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Simple Machines

Lever, Wheel and Axle, and Pulley

Principles of Engineering

Simple Machines

Mechanisms that manipulate magnitude of

force and distance.

Lever

Pulley

Inclined Plane

Wedge

Screw

Ratio of the magnitude of the

resistance and effort forces

Ratio of distance traveled by the

effort and the resistance force

Calculated ratios allow designers to

manipulate speed, distance, force, and

function

A mechanical advantage of 4:1 tells us what

about a mechanism?

Magnitude of Force

Effort force magnitude is 4 times less than the

magnitude of the resistance force.

Effort force travels 4 times greater distance than the

resistance force.

Work

The force applied on an object times

distance the object travels parallel to the

force

Initial position

Force (F)

Final position

Work = Force Distance = F d

Work

The product of the effort times the distance

traveled will be the same regardless of the

system mechanical advantage

One is the magic number

If MA is greater than 1:

Proportionally less effort force is required to

overcome the resistance force

Proportionally greater effort distance is required

to overcome the resistance force

If MA is less than 1:

Proportionally greater effort force is required to

overcome the resistance force

Proportionally less effort distance is required to

overcome the resistance force

Theory-based calculation

Friction loss is not taken into consideration

Ratio of distance traveled by effort and

resistance force

Used in efficiency and safety factor design

calculations

DE

DE

IMA =

D

R

= Distance traveled by effort force

Inquiry-based calculation

Frictional losses are taken into

consideration

Used in efficiency calculations

Ratio of force magnitudes

FR

FR

AMA =

F

= Magnitude of resistance force

E

Can you think of a

machine that has a

mechanical advantage

greater than 1?

Can you think of

a machine that

has a mechanical

advantage less

than 1?

Lever

A rigid bar used to exert a pressure or

sustain a weight at one point of its length

by the application of a force at a second

point and turning on a fulcrum at a third.

Fulcrum is located between the effort and the

resistance forces.

Effort and resistance forces are applied to the lever

arm in the same direction.

Only class of lever that can have an MA greater than

or less than 1.

Resistance

Effort

MA =1

Effort

Resistance

MA <1

Resistance

Effort

MA >1

Fulcrum is located at one end of the lever.

Resistance force is located between the fulcrum

and the effort force.

Resistance force and effort force are in opposing

directions.

Always has a mechanical advantage >1.

Resistance

Effort

Fulcrum is located at one end of the lever.

Effort force is located between the fulcrum and the

resistance.

Resistance force and effort force are in opposing

directions.

Always has a mechanical advantage < 1.

Resistance

Effort

Moment

The turning effect of a force about a point

equal to the magnitude of the force

times the perpendicular distance from the point

to the line of action from the force.

M = dxF

Torque:

A force that produces or tends to

produce rotation or torsion.

15 lb

5.5 in.

Resistance

15 lbs

Effort

M=dxF

Effort Moment = 5.5 in. x 15 lb

Effort Moment = 82.5 in. lb

When the sum of all moments on a lever

equals 0, the lever is in rotational

equilibrium.

Rotational Equilibrium

The state in which the sum of all the

clockwise moments equals the sum of all

the counterclockwise moments about a

pivot point.

Resistance

Effort

5.5 in.

15 lb

?

36 2/3 lb

the unknown distance from the fulcrum to the resistance force.

Rotational equilibrium:

Effort Moment (cc wise) = Resistance Moment (clockwise)

15 lb x (5.5 in.) = 36 2/3 lb x DR

82.5 in-lb = 36.66 lb x DR

82.5 in-lb / 36.66 lb = DR

2.25 in. = DR

Lever IMA

DE

IMA =

DR

Resistance

Effort

forces will travel in a circle if

unopposed.

Circumference is the distance around the perimeter of a circle.

Circumference = 2 p r

DE = 2 (effort arm length)

DR = 2 (resistance arm length)

2 (effort arm length)__

____________________

IMA =

2 (resistance arm length)

Lever AMA

The ratio of applied

resistance force to

applied effort force

FR

AMA =

FE

5.5 in.

2.25

in.

16 lb

Effort

Resistance

AMA = 2:1

32lb

AMA =

16lb

What is the IMA of the lever above?

IMA = 2.44:1

5.5in.

DE

IMA=

IMA =

DR

2.25in.

32 lb

Efficiency

In a machine, the ratio of useful energy output to the

total energy input, or the percentage of the work input

that is converted to work output

AMA

% Efficiency =

100

IMA

slide? Click to return to previous slide

AMA = 2:1

IMA = 2.44:1

2.00

% Efficiency =

100 =82.0%

2.44

A wheel is a lever arm fixed to a shaft,

called an axle.

The wheel and axle move together as a simple lever to lift or

move an item by rolling.

It is important to know which is applying the effort and

resistance force wheel or axle.

Can you think of an example

of a wheel driving an axle?

6 in.

20 in.

DE

IMA =

DR

Both effort and resistance forces

will travel in a circle if unopposed.

Circumference = 2pr or d

DE = [Diameter of effort (wheel or axle)]

DR = [Diameter resistance (wheel or axle)]

IMA =

(effort diameter)

______________________

(resistance diameter)

What is the IMA of the wheel if the axle is driving the wheel?

6 in. / 20 in. = .3 = .3:1 = 3:10

What is the IMA of the wheel if the wheel is driving the axle?

20 in. / 6 in. = 3.33 = 3.33:1

20 in.

6 in.

FR

AMA =

FE

200lb

illustration to solve the following.

What is the AMA if the wheel is driving the axle?

200 lb / 70 lb = 2.86 = 2.86:1

What is the efficiency of the wheel and axle assembly?

AMA

2.86

% Efficiency =

100 =

100 = 85.9%

IMA

3.33

70lb

Pulley

A pulley is a lever consisting of a wheel with a groove

in its rim that is used to change the direction and

magnitude of a force exerted by a rope or cable.

Pulley IMA

Fixed Pulley

- First class lever with an IMA of 1

- Changes the direction of force

5 lb

10 lb

5 lb

Movable Pulley

- Second class lever with an IMA of 2

- Force directions stay constant

10 lb

10 lb

Pulleys In Combination

Fixed and movable pulleys in combination

(called a block and tackle) provide

mechanical advantage and a change of

direction for effort force.

If a single rope or cable is threaded

multiple times through a system of pulleys,

Pulley IMA = # strands opposing the

force of the load

What is the IMA of the pulley

system on the right? 4

Compound Machines

If one simple machine is used after another, the

mechanical advantages multiply.

Pulleys In Combination

With separate ropes or cables, the output of one

pulley system can become the input of another

pulley system. This is a compound machine.

10 lbf 10 lbf

20 lbf 20 lbf

40 lbf

40 lbf

80 lbf

pulley system?

Pulley AMA

FR

AMA =

FE

on the right?

800lb

AMA =

230lb

system?

100

% Efficiency =

IMA

4

= 87%

230 lb

800 lb

Pulley IMA = # strands opposing load only if

strands are opposite/parallel to resistance force.

IMA=2

Calculating IMA

requires trigonometry

Common misconception:

Count the effort strand if it pulls up

sometimes

Pulley IMA = # strands opposing the load.

80 lbf

the load or the loads

movable pulley. It might pull

up or down.

IMA=2

40 lbf

40 lbf

Image Resources

Microsoft, Inc. (2008). Clip art. Retrieved January 10, 2008,

from http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/clipart/default.aspx

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