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You are on page 1of 20

BY : YASHWANT PANKAJ

which the study is restricted to motion

of the bodies without inquiring into the

cause of motion.

Particle : A particle is defined as matter

infinitesimally small in size. Thus, a

particle has only a definite position, but no

dimension.

Body : A certain amount of matter limited

in all directions and consequently having a

finite size, shape, and occupying some

definite space is called a body.

A body is said to be at rest when it does

not change its position with time. On the

other hand, if the position of a body

continuously changes with time, it is said

to be in motion.

The visualization of the state of rest or

motion of a body leads us to the concept

of Reference Frame.

which the state must be specified. E.g a

car is moving with velocity of 50 m/s w.r.t

the earth reference frame.

To locate the position of a body relative to

the reference body, a system of

coordinates fixed on the reference body is

constructed. This is known as reference

frame. E.g. the velocity of above car w.r.t

another car moving with velocity of 10 m/s

in same direction will be 40 m/s.

Basic Definitions

Position vector: It describes the

instantaneous position of a particle w.r.t

the chosen frame of reference. It is a

vector joining to the particle. If any time

(x,y,z) be the cartesian coordinates of the

particle then its position vector is given by

r = xi + yj + zk

travelled by the particle in a given time

interval . It is a scalar quantity

Displacement : it is the vector joining the

initial to final position of a particle in a

given time interval. It is a vector quantity.

r = r2 r1

Note: Distance magnitude of

Displacement

Speed

For an interval of time, average speed is

defined as

<speed> =

Velocity:

a) Average velocity: in a time interval

average velocity is given by

<velocity> = vavg =

b) Instantaneous velocity : defined as

rate of change of the position vector.

Acceleration:

called acceleration.

aavg =

Similarly instantaneous acceleration is

defined as

moving with constant acceleration

Fall)

When

a body is dropped from some height

which is negligible in comparison to the

earth radius (6400 km), it falls under gravity

with a constant acceleration g (= 9.8 m/s2)

provided the air resistance is negligible.

The same set of three equations of

kinematics (for constant acceleration) are

used in solving such motion. Here we

replace the a with g and choose the y axis

conveniently.

A particle may move with non uniform

case:

Vavg = aavg =

We can solve the problems using the

differential equations

Equation of Motion

Graphs represent variation of a scalar

quantity w.r.t another scalar quantity. We take

variables of motion (r,v,a etc) then we plot

them in the form of graph to get a better

representation of how the variation is w.r.t

another variable. Following types of graphs :

i. Position time graph

ii. Velocity time graph

iii. Acceleration time graph

If we plot time t along the x axis and the

corresponding position from origin along y

axis, we get a graph which is called the

position-time graph. Let us consider the

following cases:

i. When the velocity is constant

ii. When particle is moving with a constant

velocity

iii. When particle have an accelerated

motion

to the position-time graph the velocitySimilar

i. The instantaneous velocity

ii. Slope if the tangent to the curve gives the

instantaneous acceleration

iii. The area under the v-t curve gives total

displacement of the particle.

Let

us consider the uniform acceleration motion.

The velocity-time graph will be a straight line. And

the slope of v-t curve gives the value of acceleration

Again

Acceleration-time graph gives the

information about the variation of

acceleration with time. Area under the a-t

curve gives the change in velocity of the

particle in the given time interval.

i. Motion under uniform acceleration

ii. Motion under uniform retardation

iii. Motion under variable acceleration

Motion

over a horizontal plane

If a particle is projected from origin O, at an angle

from the horizontal, with velocity u then the

components in x and y directions are:

ux = ucos

uy = usin

Hence

u = ux + uy

a = ax + ay

And then we can apply the equations of motion

separately in x and y directions to calculate different

values

Projectile Motion

When a particle is moving

under the only force of

gravity then that motion is

known as Projectile Motion.

The particle under this motion

is called projectile.

Gravity acts to influence the

vertical motion of the

projectile, thus causing a

vertical acceleration. The

horizontal motion of the

projectile is the result of the

tendency of any object in

motion to remain in motion at

constant velocity.

Vxo is the initial velocity along x-axis,

Vy is the velocity along y-axis,

Vyo is the initial velocity along y-axis.

g is the acceleration due to gravity and t is the time taken.

Relative Motion

Relative velocity: the

position, distance,

displacement, velocity

and acceleration of a

particle depend on the

reference frame chosen.

stationary and the frame

S' is in motion.

A particle P is moving

and is observed from

two frames S and S'. The

frame S is

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