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Adverbial Clauses

Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause

of
of
of
of
of
of

Time
Reason
Result
Purpose
Concession
Manner

CLAUSE of TIME
after

whenever

while

as

every time

until

as long as

immediately

the moment (that)

as soon as

by the time

till

just as

when

since

once

no sooner ..... than ......

before

hardly ....... when .......

He bought a villa as soon as he got the money.

He will have finished repairing the car by the time you arrive
there.
No sooner had she fallen asleep than the phone rang.
The castaway had to wait five years until he was rescued.

Time clauses follow the rule of the sequence of tenses; that


is, when the verb of the main clause is in a present or
future form, the verb of the time clause is in a present
form, and when the verb of the main clause is in a past
form, the verb of the time clause is in a past form too.
Note that will and would are never used in clauses of time.
Ill give it to you when you tell me why you want it.
(not: when you will tell me)
I'll cook dinner as soon as I've finished washing up.
She had finished reading before they came home.
(not: before they come home)

Clauses of Reason
Clauses of reason are introduced by: as, since, because, for,
inasmuch as, the reason (why,for), on the grounds that,
now that, seeing that, in view of the fact that etc.
As he was late for work, he got a taxi.
For always comes after a comma in written speech or a
pause in oral speech.
/ didn't tell him anything, for I don't trust him.
Other ways of expressing reason:
Because of / Due to / Owing to / On account of + noun/-ing
She was late because of / due to / owing to / on account of
heavy traffic.
Because of / Due to / Owing to / On account of + the fact that..
Because of the fact that / Due to the fact that it had been
snowing for four days, all roads were closed.

Clauses of Result
Clauses of result are introduced by: that (after such/so...), (and) as
a result, (and) as a consequence, consequently, so,therefore,
thus, hence etc...

such a(n) + (adjective) + singular countable


It was such a nice dress that she bought it.
such + (adjective) + uncountable /plural noun
It was such bad weather that we stayed indoors.
such + a lot of + noun
There were such a lot of people on the bus that there were
no seats left.
.

so + adjective/adverb
He speaks so quickly that hardly anyone can
understand him.
so + much / many / little / few + noun
She won so much money in the lottery that she bought a villa.

so + adjective + a(n) + noun


It was so delicious a cake that we ate it all. (not usual)
It is so hot a day that everyone is going to the beach
as a result / therefore / consequently / so / thus + clause
He didn't have a visa and as a result he couldn't enter the country.
therefore
consequently
so

Expressing Purpose - Clauses of Purpose


Affirmative Purpose is expressed with;
to / in order to / so as to + inf
I'll leave home early to get to work on time. (informal)
She's studying so as to qualify as a lawyer, (formal)
so that + can / will (present/future reference)
She works hard so that she will have better career prospects.
so that + could / would (past reference)
He gave me directions so that I could find his house easily.

with a view to / with the aim of + -ing form


He did a Master's degree with the aim of applying for a managerial post
for + noun / -ing form
This is a knife for cutting bread.

for + noun / -ing form


This is a knife for cutting bread.
in case + Present (present/future reference)
I'll write it down in case I forget it.
It is always a good idea to have a phone card on you in case you
have to make a phone call.
in case + Past (past reference)
He took an umbrella in case it rained.
He took a torch in case there was no light in the attic.

so as not / in order not + to -inf


She studied hard so as not / in order not to fail her test.
so that + can't / won't ( present/future reference )
Tie up the dog so that it won't get out of the garden
so that + couldn't / wouldn't ( past reference )
She locked the door so that burglars couldn't get in.
for fear / lest + might / should
He didn't say where he was going for fear he might be followed.
Mary went to bed early lest she should be tired during the exam
for fear of sth / doing sth
He gave them all his money for fear of being shot.

NOTE:
Clauses of Purpose follow the rule of the sequence of
tenses.
She's going to buy a dictionary so that her spelling will improve.
They tied him up so that he wouldn't escape.

Expressing Concession - Clauses of Concession


Concession is expressed with:
although / even though / though + clause
Although(even though,though) it was expensive, she bought it.
NOTE : Though can be at the end of the sentence.

Despite / in spite of + noun/-ing form


Despite his wealth / being rich, he never lends money.
Despite / in spite of the fact + that-clause
In spite of the fact that he's rich, he never lends money.
while / whereas / but / on the other hand / yet / still + clause
He worked hard,yet he failed to meet the deadline.

nevertheless / however / nonetheless / all the same / even so + clause


Hes a nice guy.Even so,I dont trust him.
however/no matter how + adj/adv + subject + verb
However clever you are, you won't solve this puzzle.
However fast he runs, he won't catch the robbers.
whatever/no matter what + clause
Whatever you do, you won't succeed.
adj/adv + though + subject + verb
Loudly though he knocked on the door, nobody heard.
adj/adv + as + subject + verb
Exhausted as she was, she went to the party.

NOTE
A comma is used when the clause of concession either
precedes or follows the main clause.
Whatever she says, he won't believe her. He won't believe her,
whatever she says.

Clauses of Manner
Clauses of manner are; as if / as though (after act, appear, be, behave, feel,
look,seem,smell,sound,taste), as, how, in the way that,in the same way, in
the same way as.
Try to do in the same way I showed you.

Note how the tense forms are used after as if / as though:


as if / as though + any tense form (showing similarity / probability)
She feels as if she has got a temperature.
She sounded as though she had a cold.
as if / as though + Past Simple / Past Cont. (unreal in the present)
She acts as if she knew everything. (but she doesnt.)
as if / as though + Past Perfect (unreal in the past)
He felt as if they had misjudged him. ( but they hadnt.)
She was trembling as though she had seen a ghost.