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Closed Circuit

electrons to travel

Open Circuit

the electrons to travel

Flow of Charge

ends of an electric conductor

are at different electric

potentials (voltages)

the ends of the conductor has

the same voltage

Flow of Charge

Flow of Charge

Electric Current

electric charge

The

electrons of conductors

carry the charge through

circuits

Protons tightly bound to the

nuclei of atoms

Electric Current

current = charge / time

or

I = q/t

Units: Amps (A)

An

charge per second

NOTE: 1 C = the charge of

6,240,000,000,000,000,000

electrons

Electric Current

entering a wire is the same as

the number leaving

This gives the wire a net

charge of zero

Voltage Sources

provides a potential difference in

order to keep current flowing

Dry/Wet Cells: Convert chemical

energy to electrical energy

Generators: Convert mechanical

energy to electrical energy

The voltage available to electrons

moving between terminals is called

electromotive force, or emf.

Voltage Sources

Note:

Voltage

flows across a

circuit

Current

circuit

flows through a

Current Flow rate

Measured in Amperes

Amount of flowing water

Voltage Potential

Measured in Volts

Water Pressure

Electric Resistance

material to resist the flow of charge

Units: Ohms ()

The amount of charge that flows

through a circuit depends on two

things:

Voltage provided by source

Electric resistance of the

conductor

than thin wires

Short wires have less resistance

than long wires

Higher temperatures usually

cause more resistance

The resistance in some

materials becomes almost

zero at very low temperatures

Currents Direction

Current is actually the opposite

direction of the flow of electrons

Electrical Tools

Voltmeter

Ammeter

Measures the flow of charge

Ohmmeter

flow of charge

AC and DC

Flow

of charge in one

direction

Example: The terminals of a

battery do not switch signs

Therefore

electrons are

always repelled away from

the (-) terminal and toward

the (+)

AC and DC

Alternating (AC)

Charges

move in one direction, then in

the other

Accomplished by alternating

the polarity of the voltage

source

AC and DC

Converting AC to DC

Wall outlets: AC

Battery operated devices: DC

AC adaptors have three main

components

Transformer:

Lowers voltage

Diode: Acts as a one-way valve to

allow electron flow in only one

direction

AC

only allows half of each cycle

through

Converting AC to DC

Capacitor:

Stores charge to

smooth the signal between

each half cycle

An

be used

At room temperature,

electrons in a wire have

speeds up to a few million

km/hr

This motion does not

produce an organized current

When a voltage source is

connected, an electric field is

established through the wire

electrons along, producing a

current

Electrons collide with each

other along the way

through the wire at nearly the

speed of light, however:

In

have a drift speed of about

0.01 cm/s

In AC circuits, the electrons

vibrate back and forth, so drift

speeds are nearly zero

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