The Evolution of the Number System

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The Evolution of the Number System

© All Rights Reserved

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Number System

By:

Piyush Gupta

Evolution of the

Number System

NAME

SAMPLE

APPROX. FIRST

APPEARANCE

Babylonian numerals

3100 BC

Chinese numerals,

Japanese numerals,

Korean numerals

Unknown

Egyptian numerals

3000 BC

Roman numerals

1000 BC

NAME

SAMPLE

APPROX. FIRST

APPEARANCE

Greek numerals

After 100 BC

1st Century

Hindu-Arabic

Numerals

1st Century

John Napier's

Location arithmetic

1617

The number system that we have today,

commonly known as Hindu-Arabic Numerals,

has evolved so much and come through a

long route.

It came about because

human beings wanted to

solve problems and mainly,

wanted

to

know

the

quantity of a particular

thing. So they started

creating numbers to solve

these problems.

satisfied people for a long time

for a long time

Counting through

Symbols

for a long time

Zero Dog(s)

Two Dogs

Counting through

Sticks

Discovery of 0

Though

humans

have

always

understood the concept of nothing or

having nothing, the concept of ZERO is

relatively new.

They wanted to find some number to

represent a nil value. So they found 0

to represent a nil value.

Some people say that Zero was

invented

independently

by

the

Babylonians, Mayans and Indians.

Discovery of 0

Many mathematicians of

suggested for symbolizing

they introduced the symbol

nothing, to the world and

things easier.

NOTHING. Then

0 for symbolizing

made complicated

Shunya to refer to the concept of void.

In

mathematics texts this word often refers to the

number ZERO.

But even now people are not sure whether zero

was discovered by Aryabhatta or Brahmagupta,

an Indian Mathematician.

Number Systems

NUMBER SYSTEM:

A number system is a writing

system for expressing numbers, that is, a

mathematical notation for representing numbers

of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a

consistent manner.

Natural Numbers

The natural numbers are those used for

counting and ordering.

Natural numbers are represented by .

Example: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Whole Numbers

Whole number is collection of positive

numbers and zero.

Example: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Integers

An integer is a number that can be written

without a fractional component.

Integers are represented by , standing

for the German word Zahlen.

Example: 21, -4, are integers, while 9.75,

5, and 2 are not.

Rational Numbers

A Rational Number is any number that can

be expressed as the quotient or fraction p/q

of two integers, where p and q are integers

and

q q0.

Since

may be equal to 1,

every integer is a rational

number.

Rational numbers are

represented by . It was thus

denoted in 1895 by Peano.

Example: , .

Irrational Numbers

An irrational number is any number that

cannot be expressed as a ratio of integers.

Irrational numbers cannot be represented

as terminating or repeating decimals.

Example: 5, 3, 6.

Real Numbers

A real number is a number which includes

natural, whole, integers, rational and

irrational numbers.

Real numbers are represented by

Example: 1, -4, , 3.

Imaginary Numbers

An imaginary number is a number that can

be written as a real number multiplied by

the imaginary unit i, which is defined by its

property i2 = 1. The square of an

imaginary number bi is b2.

Example: 5i is an imaginary number, and

its square is 25.

Complex Numbers

A complex number is a number that can

be expressed in the form a + bi, where a

and b are real numbers and i is the

imaginary unit, that satisfies the equation

x2 = 1, that is, i2 = 1.

In this expression, a is the real part and b

is the imaginary part of the complex

number.

Complex numbers are represented by .

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