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HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY

Intro to Ships and Naval Engineering (2.1)

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Intro to Ships and Naval Engineering (2.1)
Factors which influence design:

Size
Speed
Seakeeping
Maneuverability
Stability
Special Capabilities (Amphib, Aviation, ...)

Compromise is required!

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Categorizing Ships (2.2)
Methods of Classification:
1.0 Usage:
Merchant Ships (Cargo, Fishing, Drill, etc)

Naval and Coast Guard Vessels


Recreational Boats and Pleasure Ships
Utility Tugs
Research and Environmental Ships
Ferries

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Categorizing Ships (2.2)
Methods of Classification (cont):
2.0 Physical Support:
Hydrostatic

Hydrodynamic
Aerostatic
(Aerodynamic)

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Categorizing Ships (2.2)

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Categorizing Ships (2.2)
Hydrostatic Support (also know as
Displacement Ships) Float by displacing
their own weight in water
Includes nearly all traditional military and
cargo ships and 99% of ships in this course
Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull ships
(SWATH)

Submarines

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Categorizing Ships (2.2)
Aerostatic Support - Vessel rides on a
cushion of air. Lighter weight, higher
speeds, smaller load capacity.
Air Cushion Vehicles - LCAC: Opens up 75% of
littoral coastlines, versus about 12% for
displacement
Surface Effect Ships - SES: Fast, directionally
stable, but not amphibious

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Categorizing Ships (2.2)
Hydrodynamic Support - Supported by
moving water. At slower speeds, they
are hydrostatically supported
Planing Vessels - Hydrodynamics pressure
developed on the hull at high speeds to
support the vessel. Limited loads, high power
requirements.
Hydrofoils - Supported by underwater foils, like
wings on an aircraft. Dangerous in heavy seas.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Categorizing Ships (2.2)
Hydrostatic Support - Based on
Archimedes Principle
Archimedes Principle - An object partially or
fully submerged in a fluid will experience a
resultant vertical force equal in magnitude to
the weight of the volume of fluid displaced by
the object.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Categorizing Ships (2.2)
Archimedes Principle - The Equation

FB g
where: FB = is the magnitude of the resultant buoyant force in lb
= (rho) density of the fluid in lb s2 / ft 4 or slug/ft3
g = magnitude of accel. due to gravity (32.17 ft/s2)
= volume of fluid displaced by the object in ft3

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


How are these vessels supported?
Hydrostatic
Hydrodynamic
Aerostatic
A combination?

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How about these!

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Representing Ship Designs
Problems include:
Terms to use (jargon)
How to represent a 3-D object on 2-D paper
Sketches
Drawings
Artists Rendition

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Basic Dimensions (2.3.3)
Design Waterline (DWL) - The waterline
where the ship is designed to float.
Stations - Parallel planes from forward to aft,
evenly spaced (like bread). Normally an odd number
to ensure an even number of blocks.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Basic Dimensions (2.3.3)
Forward Perpendicular (FP) - Forward
station where the bow intersects the DWL.
Station 0.
Aft Perpendicular (AP) - After station
located at either the rudder stock or the
intersection of the stern with the DWL.
Station 10.
Length Between Perpendiculars (Lpp) -Distance
between the AP and the FP. In general the

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Basic Dimensions (2.3.3)
Length Overall (LOA) - Overall length of the
vessel.
Midships Station (
) - Station midway
between the FP and the AP. Station 5 in
a 10-station ship. Also called amidships.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Hull Form Representation (2.3.0-2.3.3)
Lines Drawings - Traditional graphical
representation of the ships hull form. Lines
Half-Breadth
Sheer Plan
Body Plan

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Hull Form Representation (2.3.0-2.3.3)
Body Plan
HalfBreadth
Plan
Sheer Plan

Lines Plan

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Hull Form Representation (2.3.0-2.3.3)
Half-Breadth Plan (Breadth = Beam)

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Hull Form Representation (2.3.0-2.3.3)
Half-Breadth Plan (Breadth = Beam)
Intersection of horizontal planes with the hull
to create waterlines. (Parallel with water.)

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Hull Form Representation (2.3.0-2.3.3)
Sheer Plan
Parallel to centerplane
Pattern for construction of longitudinal framing.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Hull Form Representation (2.3.0-2.3.3)
Sheer Plan
Intersection of planes parallel to the centerline
plane define the Buttock Lines. These show
the ships hull shape at a given distance from
the centerline plane.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Hull Form Representation (2.3.0-2.3.3)
Body Plan
Pattern for construction of transverse framing.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Hull Form Representation (2.3.0-2.3.3)
Body Plan
Intersection of
planes parallel to the
centerline plane define
the Section Lines.
Section lines
show the shape of
the hull from the front
view for a
longitudinal position

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Table of Offsets (2.4)
The distances from the centerplane are called the
offsets or half-breadth distances.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Table of Offsets (2.4)
Used to convert graphical information to a
numerical representation of a three
dimensional body.
Lists the distance from the center plane to the
outline of the hull at each station and waterline.
There is enough information in the Table of
Offsets to produce all three lines plans.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Hull Form Characteristics (2.5)
Depth (D) - Distance from the keel to the deck.
Remember Depth of Hold.
Draft (T) - Distance from the keel to the surface of the water.
Beam (B) - Transverse distance across each section.
Half-Breadths are half of beam.

Flare

Tumblehome

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Hull Form Characteristics (2.5)
Beam (B)

Camber

Freeboard
W L
Depth (D)
Draft (T)

K
C
L
Typical view of the midship section of a ship.

Keel (K) - Reference point on the bottom of the ship and is


synonymous with the baseline.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Fundamental Geometric Calculations (2.8)
A ships hull is a complex shape which cannot
be described by a mathematical equation!
How can centroids, volumes, and areas be
calculated? (Hint: you cant integrate!)
Use Numerical Methods to approximate an integral!
Trapezoidal Rule (linear approximation)
Simpsons Rule (quadratic approximation)

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Fundamental Geometric Calculations (2.8.1)
Example: Waterplane Calculation (Trapezoidal)

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Fundamental Geometric Calculations (2.8.1)
Simpsons Rule - Used to integrate a curve with
an odd number of evenly spaced ordinates.
(Ex. Stations 0 - 10)
y

y(x) cx 2 dx e
P2 (s, y2 )

Po (-s, yo )
P1 (0, y1 )
-s

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Fundamental Geometric Calculations (2.8.1)

Area under the curve between -s and s:


s
AREA (cx dx e)dx (2cs 2 6e)
s
3
s

Solving this equation for the given endpoints:

s
AREA ( y0 4 y1 y2 )
3

A simple example with a rectangle...

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Fundamental Geometric Calculations (2.8.1)

If the curve extends over more than three


points the equation becomes:
s
AREA ( y0 4 y1 2 y2 4 y3 2 y4 4 y5 y6 )
3

s is the spacing between ordinates. Usually


will be the spacing between stations or
waterlines.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Section (2.9)
Using Simpsons 1st Rule, you must* be able
to calculate:
Waterplane Area

Sectional Area
Submerged Volume
Longitudinal Center of Flotation (LCF)
* meaning: this will be on the homework, labs,
quizzes, and exams!

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Applying Simpsons Rule (2.9)

Methodology
Draw a picture of what you intend to
integrate.
Show the differential element you are using.
Properly label your axis and drawing.
Write out the generalized calculus equation
in the proper symbols.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Applying Simpsons Rule (2.9)

Methodology (cont)
Write out Simpsons Equation in generalized
form.
Substitute each number in the generalized
Simpsons Equation.
Calculate the final answer.

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Waterplane Area (2.9.1)

Numerically integrate the half-breadth as a


function of the length of the vessel.

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Waterplane Area (2.9.1)
Writing out the calculus equation:

Awp 2 dA 2

Lpp

y( x)dx

Stn 0

where:
Awp
dA
y(x)
dx

is the waterplane area in ft2


is the differential area of one element in ft 2
is the y offset or half-breadth at each value of x in ft
is the differential width of one element in ft

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Waterplane Area (2.9.1)
Writing out the generalized Simpsons Equation:
x
Awp 2 ( y0 4 y1 2 y2 4 y3 2 y4 4 y5 y6 )
3

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Section Area (2.9.2)
Numerical integration of the half- breadth as a
function of the draft.
Up

Deck
WL@10'
WL@5'
Baseline

To Port
Stn 5

Ex. View at
Section 5,
looking aft.
This is from
the Body Plan.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Section Area (2.9.2)
Writing out the calculus equation:
T

Asec t 2 dA 2 y ( z )dz
BL

where:
Asection is the section area to some chosen waterline in ft 2
dA is the differential area of one element in ft 2
y(z) is the y offset or half-breadth at each value of z in ft
dx is the differential width of one element in ft

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Section Area (2.9.2)

Writing out the generalized Simpsons Equation:

Asec t

z
2 ( y0 4 y1 2 y2 4 y3 2 y4 4 y5 y6 )
3

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Recall that the goal of us using the Lines Plan
And the Table of Offsets was to find the
Volume, and hence the buoyant force!
Archimedes Principle - The Equation

FB g
But so far, we can only calculate the section
and waterplane areas

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Submerged Volume: Longitudinal Integration
(2.9.3)

Integration of the section areas over the length of


the ship. Curve of Areas
z

dx

Curve of Areas

ASect(x)
x
Stn4

What is a barges section area, volume and curve of areas?

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What is a barges section area, volume and
curve of areas?

Section Area = Beam x Draft


Volume = Section Area x Length
Section
Area

Curve of Areas
FP

AP

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Submerged Volume: Longitudinal Integration
(2.9.3)
Writing the generalized calculus equation:

Vs s dV

Lpp

A dx
s

Stn 0

Where
Vs is the submerged volume in ft3

dV is the differential volume of one element in ft 3


Asect (x) is the value of the sectional area at each value
of x in ft2
dx is the differential width of one element in ft

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Submerged Volume: Longitudinal Integration
(2.9.3)
So, the volume is:

s
Vol s (A 0 4A1 2A 2 A10 )
3
Where is the 2?

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Centroids (2.6)

Centroid The geometric center of a body.

Center of Mass - A single point location


of the mass.
Better known as the Center of Gravity
(CG).
CG and Centroids are only in the same
place for uniform (homogenous)
mass!

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Centroids (2.6)
Centroids and Center of Mass can be found by
using a weighted average.
Y

a1

a2

a3

y a

an

y ave

i 1

i 1

y1
y2

y3

i i
i

yn

y ave

y1a 1 y 2 a 2 y 3a 3
a1 a 2 a 3

HULL FORM AND


GEOMETRY
What is the longitudinal center of gravity
of this 18 foot row boat?
Hull: 150 lb at station 6
Seat: 10 lb at station 5
Rower: 200 lb at station 5.5

150 6 10 5 200 5.5


LCG
150 10 200

LCG Stn 5.7


or 10.25 ft from the bow

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Center of Flotation (F or CF) (2.7.1)
The centroid of the operating waterplane.

(The center of an area.)

The point about which the ship


will list and trim!

Transverse Center of Flotation (TCF) Distance of the Center of Flotation from


the centerline.(Often = 0 feet)

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Center of Flotation (F or CF) (2.7.1)
Longitudinal Center of Flotation (LCF) -

Distance from midships (or the FP or


AP) to the Center of Flotation.
The Center of Flotation changes as the
ship lists or trims because the shape of
the waterplane changes.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Center of Buoyancy (B or CB) (2.7.2)
Centroid of the Underwater Volume.

Location where the resultant force of


buoyancy (FB) acts.

Transverse Center of Buoyancy (TCB) Distance from the centerline to the


Center of Buoyancy.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Center of Buoyancy (B or CB) (2.7.2)
Vertical Center of Buoyancy (VCB or KB) -

Distance from the keel to the Center of


Buoyancy.
Longitudinal Center of Buoyancy (LCB) Distance from the amidships or AP or
FP to the Center of Buoyancy.

Center of Buoyancy moves when the ship


lists or trims (TCB).

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Center of Buoyancy (B or CB) (2.7.2)
Which way is it moving? Fwd or Aft?

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Longitudinal Center of Flotation (LCF) (2.9.4)
(Centroid of Waterplane Area)
Point at which the vessel ___ and ___?
Distance from the Forward Perpendicular to the
center of flotation.
Found as a weighted average of the distance from
the Forward Perpendicular multiplied by the
ratio of the half-breadth to the total waterplane
area.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Longitudinal Center of Flotation (LCF) (2.9.4)
(Centroid of Waterplane Area)
Drawing of the LCF:
y
X
LCF

FP

y(x)

dx

AP

Recall: For most normal vessels LCF is between Stn 5 and 6.7

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Longitudinal Center of Flotation (LCF) (2.9.4)
(Centroid of Waterplane Area)
Writing the general calculus equation:
Lpp

dA
2 y ( x)dx
LCF x

Awp Stn 0 Awp

Writing the general Simpsons form:


LCF

2 x
( x0 y0 4 x1 y1 2 x2 y2 4 x3 y3 2 x4 y4 4 x5 y5 x6 y6 )
Awp 3

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Longitudinal Center of Buoyancy (LCB)
(Centroid of Underwater Volume)
Writing the general calculus equation:

As dx
LCB x

Writing the general Simpsons form:


LCB

x
( x0 A0 4 x1 A1 2 x2 A2 4 x3 A3 2 x4 A4 4 x5 A5 x6 A6 )
3

Sample Exam Questions


The Center of Flotation is:
a. Centroid of the
underwater volume
b. Point at which Fb acts
c. Centroid of the
waterplane
d. Point at which the
hydrostatic force acts

To calculate the submerged


volume of a ship, one would
a. Integrate half-breadths from
the keel to the waterplane
b. Integrate half-breadths
longitudinally at the
waterline
c. Integrate section areas
longitudinally
d. Use Simpsons Rule to
integrate waterplane areas
at each station

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Curves of Form (2.10)
WHAT THEY ARE: Graphical representation
of the ships geometric-based properties.
WHY: When weight is added, removed or
shifted, the underwater shape changes and
therefore the geometric properties change.
DETAILS:

Based on a given average draft.


Unique for every vessel.
The ship is assumed to be in seawater.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Curves of Form (2.10)
Curves of Form Include:

Displacement
LCB
VCB
Immersion (TPI)
LCF
MT1
And some others...

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Curves of Form (2.10)

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Curves of Form (2.10.1.2)
Longitudinal Center of Buoyancy (LCB):
The distance in feet from the longitudinal
reference position to the center of buoyancy.
The reference position could be the FP or
midships. If it is midships remember that
distances aft of midships are negative.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Curves of Form (2.10.1.3)
Vertical Center of Buoyancy (VCB):
The distance in feet from the baseplane to the
center of buoyancy.
Sometimes this distance is labeled KB with a
bar over the letters.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Curves of Form (2.10.1.4)
Tons Per Inch Immersion (TPI):
TPI is defined as the tons required to obtain
one inch of sinkage in salt water.
Parallel sinkage is when the ship changes its
forward and after drafts by the same amount
so that no change in trim occurs.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Curves of Form (2.10.1.4)
An approximate formula for TPI based on the area
of the waterplane can be derived as follows:

So,

T P I in t o n s p e r in c h

wp

420

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Curves of Form (2.10.1.6)
Longitudinal Center of Flotation (LCF):

The distance in feet from the longitudinal


reference point to the center of flotation.
The reference position could be the FP or
midships. If it is midships remember that
distances aft of midships are negative.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Curves of Form (2.10.1.7)
Moment to Trim One Inch (Moment/ Trim 1 or
MT1"):
The ship will rotate about the (?) when a
moment is applied to it.
The moment can be produced by adding,
removing, or shifting a weight some distance
from the center of flotation.
The units are?

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Curves of Form (2.10.1.7)
Trim is defined as the change in draft aft minus

the change in draft forward.


If the ship starts level and trims so that the
forward draft increases by 2 inches and the aft
draft decreases by 1 inch, the trim would be -3
inches.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Curves of Form (2.10.1.7)
Since a ship is typically wider at the stern than at
the bow, the center of flotation will typically be
aft of midships.
This means that when a ships trims, it will
typically have a greater change in the forward
draft than in the after draft.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Curves of Form (2.10.1.8)
KML : (A measure of pitch stability)
The distance in feet from the keel to the
longitudinal metacenter.
This distance is on the order of one hundred to
one thousand feet whereas the distance from
the keel to the transverse metacenter is only
on the order of ten to thirty feet.

HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY


Curves of Form (2.10.1.8)
KMT: (A measure of roll stability)
This is the distance in feet from the keel to the
transverse metacenter.
Typically, Naval Architects do not bother
putting the subscript T for any property in
the transverse direction because it is assumed
that when no subscript is present the
transverse direction is implied.

The End of Chapter 2


Did you meet all the chapters objectives?!
In one word buoyancy