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Bridging among

languages

Felicitas E. Pado

The Language/s for Literacy


Development (K to Grade 3)
Mother Tongue
Filipino
English

Felicitas E. Pado

Multilingual Literacy and Oral


Language Development
Oral Language Development

Literacy
in L1

Literacy
in L2

FELICITAS E. PADO, PhD

Literacy
in L3

Literacy Development:
Kindergarten to Grade 3

Felicitas E. Pado

Kindergarten:
The Emergent Readers
How are the emergent readers
prepared for literacy?

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By giving them lots of listening and talking activities


By giving them opportunities to listen to the sounds
of the language
By exposing them to books in order to have a feel of
a book and to realize how print works
By reading stories to them
By introducing them to the letters of the alphabet:
name and sound of each letter; upper and lower
case.
By teaching them to write the letters
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The Domains

By giving them lots of listening and


talking activities

Oral language development

By giving them opportunities to


listen to the sounds of the language

Phonological awareness

By exposing them to books in order


to have a feel of a book and realize
how print works

Book and print orientation

By reading stories to them

Positive attitude towards


literature, language and
literacy
Listening comprehension

By introducing them to the letters of Alphabet knowledge


the alphabet: name and sound of
each letter; upper and lower case.
Handwriting
By teaching them to write the letters Felicitas E. Pado

Grade 1: Beginning Reading


in the MT
How do we develop the
learners beginning reading
skills?

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By teaching them to recognize words


By introducing what the words mean, and
By writing the words correctly
By letting them read a series of words with
accuracy, automaticity and proper
expression
By giving them opportunities to put down
their ideas in writing
By encouraging them to use correct
grammatical structures when speaking and
writing
Felicitas E. Pado

By helping them understand what the


words listened to or read mean
By developing their ability to
understand what they read
By equipping them with skills that will
help them in studying as well as
understanding the content subjects

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By teaching them to
recognize words

The Domains
Phonics and Word
recognition

introducing what the


words mean, and

Vocabulary
Development

writing them correctly

Spelling

By letting them read a Fluency


series of words with
accuracy, automaticity
and proper expression
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By giving them
opportunities to put
down their ideas in
writing

Writing/ Composing

By encouraging them
Grammar
to use correct
awareness
grammatical structures
when speaking and
writing

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By helping them
understand what the
words listened to or read
mean

Vocabulary
development

By developing their
Reading
ability to understand what Comprehension
they read
By equipping them with
skills that will help them
in studying as well as
understanding the
content subjects
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Study skills

Introduced/
Developed
in K

Grade 1:
Literacy in the
Mother Tongue

Oral language
Phonological awareness
Book and print orientation
Alphabet knowledge
Handwriting
Listening comprehension
Attitude toward LLL
Phonics and word
recognition
Spelling
Fluency
Reading Comprehension
Grammar awareness
Composing
Felicitas E. Pado
Study Skills

Grade 1 Class Program


SUBJECTS
Languages

1ST Q

Mother Tongue
Filipino

50
mins

English

50 mins
40 mins

Math
Araling Panlipunan

40 mins
30 mins

MAPEH
Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao
All the Grade 1 subjects areFELICITAS
taught inE. PADO, PhD
the Mother Tongue, except Filipino and

2nd Q

30
mins

3rd Q

30
mins

4th Q

Grade 1 Beginning
Reading

Mother
Tongue

Oral
Language
Development
Oral
Language
Development
Felicitas E. Pado

Filipino
English

Grade 2-3 Class Program


SUBJECTS

Languages

1ST Q

Mother Tongue
Filipino

50 mins
50 mins
50 mins

English

50 mins
40 mins

Math

40 mins

Araling Panlipunan

30 mins

MAPEH
Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao
All the Grade 2 subjects are taught in
the Mother Tongue, except Filipino and
FELICITAS E. PADO, PhD
English.

2nd Q

3rd Q

4th Q

Grade 2 Beginning
1st
Reading
semester (cont)

Mother
Tongue

Beginning
Reading

Filipino

Oral
Language
Development

English

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Grade 2, First Semester


Literacy in the Mother Tongue and Filipino
Filipino

Mother Tongue
Phonics and word
recognition
Spelling
Fluency
Reading
Comprehension
Grammar awareness
Composing
Study Skills

Oral language development


Phonological awareness
Book and print knowledge
Alphabet knowledge
Listening comprehension
Attitude towards LLL
Phonics and word recognition
Spelling
Fluency
Reading Comprehension
Grammar awareness
Study Skills
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Grade 2
2nd
semester

Developmental
Reading
(cont)
Beginning
Reading
(cont)
Beginning
Reading
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Mother
Tongue

Filipino
English

Grade 2, 2nd Semester Literacy in


Mother Tongue, Filipino and English
Mother Tongue

Phonics and word


recognition
Fluency
Spelling
Handwriting
(cursive)
Vocabulary devt
Reading
Comprehension
Grammar
awareness
Composing
Study Skills

Filipino

Phonics and word


recognition
Spelling
Fluency
Vocabulary devt.
Reading
Comprehension
Grammar
awareness
Attitude towards
LLL
Composing
Study Skills
Felicitas E. Pado

English

Oral language devt


Phonological
awareness
Alphabet knowledge
Phonics and word
recognition
Spelling
Fluency
Grammar awareness
Vocabulary devt
Attitude towards LLL
Reading
comprehension

Grade 3

Developmental
Reading

Mother
Tongue
Filipino

Beginning
Reading

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English

Grade 3
Filipino
Phonics and word
recognition
Spelling
Fluency
Vocabulary devt.
Reading Comprehension
Grammar awareness
Attitude towards
LLL
Composing
Study Skills
Felicitas E. Pado

English
Oral language devt
Phonological awareness
Alphabet knowledge
Phonics and word
recognition
Spelling
Fluency
Grammar awareness
Vocabulary devt
Attitude towards LLL
Reading comprehension
Study Skills

B
R
I
D
G
I
N
G
Felicitas E. Pado

Bridge
The instructional moment when teachers
bring the languages together to
encourage students to explore the
similarities and differences
between/among languages, and
transfer what they have learned from
one language to the other.
(Beeman and Urrow)
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Similarities and differences


among languages
in the phonology (sound
system)
morphology (word formation)
syntax and grammar
pragmatics (language use)

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Bridging
Or translanguaging, occurs
during the Bridge, or whenever
students and teachers make
connections among the
languages.

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Bridging helps students


transfer academic language
learned in one language to the
other language and
engage in contrastive analysis
by focusing on the similarities
and differences of the
languages.
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What are the connections among the


competencies in the different
domains?
What are the similarities and
differences between what I learned in
the MT to what Im learning in Filipino?
In English?
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Transfer is facilitated when


languages share written systems
(Bialystok, Luk, Kwan, 2005; Hornberger,
1989;Odlin, 1989).

Alphabetic knowledge and word


reading are found to transfer well
especially when the two languages
are orthographically comparable.
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Concepts/Skills that transfer


across languages

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Possibilities for Explicit Bridging


Domains

MT

1. Oral Language
2. Phonological Awareness
3. Book and Print Knowledge
4. Alphabet Knowledge
5. Phonics and word recognition
6. Fluency
7. Spelling
8. Writing and composition
9. Grammar awareness
10. Vocabulary development
11. Listening comprehension
12. Reading comprehension
13. Attitude towards LLL
14. Study Strategies

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Fil

Eng

What researches say

Transfer of vocabulary/oral
language is more variable
and limited.

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Phonological awareness
What skills transfer?

rhyming words
no. of syllables
onsets
rimes

What are new?


The terms: magkatugma, pantig
umpisa, huling tunog
Rhyming words, syllables, beginning,
ending
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Book and print orientation


What skills transfer?
Conventions: a book has a cover,
pictures tell about a story, the
author writes the story, the illustrator
draws the pictures in the story
What are new?
The terms: pabalat, may-akda,
tagaguhit
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Alphabet Knowledge
What letters are the same in the MT
and in Filipino? In English?
What letters were not taught in one
language and should be taught in L2?
In L3?
What letters have the same sound in
the 3 languages? What letters have a
different sound in L1? In L2?
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Phonics and Word Recognition


Pupils are taught to read in the MT first.
They shift to reading in Filipino.
They shift to reading in Filipino.

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Skills:
One blends sounds associated with
letters/ symbols to decode a word
The reader combines words to form
sentences

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Why is it easier for the pupils to


transfer skill in decoding from the
Mother Tongue to Filipino?
What are the difficulties of the
beginning readers in transferring the
skill in decoding English?

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Word Recognition: MT to Filipino


MT (Bikol)
nigo
dayo
sato
guta
paroy
hugay
gurang
magayon

Filipino
paso
puto
damo
kama
gatas
bahay
saging
matamis

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Remember . . .
Words in the MT and in Filipino are
phonetically consistent; there is
direct transfer of skill in decoding.
However, there is a need for
vocabulary development; the need
to explain what each word
means.
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Grade 2, 2 semester
nd

MT (Bikol)
nigo
guta
dayo
daga
sato
bako

Filipino
wala
sama
mama
buko
gata
kubo
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English
web
pan
bag
bib
top
bug
fun

Grade 3, 1st semester: PWR in


English
MT: Bikol

Filipino

hugay
paroy
ikos
putol
maray

patis
bagay
buhok
gulay
silid
FEPado

English

cake
late
line
bite
cone
tube

Bridging from MT and Filipino


to English
Difficulty in word recognition
and spelling
Intensive vocabulary
development

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Transfer from Filipino to


English: More Difficulties
Filipino
English
umaga
pare
pain
braso
tubo

umbrella
pare
pain
brace
tube
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Remember:
It s more difficult to decode words in
English because not all the words are
phonetically consistent.
Vocabulary development should be
intensive; the teachers should use
varied effective techniques to ensure
that the learners understand the words
that they can decode.
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Comprehensionn
Comprehension strategies transfer
across languages (CaleroBreckheimer& Goetz, 1993).

noting details
sequencing events
cause and effect
making inferences . . .
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Study Strategies
Skills are the same; only the terms
change:
Alphabetizing
Directions
Interpreting graphs . . .

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On the medium of instruction


Guidelines:
The teacher should consistently use the
medium of instruction; translation is not
advisable.
The pupils may use either the Mother
Tongue or Filipino in expressing their answer
IF they find it difficult to use the target
language.
The teacher, in a very subtle way, translates
the pupils answer to the target language.
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Our Challenge
How can we teachers help children
make the link between what they
previously learned in the Mother
Tongue to what they are currently
learning in Filipino?
in English?

Felicitas E. Pado

Grade 3: Literacy in the 3


languages: Preparation for
content area learning
A Grade 3 learner
A Grade 3 learner
is expected to be
should be ready
literate in
to use his/her
the Mother Tongue
literacy skills in
understanding the
Filipino
content subjects
English
FEPado

THANK YOU!

Felicitas E. Pado