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REVIEW 2014 0011B

SUPPLEMENTAL NOTES IN DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY

WATER SUPPLY and DISTRIBUTION: PIPE


SIZE CALCULATION in DIRECT PRESSURE
SYSTEM for RESIDENTIAL OCCUPANCIES

Based on the provisions of the


National Plumbing Code of the
Philippines

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

Step 1. Secure the


A 1.1 Obtain the necessary
following Data:
information regarding the
Pressure at Water Main
minimum daily service pressure
Total Fixture Load in the
in the area where the building is
system measured in Water
to be located.
Supply Fixture Units (WSFU).
A 1.3 Obtain all available local
Use Table 1.0
information regarding the use of
Estimate Water Demand
different kinds of pipe with
based on the predominant
respect both to durability and to
flushing mechanism used. Use
decrease in capacity with length
Chart A-2 and A-3 or Table
of service in the particular water
2.1 or Table 2.2
supply.
Type of fixture being
Section 607.1 The minimum
considered as the topmost
pressure at water main shall be
fixture
103 kPa (15 psi).
Height of the topmost fixture
measured from the street level
Section 607.2 The maximum
Length of piping measured
pressure at the water main
from the water main up to the
shall be 551 kPa
farthest and topmost fixture.
(80 psi).
Fixture pressure requirement
Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

Table 1.0 EQUIVALENT *WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE


UNITS (WSFU)
Number of Water Supply Fixture Units
(WSFU)
Type of Fixture

Private Use

Public Use

Bar Sink

Bathtub (with or without Shower


over)

Bidet

Drinking Fountain (each faucet)

Hose Bibb

Laundry Tub or Clothes Washer

Lavatory

Shower (each head)

Sink (kitchen) or dishwasher

Urinal (wall or stall type)

Water Closet Flush Tank

This table is
taken from Table
6-5 in the
National
Plumbing Code of
the Philippines,
page 73.
Also, Table A-1 in
Annex A of the
Code, page 167 is
similar (with the
addition of
Minimum
Connections for
Cold water and
Hot Water).

Water Closet
Flush Valve:
3 weighing factor to account
6
*Water
SupplyFixture
Unit (WSFU) is a numerical
for the
19mm
water
demand of various plumbing fixtures, using the lavatory (for private use) as 1 WSFU. It is
just an index number meant to put all fixtures on a common basis.
Water Closet Flush Valve:
6 NAMPAP - CEBU
10
Danilo V. Ravina
25mm

A 2.1 Estimate
the supply
demand for the
building main
and the principal
branches and
risers of the
system by
totaling the
fixture units and
then reading the
corresponding
ordinate from
Chart A-2 or A-3,
whichever is
applicable
This is found on page
172 of the National
Plumbing Code of the
Philippines

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

This is found on
page 173 of the
National
Plumbing Code of
the Philippines

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

TABLE 2.1

ESTIMATING WATER DEMAND


This is not from the Plumbing Code of the Philippines

SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH TANKS


LOAD IN WATER
SUPPLY FIXTURE
UNITS (WSFU)

WATER DEMAND

LOAD IN WATER
SUPPLY FIXTURE
UNITS (WSFU)

WATER DEMAND

Gallon per minute

Liter per second

3.0

0.19

60

32.0

2.02

5.0

0.32

70

35.0

2.21

6.5

0.41

80

38.0

2.40

8.0

0.51

90

41.0

2.59

9.4

0.59

100

43.5

2.74

10.7

0.68

120

48.0

3.03

11.8

0.74

140

52.5

3.31

12.8

0.81

160

57.0

3.60

13.7

0.86

180

61.0

3.85

10

14.6

0.92

200

65.0

4.10

12

16.0

1.01

250

75.0

4.73

14

17.0

1.07

300

85.0

5.36

16

18.0

1.14

400

105.0

6.62

18

18.8

1.19

500

124.0

7.82

20

19.6

1.24

750

170.0

10.73

25

21.5

1.36

1000

208.0

13.12

30

23.3

1.47

1250

239.0

15.08

35

24.9

1.57

1500

269.0

16.97

40

26.3

1.66

2000

325.0

20.50

45

27.7

1.76

2500

380.0

23.97

50

29.1

433.0

27.32

1.84
Danilo V.
Ravina NAMPAP3000
- CEBU

Gallon per minute

Liter per second

TABLE 2.2 ESTIMATING WATER DEMAND


This is not from the National Plumbing Code of the Philippines

SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH VALVES


LOAD IN WATER
SUPPLY FIXTURE
UNITS (WSFU)

WATER DEMAND

LOAD IN WATER
SUPPLY FIXTURE
UNITS (WSFU)

WATER DEMAND

Gallon per minute

Liter per second

60

54.0

3.41

70

58.0

3.66

80

61.2

3.86

90

64.3

4.06

15.0

0.95

100

67.5

4.26

17.4

1.10

120

73.0

4.61

19.8

1.25

140

77.0

4.86

22.2

1.40

160

81.0

5.11

24.6

1.55

180

85.5

5.39

10

27.0

1.70

200

90.0

5.68

12

28.6

1.80

250

101.0

6.37

14

30.2

1.91

300

108.0

6.81

16

31.8

2.01

400

127.0

8.01

18

33.4

2.11

500

143.0

9.02

20

35.0

2.21

750

177.0

11.17

25

38.0

2.40

1000

208.0

13.12

30

42.0

2.65

1250

239.0

15.08

35

44.0

2.78

1500

269.0

16.97

40

46.0

2.90

2000

325.0

20.50

45

48.0

3.03

2500

380.0

23.97

50

50.0

433.0

27.32

Danilo V.
Ravina NAMPAP3000
- CEBU
3.15

Gallon per minute

Liter per second

TABLE 3.0 PROPER FLOW & PRESSURE REQUIRED DURING FLOW FOR DIFFERENT
FIXTURES

Step 2. Find
the pressure
required in
the system to
provide the
minimum
fixture
pressure (A)
for the
A3.1
Decide what is the
uppermost
desirable minimum
fixture.
pressure that should be
maintained at the highest
fixture in the supply
system. If the highest
group of the fixtures
contains flushometer
valves, the pressure for
the group should not be
less than 103.42 kPa (15
psi). For flush tank
supplies, the available
pressure may not be less
than 55.16 kPa ( 8 psi).

FLOW PRESSURE
FIXTURE FITTING

FLOW

kPa

PSI

Gallon/minute

Liter/second

Ordinary Lavatory Faucet

55

2.0

0.13

Self-closing Lavatory Faucet

83

12

2.5

0.16

Sink Faucet ( 9 mm )

69

10

3.5

0.22

Sink Faucet ( 12 mm )

35

4.5

0.28

Drinking Fountain Jet

55

0.75

0.05

Washing Machine / Dishwasher

55

4.0

0.25

Laundry Faucet

35

5.0

0.32

Bathtub Faucet

35

5.0

0.32

Shower Head ( 12 mm )

83

12

5.0

0.32

Ball Cock for Water Closet


(Flush Tank)

104

15

3.0

0.19

Flush Valve for Water Closet


( 19 mm )

104

15

27.0

1.70

Flush Valve for Water Closet


( 25 mm )

172

25

35.0

2.21

Flush Valve for Urinal ( 19 mm )

104

15

15.0

0.95

Garden Hose,15m and Sill Cock

207

30

5.0

0.32

This is not from the National Plumbing Code

Step 3. Calculate the Static Head (B).


B = 9.79 kPa/m x (Height of uppermost fixture)
A 3.2 Determine the elevation in meters of the highest fixture or
group of fixtures above the water (street) main. Multiply this
difference in elevation by 9.79. The result is in the loss in static
pressure in kPa.

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

Step 4. Using the Demand Load, determine the Pressure Loss


in the Water Meter (C).

A 1.2 If the building


supply is to be metered,
obtain information
regarding friction loss
relative to the rate of
flow for meters in the
range of sizes likely to
be used. Friction loss
data can be obtained
from most
manufacturers of water
meters. Friction losses
for disk type meters may
be obtained from Chart
A-1.
This is found on page 165 of the National Plumbing Code of the
Philippines

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

Step 5. Calculate the Pressure Available (Pa) for friction loss


in the supply pipes.
Pa = Pressure @ water main (A+B+ C)
where: A = Minimum Fixture Pressure Requirement
B = Static Head
C= Pressure Loss @ water meter
A 3.3 Subtract the sum of loss in static pressure and the pressure to
be maintained at the highest fixture from the average minimum
daily service pressure. The result will be the pressure available for
friction loss in the supply pipes, if no water meter is used. If a
meter is to be installed , the friction loss in the meter for the
estimated maximum demand should also be subtracted from the
service pressure to determine pressure loss available for friction loss
in the supply pipes.

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

Step 6. Determine the developed length (DL) of the supply


pipe, including the equivalent length of fittings (.DL)
A 3.4 Determine the developed length of pipe from the water
(street) main to the highest fixture. If close estimates are
desired, compute with the aid of Table A-2; the equivalent length
of pipe for all fittings in the line from the water (street) main to
the highest fixture and add the sum to the developed length.
Step 7. Calculate Total Equivalent Length (TEL) of the
piping.
TEL = DL + DL
where:
DL = Length of the piping (horizontal and
vertical) measured
from the water main up to the farthest
and topmost fixture
DL = Equivalent length of fittings, if piping diagram is
not
available, use 20 % to 50 % of DL

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

This is similar to Table A-2 on page 168 of the National Plumbing code of
the Philippines
Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

Step 8.
Calculate the Average Permissible Friction Loss per
100 meter length of pipe
(Pf).
Pf = (Pa TEL) 100
where: Pa = Pressure available for friction loss in the pipes
TEL = Total Effective Length of pipe
A 3.4 The pressure available for friction loss in kPa divided by the
developed length of pipe from the water (street) main to the highest
fixture times one hundred (100), will be the average permissible
friction loss per 30.4 m length of pipe.
Step 9. Using The Demand Load and the Average Permissible
friction Loss (Pa) determine an approximate pipe size that is
closest to the velocity of 3 meters per second. Use the Charts:
A-5, A-6 and A-7
A 4.1 Knowing the permissible friction loss per 30.4 m of pipe and
the total demand, the diameter of the building supply pipe may be
obtained from charts A-4, A-5, A-6, or A-7, whichever is applicable.
The diameter of the pipe on or next above the coordinate point
corresponding to the estimated total demand and the permissible
friction loss will be the size needed up to the first branch from the
building supply pipe.
Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

For ferrous pipes with only the most favorable


water supply as regards to corrosion and
caking.

If the water is hard or corrosive, Charts A-6 and


A-7 will be applicable.

This is found on page 175 of the National


This is found on page 176 of the National
Plumbing Code
Plumbing Code
Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

This is found on page 177 of the National Plumbing Code of the


Philippines

Sample Project:
A Two Storey Residential House

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

Ground Floor
Fixture Load:
WC 1 x 3 wsfu = 3
wsfu
Lav 1 x 1 wsfu = 1
wsfu
KF 1 x 2 wsfu = 2
wsfu
HB 3 x 3 wsfu = 9
wsfu
--------------------------------Total: 15 wsfu
Fixture Demand:
0.825 lps
(From Chart A-3)
Fixture Demand: 1.01
lps
(From Table 2.1)

Second Floor
Fixture Load:
WC 2 x 3 wsfu = 6
wsfu
Lav 2 x 1 wsfu = 2
wsfu
Sho. 2 x 2 wsfu = 4
wsfu
-----------------------------------Total: 12 wsfu
Water Demand: 0.66
lps
(From Chart A-3)
Water Demand: 1.11
lps
(From Table 2.1)

27 wsfu =
1.3 lps

15 wsfu = 0.825
lps
12 wsfu = 0.66
lps
Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

TABLE 2.1

ESTIMATING WATER DEMAND


This is not from the Plumbing Code of the Philippines

SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH TANKS


LOAD IN WATER
SUPPLY FIXTURE
UNITS (WSFU)

WATER DEMAND

LOAD IN WATER
SUPPLY FIXTURE
UNITS (WSFU)

WATER DEMAND

Gallon per minute

Liter per second

3.0

0.19

60

32.0

2.02

5.0

0.32

70

35.0

2.21

6.5

0.41

80

38.0

2.40

8.0

0.51

90

41.0

2.59

9.4

0.59

100

43.5

2.74

10.7

0.68

120

48.0

3.03

11.8

0.74

140

52.5

3.31

12.8

0.81

160

57.0

3.60

13.7

0.86

180

61.0

3.85

10

14.6

0.92

200

65.0

4.10

12

16.0

1.01

250

75.0

4.73

14

17.0

1.07

300

85.0

5.36

16

18.0

1.14

400

105.0

6.62

18

18.8

1.19

500

124.0

7.82

20

19.6

1.24

750

170.0

10.73

25

21.5

1.36

1000

208.0

13.12

30

23.3

1.47

1250

239.0

15.08

35

24.9

1.57

1500

269.0

16.97

40

26.3

1.66

2000

325.0

20.50

45

27.7

1.76

2500

380.0

23.97

50

29.1

433.0

27.32

15

27

1.11

1.40

1.84
Danilo V.
Ravina NAMPAP3000
- CEBU

Gallon per minute

Liter per second

5.50 meters
16.00 meters

1. Useful Data
a. Average pressure at water main --------------------------- 345 kPa (50
psi)
b. Total Fixture Load: --------------------------------------------- 27 wsfu
c. Estimated Water Demand ------------------------------------ 1.30 lps
d. Type of topmost fixture --------------------------------------- Shower
e. Height of topmost fixture --------------------------------------- 5.50
meters
f. Length of Piping ---------------------------------------------------21.50
meters
g. Fixture pressure requirement at topmost fixture -------- 104 kPa

2. Minimum Fixture Pressure Requirement ( A )


FLOW PRESSURE
FIXTURE FITTING

FLOW

kPa

PSI

Gallon/minute

Liter/second

Ordinary Lavatory Faucet

55

2.0

0.13

Self-closing Lavatory Faucet

83

12

2.5

0.16

Sink Faucet ( 9 mm )

69

10

3.5

0.22

Sink Faucet ( 12 mm )

35

4.5

0.28

Drinking Fountain Jet

55

0.75

0.05

Washing Machine / Dishwasher

55

4.0

0.25

Laundry Faucet

35

5.0

0.32

Bathtub Faucet

35

5.0

0.32

Shower Head ( 12 mm )

83

12

5.0

0.32

Ball Cock for Water Closet


(Flush Tank)

104

15

3.0

0.19

Flush Valve for Water Closet


( 19 mm )

104

15

27.0

1.70

Flush Valve for Water Closet


( 25 mm )

172

25

35.0

2.21

Flush Valve for Urinal ( 19 mm )

104

15

15.0

0.95

Garden Hose,15m and Sill Cock

207

30

5.0

0.32

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

A3.1 Decide what is the


desirable minimum
pressure that should be
maintained at the highest
fixture in the supply
system. If the highest
group of the fixtures
contains flushometer
valves, the pressure for
the group should not be
less than 103.42 kPa (15
psi). For flush tank
supplies, the available
pressure may not be less
than 55.16 kPa ( 8 psi).

For
Minimum
Fixture
Pressure
Requiremen
t (A) = Use
104 kPa

Step 3. Calculate the Static Head (B).


B = 9.79 kPa/m x (Height of uppermost fixture)
B = 9.79 kPa/ m x (5.50 meters) = 53. 85 kPa

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

Step 4. Using the Demand Load, determine the Pressure Loss


in
the Water
Meter
(C).
Assume
meter
size at
20 mm: C = 55.10 kPa

Estimated Water Demand =


1.3 lps
Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

Step 5. Calculate the Pressure Available (Pa) for friction loss


in the supply pipes.
Pa = Pressure @ water main (A+B+ C)
where: A = Minimum Fixture Pressure Requirement
B = Static Head
C=
Loss
water
meter
Pa = 345
kPaPressure
(104 kPa
+@
53.85
kPa
+ 55.10kPa)
= 345 kPa = 212.95
Pa = 132.05 kPa
Step 6. Determine the developed length (DL) of the supply
pipe, including the equivalent length of fittings (.DL)
DL = 16.00 meters + 5.50 meters = 21.50 meters
Dl = ( DL ) 1.50 = (21.50 meters) 1.50 = 32.25 meters

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

Step 7. Calculate Total Equivalent Length (TEL) of the piping.


TEL = DL + DL
where:
DL = Length of the piping (horizontal and vertical)
measured
from the water main up to the farthest and topmost
fixture
DL = Equivalent length of fittings, if piping diagram is not
available, use 20 % to 50 % of DL
TEL = DL + DL = 21.50 meters + 32.25 meters = 53.75 meters
Step 8.
Calculate the Average Permissible Friction Loss per
100 meter length of pipe
(Pf).
Pf = (Pa TEL) 100
where: Pa = Pressure available for friction loss in the pipes
TEL = Total Effective Length of pipe
Pf = ( 132.05 kPa 53.75 meters ) 100 = 245.67 kPa

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

Step 9. Using The Demand


Load and the Average
Permissible friction Loss
(Pa) determine an
approximate pipe size that
is closest to the velocity
of 3 meters per second.
Use the Charts: A-5, A-6 and
Use 25 mm inside diameter
A-7
(1) Service Pipe Size
For PPR Pipe: Use 32 mm
PN 10

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

SIZING OF SUPPLY PIPES USING


TABLE 6.6 OF THE NATIONAL
PLUMBING CODE OF THE
PHILIPPINES

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

Supply pressure30 - 45 psi ( 207 to 310 kPa)


Maximum Water Supply Fixture Units(WFSU)
Length of pipe(feet)
Meter
and
street
service
lines
(inches)

3/4

Building
supply
and
40
branch
(12 m)
lines
(inches)

60
(18m)

80
(24m)

100
(30m)

150
(46m)

200
(61m)

1/2

3/4

16

16

14

12

29

25

23

21

17

15

36

31

27

25

20

17

1 1/4

54

47

42

38

32

28

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

Supply pressure45 - 60 psi (317 to 413 kPa)


Maximum Water Supply Fixture Units(WFSU)
Length of pipe(feet)
Meter
and
street
service
lines
(inches)

3/4

Building
supply
and
40
branch
(12m)
lines
(inches)

60
(18m)

80
(24m)

100
(30m)

150
(46m)

200
(61m)

1/2

3/4

20

20

19

17

14

11

39

39

36

33

28

23

39

39

39

36

30

25

1 1/4

78

78

76

67

52

44

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

Supply pressure over 60 psi (Over 413 kPa)


Maximum Water Supply Fixture Units(WFSU)
Length of pipe(feet)
Meter
and
street
service
lines
(inches)

3/4

Building
supply
and
40
branch
(12m)
lines
(inches)

60
(18m)

80
(24m)

100
(30m)

150
(46m)

200
(61m)

1/2

3/4

20

20

20

20

17

13

39

39

39

39

35

30

39

39

39

39

38

32

1 1/4

78

78

78

78

74

62

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU

End of Presentation

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU