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DNA

Technology

DNA Extraction
Chemical treatments cause
cells and nuclei to burst
The DNA is inherently
sticky,
sticky and can be pulled
out of the mixture
This is called spooling
DNA
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Spooled DNA

Cutting DNA

Restriction enzymes cut


DNA at specific sequences
Useful to divide DNA into
manageable fragments

Electrophoresis
DNA can be
separated based on
size and charge
The phosphate groups
are negatively
charged
DNA is placed in a
gel and electricity is
run through
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Electrophoresis
Negative DNA moves toward
the positive end
Smaller fragments move
farther and faster

Electrophoresis

Steps in DNA Sequencing


Many copies of a single
strand of DNA are placed in
a test tube
DNA polymerase is added
A mixture of nucleotides is
added some of which have
dye molecules attached
Each base (A,T,C,G) has a
different color dye
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Steps in DNA Sequencing


By chance, some dyed
nucleotides & some
regular ones are added
Dye molecules are large
and stop the chain from
growing

DNA
Sequencing
The result is
DNA fragments
of multiple
sizes with
colors that can
be identified

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DNA Sequencing
After the gel separates
the resulting fragments
by size, we 'read' the
sequence from bottom to
top.

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Copying DNA
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Also called PCR
A method of making many
copies of a piece of DNA

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Steps in Copying DNA


A DNA molecule is placed in
a small test tube
DNA polymerase that can
work at high temps is added

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Steps in Copying DNA


The DNA is heated to
separate the two
strands
Primers, short pieces of
DNA complementary to
the ends of the
molecule to be copied,
are added
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Copying DNA
The tube is cooled, and
DNA polymerase adds new
bases to the separated
strands

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PCR

Large amounts of DNA can be made


from a small starting sample
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Cloning
CloneClone a member
of a group of
genetically
identical cells
May be produced
by asexual
reproduction
(mitosis)

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Cloning organisms
A body cell from one
organism and an egg cell
from another are fused
The resulting cell divides
like a normal embryo

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Cloning Dolly

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Human Genome
Project

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Human Genome Project


Started in 1990
Research effort to sequence
all of our DNA (46
chromosomes)
Over 3.3 billion nucleotides
Mapping every gene location
(loci)
Conducted by scientists
around the world
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HGP Insights
Only 2% of human genome codes for
proteins (exons)
Other 98% (introns) are non-coding
Only about 20,000 to 25,000 genes
(expected 100,000)
Proteome organisms complete set of
proteins
About 8 million single nucleotide
polymorphisms (SNP) places where
humans differ by a single nucleotide
About of genome comes from
transposons (pieces of DNA that move
to different locations on chromosomes)
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Benefits of Human
Genome Project
Improvements in medical
prevention of disease, gene
therapies, diagnosis techniques
Production of useful protein
products for use in medicine,
agriculture, bioremediation and
pharmaceutical industries.
Improved bioinformatics using
computers to help in DNA
sequencing
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Benefits of Genetic
Engineering

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Biotechnology

The use of gene


science to create new
products from plants
and animals

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Biotechnology
Provides:
Improved food products
Medical advances
An enhanced environment

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Herbicide Resistant
Crops
+ CP4 EPSPS = Roundup
gene
Ready

Soybeans:
Corn:
Cotton:
Canola:

Roundup Ready
Roundup Ready, Liberty Link
BXN, Roundup Ready
Liberty Link, Roundup Ready
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Biotechnology Breakthroughs
Insulin (1982)
First commercial biotech product
Reliable, inexpensive source of insulin
Rice
Enriched with beta-carotene and iron
Bananas
Containing edible hepatitis vaccine

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Biotechnology Breakthroughs
Potatoes with higher solid
content
Garlic that lowers cholesterol
Fruits and vegetables that
reduce risks of cancer and heart
disease

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Environmental Benefits
Reduced pesticide use
Lower energy requirements
Cleaner water
Less soil erosion

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