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Principles of Engineering

Inclined Plane

Wedge

Screw

Ratio of the magnitude of the

resistance and effort forces

Ratio of distance traveled by the

effort and the resistance force

Calculated ratios allow designers to

manipulate speed, distance, force, and

function

A mechanical advantage of 4:1 tells us

what about a mechanism?

Magnitude of Force

Effort force magnitude is 4 times less than the

magnitude of the resistance force.

Effort force travels 4 times greater distance than

the resistance force.

One is the magic number

If MA is greater than 1:

Proportionally less effort force is required to

overcome the resistance force

Proportionally greater effort distance is required

to overcome the resistance force

If MA is less than 1:

Proportionally greater effort force is required to

overcome the resistance force

Proportionally less effort distance is required to

overcome the resistance force

Theory-based calculation

Friction loss is not taken into consideration

Ratio of distance traveled by effort and

resistance force

Used in efficiency and safety factor design

calculations

DE

DE

IMA =

D

R

= Distance traveled by effort force

Inquiry-based calculation

Frictional losses are taken into

consideration

Used in efficiency calculations

Ratio of force magnitudes

FR

FR

AMA =

F

= Magnitude of resistance force

E

Inclined Plane

A flat surface set at an angle or incline with

no moving parts

Able to lift objects by pushing or pulling the

load

DE

IMA =

DR

f

0

.

15

DR = Distance traveled by the resistance = H

L( slope)

IMA =

H

What is the IMA of the inclined plane above?

IMA = 15.0 ft / 4.0 ft = 3.75 = 3.8:1

4.0 ft

50 lb

FR

AMA =

FE

f

15

4 ft

lb

0

2

50.lb

AMA =

20.lb

100 = 67%

% Efficiency =

IMA

3.75

Wedge

Functions as a moving inclined plane

Tapers to a thin edge and is used for splitting,

raising heavy bodies, or for tightening by being

driven into something

Wedge IMA

L 10.0 in.

DE

IMA =

DR

H 3.0 in.

DR = Distance traveled by the resistance = H

L( to height)

IMA =

H

What is the IMA of the wedge shown?

IMA = 10.0 in. / 3.0 in. = 3.33 = 3.3:1

250. lb

Wedge AMA

FR

AMA =

FE

700.lb

AMA =

250.lb

L 10.0 in.

shown?

H 3.0 in.

700. lb

700. lb

What is the efficiency of the wedge

shown?

AMA 100= 2.800

100 = 84%

% Efficiency =

IMA

3.333

Screw

Two Components

An inclined plane wrapped

around a cylinder, forming

the path and pitch

A wheel and axle used to

create rotary motion

Properties

Change rotary motion into linear motion

Used as a threaded fastener

Large MA

Large amount of friction loss

Screw Identification

Effort Arm Distance

If using a wrench, effort arm

distance would be the length of

the wrench

Pitch

Thread Information

1/2 13 NC

Diameter

Thread

description

coarse or fine

Threads

per inch

and linear distance traveled

by 1 rotation of the screw

Diameter

If 13 threads per inch, then pitch is 1/13 of an inch.

How far will a screw with 13 threads per inch move linearly if

turned one full rotation? 1/13 of a inch

Screw IMA

DE

IMA =

DR

1/4 20 NC

DR = Linear distance traveled during one rotation

of the effort arm = Pitch

Circumference 2 r

IMA =

=

Pitch

P

What is the IMA of the screw above if effort is applied by an

8.0in. long wrench?

2 8.0in

IMA =

= 1005.31 = 1.0 103

1in.

20

Screw AMA

FR

AMA =

FE

What is the AMA of the

screw shown?

1/4 20 NC

8 in.

35 lb

1200lb

AMA =

AMA = 34.29 = 34:1

35lb

1200 lb

AMA 100= 34.29 100

% Efficiency =

= 3.4%

1005.3

IMA

Compound Machines

Simple machines working in combination to

complete a task

Image Resources

Microsoft, Inc. (2008). Clip art. Retrieved January 10, 2008,

from http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/clipart/default.aspx

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