short because it links competitive phase II to preparation
phase III.

Preparatory phase III: This preparatory phase is a short preparatory phase lasting only about 1 1/2 months. As
with the second preparatory phase, only the specific preparatory subphase is used.

Competitive phase III: This competitive phase is the longest of the three competitive phases contained in the tricycle annual training plan (~2 months). As such this phase should peak the athlete for the most major
competition of the year.

Transition phase III: This transition phase is the longest transition phase contained in the annual training plan
lasting approximately 1 month. It serves an important role in inducing recovery and preparing the athlete for the
next annual training plan.

The Micro Cycle

The micro cycle is the recruitment of a number of different training


sessions.

There should be at least two training sessions per micro cycle that
consist of different types of workouts.

The micro cycle also should have specific meaning and purpose.

There are many different types of micro cycles including the


introduction, restorative, competitive and the shock micro cycle.

The average micro cycle will range five to ten days with the
average being seven days.

The Micro Cycle

The Introduction Micro:

This cycle can and should be used for a number


of introduction purposes.
It can be used for educational purposes to teach
the clients or athletes about the training program
and all its variables.
This is a very important aspect of training that
many coaches and trainers overlook.
The client or athlete must know how the program
was designed and why it was designed that way.

Better yet, they should be a part of the program


design.

The Micro Cycle

A second type of introduction micro cycle may


be used to introduce the trainee to the
exercises theyll be performing over the next
few cycles.

Walk through" of the different exercises and get


used to the correct form and technique that'll be
needed for the higher intensities later on.

Exercise technique is another overlooked


aspect of most training programs today.

You'd think with the number of trainers and


coaches around today that this problem would
be getting better, but in many ways it's worse.

The Micro Cycle

The Restorative Micro:

This cycle is designed to aid in the recovery process.


It can involve anything from taking a week off to
implementing some restorative techniques such as
contrast showers, steams, saunas, massage, active rest
or "feeder" workouts.
Deload week or taper weeks

Active rest involves those workouts that implement a


type of training other than what the athlete normally
does.

For a weightlifter this can include walking, or for a


football player, playing basketball.

The Micro Cycle

The Competitive Micro:

For a powerlifter this would consists of the five to seven days right before the
competition.

For the football player this can be the last three to six days before the game.

During this time they might lower the training volume and intensity.

Might also keep intensity high but volume low

Individualize

The week before can make or break the outcome of the competition.

This is the cycle leading up to the competition or event.

Too much work and the lifter will go into the meet overtrained and tired.
Too little work and he'll go in under prepared.

It becomes a tight balancing act during the season to ensure the


optimum amount of training with the right amount of recovery and
restoration.

The Micro Cycle

The Shock Micro:

This micro cycle is designed around shocking


the body into new growth and adaptation.
This shock can come in many forms and can
range from taking a week off to a high volume
training cycle.

The Western
(Traditional) Method of
Periodization
Hypertrophy Phase

Intended to condition and build muscle


mass.

Characterized by a high volume and


low intensity.

Volume = amount of repetitions


being preformed

Intensity = amount of weight lifted


in relation to your 1RM.

The typical load or intensity lifted is in


the 50 to 70% range for three to five
sets of 8 to 20 reps.

The average rest between sets is two


to three minutes and the average
length of the entire phase is between
four to six weeks.

These parameters are intended to build


a solid base of support for the
upcoming strength phase.

Sample Hypertrophy Meso


Cycle

Wee
ks

Set
s

Rep
s

Intensi
ty

Rest

10

62%

3
min.

10

64%

3
min.

10

66%

3
min.

68%

3
min.

70%

3
min.

The Western
(Traditional) Method of
Periodization
Strength Phase

The goals of the strength


phase is to, you guessed it,
increase muscle strength.
The parameters for this
phase are characterized with
a typical load between 75 to
90%, utilizing three to five
sets of 2 to 6 reps.
The average rest is 2 to 4
minutes and the duration is
4 to 6 weeks.
As you can see, the intensity
is beginning to increase
while the volume is
beginning to decrease.

Sample Strength Meso Cycle


Wee
ks

Set
s

Rep
s

Intensi
ty

Rest

75%

3
min.

77%

3
min.

79%

3
min.

82%

3
min.

85%

3
min.

The Western
(Traditional) Method of
Periodization
Power Phase

This phase is designed to


increase the overall power
of the athlete.
The parameters of this
phase are characterized
by performing three to five
sets of 2 to 5 reps with
86% to 93% intensity.
The duration of this phase
is normally 4 weeks.
The rest is usually
between 3 to 5 minutes.

Sample Power Meso Cycle


Wee
ks

Set
s

Rep
s

Intensi
ty

Rest

87%

3
min.

89%

3
min.

91%

4
min.

93%

5
min.

The Western
(Traditional) Method of
Periodization
Peak Phase

This is the final phase of


strength development.

This phase is designed to


"peak" on all the abilities that
have been developed earlier.

The peak phase is


characterized by performing
two to three sets of 1 to 3 reps
with 93% or more.

The average rest is now


increased to 4 to 7 minutes and
the duration is 1 to 4 weeks.

You'll again notice that the


volume is lower and the
intensity is increased.

Sample Peak Meso Cycle


Wee
ks

Set
s

Rep
s

Intensi
ty

Rest

95%

5
min.

97%

7
min.

99%

7
min.

The Western
(Traditional) Method of
Periodization

The Transition or Active Rest Phase:

This is the final phase


This phase can be done a couple of ways.

The first is to perform three to five sets of 10 to 15


reps with 50% of your new one rep max.

The second way is to break away from training


altogether and only perform light physical activity.

For many powerlifters and strength athletes this


phase is normally just taking time off and performing
no weightlifting.

Others may choose to go to the gym and perform


bodybuilding style exercises with very little work
done in the classic lifts (squat, bench and deadlift).

The Western
(Traditional) Method of
Periodization

Some of the limitations to this linear style of


periodization include:

It's a percentage-based program


It only has one peak
Your abilities aren't maintained
The program has no direction to the future

As much a 10 to 15% of
strength can be lost in a
period of a few weeks.

If the lifter has lost


10% of his strength
and begins the cycle at
62% of his contest
max, the actual
percent can really be
as high as 72%.

This is why many


times the lifter will
get through three
quarters of the
training cycle and
then start missing
lifts.

With this type of


training you have to
hope your strength
catches up to the
intensity.

Week Set Rep


s
s
s

Intens
ity

Weig
ht

Volum
e

10

62%

372

18600

10

64%

384

15350

10

66%

395

11880

68%

408

9792

70%

420

10080

75%

450

10800

77%

462

8316

79%

474

7110

82%

492

7380

10

85%

510

7650

11

87%

522

4698

12

89%

534

4806

13

91%

546

4914

14

93%

558

3348

15

95%

570

3420

16

97%

582

2328

17

99%

594

1188

How do we decide
what type of plan to
choose?

BOUNDED BY SPORT SCIENCE


RESEARCH AND COACHING
EXPERIENCE

If sport scientists and the best elite coaches through the


times tend to shy away from a certain type of
programming, its likely not going to work best.

Youd be VERY hard pressed to find elite coaches and top


scientists that support a purely linear program.
Very few coaches recommend altering exercises every single
session.
Hardly any of the best coaches and scientists would
recommend radical undulations in repetition ranges and
weights within the week, as in sets of 15 reps and sets of 3
reps in the same week.

This kind of undulation both violates an essential principle in


sport science (directed adaptation) and is very rarely found in
the programming of top coaches in sport around the world.

WHAT SPORT YOURE


DEALING WITH

Program feature inclusion is somewhat sport-specific

For example, the primary overloading variable for shortdistance sprint training is velocity

If peak velocity in training is down by just a small


fraction, overload becomes difficult to present

Fatigue management becomes much more important in


basic sprint training than in the average sport.

Not by accident, good sprinting programs usually tend


to have a higher degree of undulation.

One way to do this is via fast sprints and heavy weights in


the beginning of the week, then much lighter weights
(and lower volumes of training) later in the week, paired
with non-overloading technical work on the track.

WHAT SPORT YOURE


DEALING WITH

On the other end of the undulation spectrum is the


sport of bodybuilding.

The primary overloading variable for bodybuilders is the


total volume of work they can accomplish in training
and actually recover from, so long as the predominance
of that work is above around 60% of the 1RM of the
movement.
Constantly trying to reduce volume loads to keep
fatigue down greatly inhibits how much total work can
be done in any unit of time

If youre managing fatigue too much in bodybuilding, you


end up always having great workouts but never really
improving as fast as you could be

You might be taking too many light days and not enough
stimulus is actually being elicited.

WHAT SPORT YOURE


DEALING WITH

So long as fatigue doesnt get too crazy bodybuilders


are best served training with consistently high
volumes.

Thats what deloads every 4-5 weeks are for


That means almost every bodybuilding workout will be
of roughly the same volume

As close to maximal recoverable volume as possible

The degree of undulation is very slim indeed.

There will be SOME undulation to manage some local


fatigue

Rowing-heavy vs. vertical pulling-heavy back workout


alterations

WHAT PHASE THE


SPORT IS IN

The specificity of a program should likely


increase as the competitive season draws
nearer.

Or single competition depending on the


competitive schedule of the sport
This means exercise variation (aka conjugation)
should be more prominent in the offseason (or
general preparation phase) in most sports, and
should dwindle down in magnitude as the
competition phase or date approaches.

WHAT PHASE THE


SPORT IS IN

Hypertrophy work in powerlifting is best done far


in the offseason, and can be performed using a
wide variety of exercises that can be altered quite
often.

As competition nears, the athlete must become


muscularly, neurally, and technically most familiar
and adapted to the actual competition moves.

Means that in a peaking phase right before a


powerlifting meet, fancy board presses or
cambered bar work is best replaced with a steady
diet of heavy competition-standard lifts for best
performances on the platform.

THE INDIVIDUAL
ATHLETE

Not all humans are exactly the same, and


certainly not all athletes are.

Some athletes thrive on linearity


These tend to be athletes that both recover
quickly and have limitations in athleticism

Technical execution of the lifts does not come


easily to them, and technical consistency does
not hold well in absence of continual practice

THE INDIVIDUAL
ATHLETE

For such athletes, very linear programs are


great

They allow them to make consistent gains while


getting better and better at executing the lifts or
sport moves being training
Powerlifting

Many lift variations and undulations can be


technically overwhelming

When they come back to heavy squats all kind of


technical issues resurface after only a short layoff

THE INDIVIDUAL
ATHLETE

More intermediate athletes tend to have a better technical


basis for lifts and other sport moves

They dont have to be as linear as relative beginners

More intermediate athletes can disrupt homeostasis to such


a degree in training that they simply need more undulation
to recover.

Their technical proficiency in the basic lifts or sport moves is


now high enough that it can be retained for long periods of
training alteration.

That means they can now benefit from a higher degree of


exercise variation without sacrificing basic technical abilities

How do we decide what


type of plan to choose?

Every single time a good coach sits down to


write a program, they consider every single
pertinent feature of the athlete, training
phase, sport, and general theory.

This is a process that has been followed around


the world for decades

This process and the study of it has revealed a


network of practical and theoretical principles
which are used by coaches to organize training

Modern Periodization

The informed and filtered selection of


programming features utilized to draw up
macrocycle plans that enhance training gains
and competitive performance while reducing
injury rates

Close relative to block periodization and


features linear, conjugate (exercise variation),
and undulating elements throughout its
design.

Periodization

Moral of the story?

There is not a pure and perfect program, and


there is not a competition between various
programming features as to which one is best.

Planning the Training

Information Gathering

The first stage of preparing a Training Plan is to gather


background information about your athlete and the
objectives for the forth coming season. The sort of
information to collect is as follows:

Personal details
Name, address, date of birth, telephone numbers,
transport arrangements
Objectives
Performance (time, height, distance)
Technical (development of event technique)
Indoor and/or outdoor season
Experience
Personal best (PB's)
Competition experience (club, county, national, country)

Information Gathering
Cont.

Equipment

Does the athlete have


his own equipment (e.g.
starting blocks, javelin
etc.)?

Competition

Date of main competition

National and Area


Championships

School , University
competitions

Required qualification times


for competitions

Harness and tire

Elastic harness

Weight jackets

Fixture lists - Club, County etc.

Video camera

Open Meetings

Distance, time, % effort


matrix chart

Competitors

Finance

Where can grants be


obtained from?

Who are the competition and


what are their PB's?

Recent competition results

Competition behavior

Information Gathering
Cont.

Athlete's other Commitments

School, college, work, part time


jobs

Family and partner

Hobbies and other sports

Time available for training

Planned holidays

Medical

Training facilities

Tracks and other running


facilities (bad weather)

Gymnasiums and weight


training

Swimming pools, saunas and


massage

Coaching Workshops

Last season

Previous injuries or illness

Current problems (diabetes,


asthma etc.)

Access to medical support

Physiotherapy support

On any medication - is it a
banned substance?

How serious are you about


your athletics?

Using asthma inhaler - application


to use Beta 2 agent inhalers

What do expect from your


coach?

What can be learnt from last


season - good and bad aspects

Key questions for the athlete

Analysis of the last


program

If this is not the first program you have generated with


the athlete then an important activity to conduct is a
SWOT analysis of the last training program:

Strengths

What were the best aspects of the program and why?

What did we do well and why?

Weaknesses

Are there gaps in the program?

What did we not do very well and why?

Opportunities

How can we enhance the program to the benefit of the


athlete?

Threats

What may prevent us achieving the short and long term


objectives?

Athlete Assessment

Before we can start to create a training program we need to


analyze our athlete to determine their strengths and
weaknesses.

The first step is to identify the ideal attributes (e.g. body build,
strength, endurance, speed, flexibility etc) that will allow our
athlete to achieve their agreed goals.

The next step is to assess our athlete against our ideal athlete
to identify their strengths and weaknesses (gap analysis).

Addressing the gaps may require us to think in terms of long


term planning (4-8 years) but for this macrocycle we can set
realistic but challenging goals to start to address the gaps.

Preparing a plan

The steps in producing a Training Plan are as follows:

Gathering information
Produce an overall plan template and identify the
months/weeks of the year
Identify on the plan at the appropriate period

The main competition or competitions

Area, national, school etc. championships

Qualification competitions

Club fixture meetings

What phase you are in

Prep, Comp., Active Rest, etc.

Preparing a plan Cont.

Identify on the plan

The blocks (e.g. hypertrophy, strength, endurance) to be developed in each


phase
The period of development for each block
The intensity of training week by week
Number of training sessions per week
Evaluation points to monitor progress

Identify appropriate training units for each block as appropriate to the


phase of development.

Group the training units for each block into training schedules taking
into consideration the number of training sessions the athlete can
complete per week, the required training intensity and the phase of
development.

Athlete Development

As an athlete matures, they are not only developing in terms


of their sports but also in terms of education, career, physical
maturity and their relationships with those around them.

On average, an athlete is likely to face up to seven transitions


during their full athletic career and perhaps the critical
transition occurs around the age of 18-20 when they may be:

Moving to university/college or commencing in full time


employment
Progressing to a high performance level
Maturing through adolescence
Establishing relationships with a partner

Athlete Development

Coaches must take into consideration these


transitions when planning the annual and long
term training programs for their athletes.
10

Academic/Occupational

25

35

Secondary

Higher

Professional

Education

Education

Education

Occupation

Initiation

Development

Perfection

Individual Development

Discontinuation

(Young) Adulthood
Childhood

Psycho-Social Development

30

Primary
Development

Athletic Development

20

15

Puberty

Parents,

Peers,

Siblings, Peers

Coach, Parents

Adolescence

Partner, Coach

Family,
Coach, Peers

Goal Setting
SMART or SMARTER

S - goals must be Specific

M - training targets should be


Measurable

SCCAMP

S - goals must be Specific

C - within the Control of


the athlete

A - goals should be Adjustable

R - goals must be Realistic

T - training targets should be


Time based

C - goals are Challenging

E - goals should be challenging


and Exciting

A - goals must be
Attainable

R - goals should be Recorded

M - training targets should


be Measurable

P - goals are Personal