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Original Title: HULL FORM AND GEOMETRY

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Intro to Ships and Naval Engineering (2.1)

Factors which influence design:

Size

Speed

Seakeeping

Maneuverability

Stability

Special Capabilities (Amphib, Aviation, ...)

Compromise is required!

Categorizing Ships (2.2)

Methods of Classification:

1.0 Usage:

Merchant Ships (Cargo, Fishing, Drill, etc)

Recreational Boats and Pleasure Ships

Utility Tugs

Research and Environmental Ships

Ferries

Categorizing Ships (2.2)

Methods of Classification (cont):

2.0 Physical Support:

Hydrostatic

Hydrodynamic

Aerostatic

(Aerodynamic)

Categorizing Ships (2.2)

Categorizing Ships (2.2)

Hydrostatic Support (also know as

Displacement Ships) Float by displacing

their own weight in water

Includes nearly all traditional military and

cargo ships and 99% of ships in this course

Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull ships

(SWATH)

Submarines

Categorizing Ships (2.2)

Aerostatic Support - Vessel rides on a

cushion of air. Lighter weight, higher

speeds, smaller load capacity.

Air Cushion Vehicles - LCAC: Opens up 75% of

littoral coastlines, versus about 12% for

displacement

Surface Effect Ships - SES: Fast, directionally

stable, but not amphibious

Categorizing Ships (2.2)

Hydrodynamic Support - Supported by

moving water. At slower speeds, they

are hydrostatically supported

Planing Vessels - Hydrodynamics pressure

developed on the hull at high speeds to

support the vessel. Limited loads, high power

requirements.

Hydrofoils - Supported by underwater foils, like

wings on an aircraft. Dangerous in heavy seas.

Categorizing Ships (2.2)

Hydrostatic Support - Based on

Archimedes Principle

Archimedes Principle - An object partially or

fully submerged in a fluid will experience a

resultant vertical force equal in magnitude to

the weight of the volume of fluid displaced by

the object.

Categorizing Ships (2.2)

Archimedes Principle - The Equation

FB g

where: FB = is the magnitude of the resultant buoyant force in lb

= (rho) density of the fluid in lb s2 / ft 4 or slug/ft3

g = magnitude of accel. due to gravity (32.17 ft/s2)

= volume of fluid displaced by the object in ft3

How are these vessels supported?

Hydrostatic

Hydrodynamic

Aerostatic

A combination?

Representing Ship Designs

Problems include:

Terms to use (jargon)

How to represent a 3-D object on 2-D paper

Sketches

Drawings

Artists Rendition

Basic Dimensions (2.3.3)

Design Waterline (DWL) - The waterline

where the ship is designed to float.

Stations - Parallel planes from forward to aft,

evenly spaced (like bread). Normally an odd number

to ensure an even number of blocks.

Basic Dimensions (2.3.3)

Forward Perpendicular (FP) - Forward

station where the bow intersects the DWL.

Station 0.

Aft Perpendicular (AP) - After station

located at either the rudder stock or the

intersection of the stern with the DWL.

Station 10.

Length Between Perpendiculars (Lpp) -Distance

between the AP and the FP. In general the

Basic Dimensions (2.3.3)

Length Overall (LOA) - Overall length of the

vessel.

Midships Station (

) - Station midway

between the FP and the AP. Station 5 in

a 10-station ship. Also called amidships.

Hull Form Representation (2.3.0-2.3.3)

Lines Drawings - Traditional graphical

representation of the ships hull form. Lines

Half-Breadth

Sheer Plan

Body Plan

Hull Form Representation (2.3.0-2.3.3)

Body Plan

HalfBreadth

Plan

Sheer Plan

Lines Plan

Hull Form Representation (2.3.0-2.3.3)

Half-Breadth Plan (Breadth = Beam)

Hull Form Representation (2.3.0-2.3.3)

Half-Breadth Plan (Breadth = Beam)

Intersection of horizontal planes with the hull

to create waterlines. (Parallel with water.)

Hull Form Representation (2.3.0-2.3.3)

Sheer Plan

Parallel to centerplane

Pattern for construction of longitudinal framing.

Hull Form Representation (2.3.0-2.3.3)

Sheer Plan

Intersection of planes parallel to the centerline

plane define the Buttock Lines. These show

the ships hull shape at a given distance from

the centerline plane.

Hull Form Representation (2.3.0-2.3.3)

Body Plan

Pattern for construction of transverse framing.

Hull Form Representation (2.3.0-2.3.3)

Body Plan

Intersection of

planes parallel to the

centerline plane define

the Section Lines.

Section lines

show the shape of

the hull from the front

view for a

longitudinal position

Table of Offsets (2.4)

The distances from the centerplane are called the

offsets or half-breadth distances.

Table of Offsets (2.4)

Used to convert graphical information to a

numerical representation of a three

dimensional body.

Lists the distance from the center plane to the

outline of the hull at each station and waterline.

There is enough information in the Table of

Offsets to produce all three lines plans.

Hull Form Characteristics (2.5)

Depth (D) - Distance from the keel to the deck.

Remember Depth of Hold.

Draft (T) - Distance from the keel to the surface of the water.

Beam (B) - Transverse distance across each section.

Half-Breadths are half of beam.

Flare

Tumblehome

Hull Form Characteristics (2.5)

Beam (B)

Camber

Freeboard

W L

Depth (D)

Draft (T)

K

C

L

Typical view of the midship section of a ship.

synonymous with the baseline.

Fundamental Geometric Calculations (2.8)

A ships hull is a complex shape which cannot

be described by a mathematical equation!

How can centroids, volumes, and areas be

calculated? (Hint: you cant integrate!)

Use Numerical Methods to approximate an integral!

Trapezoidal Rule (linear approximation)

Simpsons Rule (quadratic approximation)

Fundamental Geometric Calculations (2.8.1)

Example: Waterplane Calculation (Trapezoidal)

Fundamental Geometric Calculations (2.8.1)

Simpsons Rule - Used to integrate a curve with

an odd number of evenly spaced ordinates.

(Ex. Stations 0 - 10)

y

y(x) cx 2 dx e

P2 (s, y2 )

Po (-s, yo )

P1 (0, y1 )

-s

Fundamental Geometric Calculations (2.8.1)

s

AREA (cx dx e)dx (2cs 2 6e)

s

3

s

s

AREA ( y0 4 y1 y2 )

3

Fundamental Geometric Calculations (2.8.1)

points the equation becomes:

s

AREA ( y0 4 y1 2 y2 4 y3 2 y4 4 y5 y6 )

3

will be the spacing between stations or

waterlines.

Section (2.9)

Using Simpsons 1st Rule, you must* be able

to calculate:

Waterplane Area

Sectional Area

Submerged Volume

Longitudinal Center of Flotation (LCF)

* meaning: this will be on the homework, labs,

quizzes, and exams!

Applying Simpsons Rule (2.9)

Methodology

Draw a picture of what you intend to

integrate.

Show the differential element you are using.

Properly label your axis and drawing.

Write out the generalized calculus equation

in the proper symbols.

Applying Simpsons Rule (2.9)

Methodology (cont)

Write out Simpsons Equation in generalized

form.

Substitute each number in the generalized

Simpsons Equation.

Calculate the final answer.

Waterplane Area (2.9.1)

function of the length of the vessel.

Waterplane Area (2.9.1)

Writing out the calculus equation:

Awp 2 dA 2

Lpp

y( x)dx

Stn 0

where:

Awp

dA

y(x)

dx

is the differential area of one element in ft 2

is the y offset or half-breadth at each value of x in ft

is the differential width of one element in ft

Waterplane Area (2.9.1)

Writing out the generalized Simpsons Equation:

x

Awp 2 ( y0 4 y1 2 y2 4 y3 2 y4 4 y5 y6 )

3

Section Area (2.9.2)

Numerical integration of the half- breadth as a

function of the draft.

Up

Deck

WL@10'

WL@5'

Baseline

To Port

Stn 5

Ex. View at

Section 5,

looking aft.

This is from

the Body Plan.

Section Area (2.9.2)

Writing out the calculus equation:

T

Asec t 2 dA 2 y ( z )dz

BL

where:

Asection is the section area to some chosen waterline in ft 2

dA is the differential area of one element in ft 2

y(z) is the y offset or half-breadth at each value of z in ft

dx is the differential width of one element in ft

Section Area (2.9.2)

Asec t

z

2 ( y0 4 y1 2 y2 4 y3 2 y4 4 y5 y6 )

3

Recall that the goal of us using the Lines Plan

And the Table of Offsets was to find the

Volume, and hence the buoyant force!

Archimedes Principle - The Equation

FB g

But so far, we can only calculate the section

and waterplane areas

Submerged Volume: Longitudinal Integration

(2.9.3)

the ship. Curve of Areas

z

dx

Curve of Areas

ASect(x)

x

Stn4

What is a barges section area, volume and

curve of areas?

Volume = Section Area x Length

Section

Area

Curve of Areas

FP

AP

Submerged Volume: Longitudinal Integration

(2.9.3)

Writing the generalized calculus equation:

Vs s dV

Lpp

A dx

s

Stn 0

Where

Vs is the submerged volume in ft3

Asect (x) is the value of the sectional area at each value

of x in ft2

dx is the differential width of one element in ft

Submerged Volume: Longitudinal Integration

(2.9.3)

So, the volume is:

s

Vol s (A 0 4A1 2A 2 A10 )

3

Where is the 2?

Centroids (2.6)

of the mass.

Better known as the Center of Gravity

(CG).

CG and Centroids are only in the same

place for uniform (homogenous)

mass!

Centroids (2.6)

Centroids and Center of Mass can be found by

using a weighted average.

Y

a1

a2

a3

y a

an

y ave

i 1

i 1

y1

y2

y3

i i

i

yn

y ave

y1a 1 y 2 a 2 y 3a 3

a1 a 2 a 3

GEOMETRY

What is the longitudinal center of gravity

of this 18 foot row boat?

Hull: 150 lb at station 6

Seat: 10 lb at station 5

Rower: 200 lb at station 5.5

LCG

150 10 200

or 10.25 ft from the bow

Center of Flotation (F or CF) (2.7.1)

The centroid of the operating waterplane.

will list and trim!

the centerline.(Often = 0 feet)

Center of Flotation (F or CF) (2.7.1)

Longitudinal Center of Flotation (LCF) -

AP) to the Center of Flotation.

The Center of Flotation changes as the

ship lists or trims because the shape of

the waterplane changes.

Center of Buoyancy (B or CB) (2.7.2)

Centroid of the Underwater Volume.

buoyancy (FB) acts.

Center of Buoyancy.

Center of Buoyancy (B or CB) (2.7.2)

Vertical Center of Buoyancy (VCB or KB) -

Buoyancy.

Longitudinal Center of Buoyancy (LCB) Distance from the amidships or AP or

FP to the Center of Buoyancy.

lists or trims (TCB).

Center of Buoyancy (B or CB) (2.7.2)

Which way is it moving? Fwd or Aft?

Longitudinal Center of Flotation (LCF) (2.9.4)

(Centroid of Waterplane Area)

Point at which the vessel ___ and ___?

Distance from the Forward Perpendicular to the

center of flotation.

Found as a weighted average of the distance from

the Forward Perpendicular multiplied by the

ratio of the half-breadth to the total waterplane

area.

Longitudinal Center of Flotation (LCF) (2.9.4)

(Centroid of Waterplane Area)

Drawing of the LCF:

y

X

LCF

FP

y(x)

dx

AP

Recall: For most normal vessels LCF is between Stn 5 and 6.7

Longitudinal Center of Flotation (LCF) (2.9.4)

(Centroid of Waterplane Area)

Writing the general calculus equation:

Lpp

dA

2 y ( x)dx

LCF x

Awp Stn 0 Awp

LCF

2 x

( x0 y0 4 x1 y1 2 x2 y2 4 x3 y3 2 x4 y4 4 x5 y5 x6 y6 )

Awp 3

Longitudinal Center of Buoyancy (LCB)

(Centroid of Underwater Volume)

Writing the general calculus equation:

As dx

LCB x

LCB

x

( x0 A0 4 x1 A1 2 x2 A2 4 x3 A3 2 x4 A4 4 x5 A5 x6 A6 )

3

The Center of Flotation is:

a. Centroid of the

underwater volume

b. Point at which Fb acts

c. Centroid of the

waterplane

d. Point at which the

hydrostatic force acts

volume of a ship, one would

a. Integrate half-breadths from

the keel to the waterplane

b. Integrate half-breadths

longitudinally at the

waterline

c. Integrate section areas

longitudinally

d. Use Simpsons Rule to

integrate waterplane areas

at each station

Curves of Form (2.10)

WHAT THEY ARE: Graphical representation

of the ships geometric-based properties.

WHY: When weight is added, removed or

shifted, the underwater shape changes and

therefore the geometric properties change.

DETAILS:

Unique for every vessel.

The ship is assumed to be in seawater.

Curves of Form (2.10)

Curves of Form Include:

Displacement

LCB

VCB

Immersion (TPI)

LCF

MT1

And some others...

Curves of Form (2.10)

Curves of Form (2.10.1.2)

Longitudinal Center of Buoyancy (LCB):

The distance in feet from the longitudinal

reference position to the center of buoyancy.

The reference position could be the FP or

midships. If it is midships remember that

distances aft of midships are negative.

Curves of Form (2.10.1.3)

Vertical Center of Buoyancy (VCB):

The distance in feet from the baseplane to the

center of buoyancy.

Sometimes this distance is labeled KB with a

bar over the letters.

Curves of Form (2.10.1.4)

Tons Per Inch Immersion (TPI):

TPI is defined as the tons required to obtain

one inch of sinkage in salt water.

Parallel sinkage is when the ship changes its

forward and after drafts by the same amount

so that no change in trim occurs.

Curves of Form (2.10.1.4)

An approximate formula for TPI based on the area

of the waterplane can be derived as follows:

So,

T P I in t o n s p e r in c h

wp

420

Curves of Form (2.10.1.6)

Longitudinal Center of Flotation (LCF):

reference point to the center of flotation.

The reference position could be the FP or

midships. If it is midships remember that

distances aft of midships are negative.

Curves of Form (2.10.1.7)

Moment to Trim One Inch (Moment/ Trim 1 or

MT1"):

The ship will rotate about the (?) when a

moment is applied to it.

The moment can be produced by adding,

removing, or shifting a weight some distance

from the center of flotation.

The units are?

Curves of Form (2.10.1.7)

Trim is defined as the change in draft aft minus

If the ship starts level and trims so that the

forward draft increases by 2 inches and the aft

draft decreases by 1 inch, the trim would be -3

inches.

Curves of Form (2.10.1.7)

Since a ship is typically wider at the stern than at

the bow, the center of flotation will typically be

aft of midships.

This means that when a ships trims, it will

typically have a greater change in the forward

draft than in the after draft.

Curves of Form (2.10.1.8)

KML : (A measure of pitch stability)

The distance in feet from the keel to the

longitudinal metacenter.

This distance is on the order of one hundred to

one thousand feet whereas the distance from

the keel to the transverse metacenter is only

on the order of ten to thirty feet.

Curves of Form (2.10.1.8)

KMT: (A measure of roll stability)

This is the distance in feet from the keel to the

transverse metacenter.

Typically, Naval Architects do not bother

putting the subscript T for any property in

the transverse direction because it is assumed

that when no subscript is present the

transverse direction is implied.

Did you meet all the chapters objectives?!

In one word buoyancy

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