Dental Implants

Definition A Dental Implant is defined as “ A substance that is placed into the jaw to support a crown or fixed or removable denture.”

Indications:
• For completely edentulous patients with advanced residual ridge resorption. • For partially edentulous arches where RPD may weaken the abutment teeth. • In patients with maxillofacial deformities’.

• For single tooth replacement where fixed partial dentures cannot be placed . • Patients who are unable to wear RPD. • Patients desire . • Patients who have adequate bone for the placement of implants.

• CONTRAINDICATION
• Presence of non treated or unsuccessfully treated periodontal disease • Poor oral hygiene. • Uncontrolled diabetes. • Chronic steroid therapy . • High dose irradiation. • Smoking and alcohol abuse.

• ADVANTAGES• Preservation of bone • Improved function • Aesthetics • Stability and support. • Comfort.

• Disadvantages• Can not be used in medically compromised patients who cannot undergo surgery. • Longer duration of treatment. • Need of a lot of patients cooperation • Very much expensive.

CLASSIFICATION
(A) Depending on the placement with in the tissue.
• Epiosteal implants- These implants receive their primary bone support by resting on it. eg- Sub-periosteal implants. • Transosteal Implants- These implants penetrate both cortical plates and passes through the entire thickness of alveolar bone.

Endosteal implantsThis kind of implants extends into basal bone for support. It transect only one cortical plate.

(B) •

Depending on materials used

.

Metallic Implants-

Ti Ti alloy micro enhanced pure Ti plasma sprayed Ti Co,Cr,Mo alloy

Non metallic Implants-

Ceramic Carbon Alumina Polymer Composite

(C) Depending on Design

Screw shaped Cylinder shaped Tapered screw shaped.

PARTS OF IMPLANT
1.Implant body
It is the component that is placed with in the bone during first stage of surgery • • Threaded Non threaded :During the healing phase this screw is normally placed in the superior surface of body Function: Facilitates the suturing soft tissues. Prevents the growth of the tissue over the edge of the implant.

2.Healing screw

3. Healing caps: are dome shaped screws placed over the sealing screw after the second stage of surgery & before insertion of prosthesis. 4.Abutments: part of implant which resembles a prepared tooth & is inserted to be screwed into the implant body 5. Impression posts

• • • • •

IDEAL REQUIESETS to achieve an osseointigrated dental implant with a high degree of predictibility the implant must beSterile made of a highly biocompetible material Inserted with an atraumatic surgical techinique that avoids overheating of the bone. Placed with initial stability Not functionally loaded during the healing period

PERIMPLANT MUCOSA
Mucosal tissues around intraosseous implants form a tightly adherent band consisting of a dense collagenous lamina propria covered by stratified squamous keratinised epithelium. Implant epithelium junction is analogous to the junctional epithelium around the natural teeth in that the epithelial cells attach to the titanium implant by means of hemidesmosomes and a basal lamina.

The depth of normal noninflammed sulcus around an intraosseous implant is assumed to be between 1.5-2mm.

• The sulcus around an implant is lined with sulcular epithelium that is continuous apically with the junctional epithelium.

Main difference between periimplant & periodontal tissues is that
1. Collagen fibers are non attached & run parallel to the implant surfaces owing to the lack of cementum. 2. Marginal portion of the perimplant mucosa contains significantly more collagen & fewer fibroblasts than the normal gingiva.

THE IMPLANT-BONE INTERFACE The relationship between endosseous implants & the bone consists of two mechanisms1.OSSEOINTEGRATIONbone is in intimate but not ultrastructural contact with the implant. 2.FIBROSSEOUS INTEGRATIONsoft tissue such as fibers &/or cells, are interposed between the two surfaces.

IMPLANT SURGERY
1. One stage -Coronal portions stays exposed through gingiva during the healing period 2. Two stage –Top of the implant Is completely submerged under gingiva

1. TWO STAGE ENDOSSEOUS IMPLANT SURGERY

First stage surgical technique
1.Flap design & incision 2.Flap elevation 3.Implant placement 4. Closure of the flap 5. Post operative care

• Flap design &IncisionTwo types of incisions can be used. 1.crestal design- The incision is made along the crest of the ridge, bisecting the existing zone of keratinized mucosa. 2.Remote incision – It is made when bone augmentation is planned to minimize the incident of bone graft exposure.

The crestal incision is preferred in most instances because. -It results in less bleeding . -Easier flap management . -Less edema. -Less ecchymosis -faster healing -less vestibular changes postperatively

a full-thickness flap is raised bucally & lingually to the level of the mucogingival junction,exposing the alveolar ridge of the implant sites. Elevated flaps may be sutured to the buccal mucosa or the opposing teeth to keep the surgical site open during surgery. For a knife-edge alveolar process round bur is used to recontour the bone to provide a reasonable flat bed for the implant site

Flap elevation

Implant placement
once the implant site is prepared,a surgical guide is placed intraorally,& a small round bur or spiral drill is used to mark the implant site • The site is checked for their appropriate faciolingual location • The site is then marked to a depth of 1to2mm,breaking through the cortical bone

• A small spiral drill, usually 2mm in diameter & marked to indicate appropriate depth, is used next to establish the depth & align the axis of the implant recipient site

• Spiral drill is used at a speed of 800 to 1000rpm with copious irrigation to prevent overheating the bone.

• When multiple implants are used to support one prosthesis, a paralleling or direction –indicating pin should be used to align subsequent implants correctly.

After the 2mm spiral drill, a pilot drill with 2mm diameter at the lower part & wider diameter at the upper part is used to enlarge the osteotomy site to allow easy insertion of the following drill. Then the wider diameter spiral drill is used to drill to the depth reached with the 2mm spiral drill.

• The operator should drill to approximately 0.5mm deeper than needed.this allows the desired depth to be reached with the final drill without touching the bottom. • Then the implant is placed with tapping procedure.

- once the implants are screwed in & the cover screws are placed. a combination of inverted mattress & interrupted sutures are placed - Flap should be closed without tension - 4.0 chromic gut suture is used that does not require removal during postoperative visit.

Closure of the flap

Postoperative care
• • antibiotics (amoxicillin,500mg tid ) patient should be asked to apply ice packs extraorally for the first 24 hours. chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinses should be used twice daily. pain medication should be prescribed.

patient should have a liquid or semiliquid diet for the first few days &then graduallly return to normal diet. patient should also refrain from tobacco & alcohol use for 1 to 2 weeks postoperatively. oral hygiene instructions should be given.

Second stage surgical technique
Objectives:
• • • • • To expose the submerged implant without damaging the surrounding bone To control the thickness of the soft tissues surrounding the implants To preserve or create attached keratinised tissues around the implant To facilitate oral hygiene To ensure proper abutment seating

Partial thickness flap- Gingivectomy technique 1. Flap design & incision 2. Flap elevation & apical displacement 3. Gingivectomy 4. Post operative care

Flap design & incision • the initial incision is made approximately 2mm coronal to the facial mucogingival junction,with vertical incisions both mesially & distally

Flap elevation & apical displacement • a partial thickness flap is then raised in such a manner that a relatively firm periosteum remains. the flap, containing a band of keratinized tissue, is then placed facial to the emerging head of the implant fixture & fixed to the periosteum with 5.0 gut suture.

Gingivectomy • Once the flap is positioned facially, the excess tissue coronal to the cover screw is excised, using a gingivectomy techinique. • The cover screw is then removed, the head of the implant is thoroughly cleaned of any soft or hard tissue overgrowth,& the healing abutments are placed on the fixture.

Postoperative care • remind the patient for good oral hygiene around the implant. a chlorhexidine rinse for at least initial 2 weeks while the tissues are healing.

One stage Endo-osseous Implant surgery
In this technique, the implant or healing abutment protrudes about 2-3mm from the bone crest and the flaps are adapted around the implant flap design & incision placement of the implant closure of the flap postoperative of the care

Surgical technique
(1) flap design & incision • a crestal incision bisecting the existing keratinized tissue& a vertical incision on one or both ends are placed. • then full thickness flaps are elevated facially & lingually.

Placement of implants
• • same as in two-stage implant surgical approach. the only difference is that the implant is placed in such a way that the head of yhe implant protrudes about 2 to 3mm from the bone crest.

Closure of the flap• the keratinized edges of the flap are tied with independent sutures around the implant.

Postoperative care• same as that for the two-stage surgical approach.

PERIIMPLANT COMPLICATIONS
• Periimplant disease- any pathological changes of the periimplant tissue. • Periimplant mucositis- Inflammatory changes confined to the soft tissues surrounding an implant. • Periimplantitis – Progressive periimplant bone loss in conjunction with a soft tissue inflammatory lesion.

Etiology
• Bacterial infection • Biomechanical factors 1. Implant is placed in poor quality bone. 2. Implant position does not favor ideal load transmission over the implant surface. 3. Parafunctional habit. • Traumatic surgical technique • • Compromised host response Smoking and alcohol abuse.

• Technical implants failure – abutment loosening & fracture Aesthetic complication • Treatment – Initial phase of treatment(a) Occlusal therapy (b) Antiinfective therapy Surgical technique Maintenance

• OCCLUSAL THERAPY change in prosthesis design ,an improvement in implant number & position ,Occlusal adjustment can all contribute to arresting the periimplant breakdown. ANTI-INFECTIVE THERAPY local removal of plaque with plastic instruments & polishing of all surfaces with pumice. subgingival irrigation of all implant pockets with .12% chlorhexidine, systemic antimicrobial therapy for 10 days & improved patient compliance with oral hygiene procedure is the first line of treatement

• Mechanical device such as high pressure air spray & a powder abrasive is used for preparation & detoxification of implant site • Chemotherapeutic agent such as a supersaturated solution of citric acid for 30 to 40 sec is used for removal of endotoxins from implant surface .

• SURGICAL TECHNIQUE
• Resective osseous therapy is used to reduce pocket , correct –ve osseous architecture & rough implant surface & increase the area of keratinized gingiva.

• Indication-

moderate to advanced horizontal bone loss one & two wall bone defect implant in nonesthetic area

• Regenerative therapy is used to reduce pocket but with ultimate goal of regeneration of lost bone tissue • Indication- moderate to advanced circumferential vertical defect three wall bone defect • For regeneration of lost tissue following techniques are used (1) Guided tissue regeneration (2) Bone graft technique

MAINTENANCE patient should be placed on close recall • schedule maintenance visit every three months are • advised as a minimums this allow for monitoring of plaque level , • soft tissue inflammation & changes in the level of bone

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