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# Maths Basics

Arpit Sir
29 March 2015

Number Line
• A number line is an infinite line on
which numbers are marked at
intervals

Types of Number

Notice rational and irrational numbers make up the larger number set known as Real Numbers .Let’s look at the relationships between number sets.

Or how many marbles you have… Or how tall you are. As you may remember from earlier grades there are different types of numbers.A number represents the value or quantity of something… Like how much money you have.. .

Numbers represented on a number line. .

recorded in 1971 in Alaska .S.Integers The coldest temperature on record in the U. is -80° F.

Integers are used to represent real-world quantities such as temperatures. . miles per hour. When you know how to perform operations with integers. you can solve equations and problems involving integers. making withdrawals from your bank account. and other quantities.

Sea level has an elevation of 0 feet. and Clingman’s Dome in the Great Smokey Mountains is +6.By using integers. and at sea level. . below. Badwater Basin in Utah is -282 below sea level.643 above sea level. you can express elevations above.

the set of all whole numbers and their opposites. 3. . This means all the positive integers and all the negative integers together.If you remember. 1. the whole numbers are the counting numbers and zero: 0.… Integers . 2.

also called additive inverse.Opposites – two numbers that are equal distance from zero on a number line. The additive inverse property states that if you add two opposites together their sum is 0 -3 + 3 = 0 .

They decrease in value as you move to the left. Remember to order numbers we use the symbol < means “less than.” and the symbol > means “is greater than.” .Integers increase in value as you move to the right along a number line.

absolute values are always positive.” For example |-3| = 3. The symbol || represents the absolute value of a number. Since distance can never be negative.is it’s distance from 0 on a number line. This symbol is read as “the absolute value of.A number’s absolute value . .

|-6| = 6 . You just need to know the distance the number is from zero.Finding absolute value using a number line is very simple. |5| = 5.

5) The coldest 1) -32 □ 32 temperature ever 2) 26 □ |-26| recorded east of the Mississippi is fifty3) -8 □ -12 four degrees below 4) Graph the numbers -2. Use <. . 1922. zero in Danbury.Lesson Quiz Compare. on January line. integer. 3. Write the numbers in order from temperature as an least to greatest. Then list the 24. or =. and -1 on a number Wisconsin. >. -4. 5.

Integer Operations Rules for Integer Operations .

. If the signs are different. the answer is negative.Multiplying and Dividing Integers If the signs are the same. the answer is positive.

Rational Numbers Fractions and Decimals .

.Rational numbers – numbers that can be written in the form a/b (fractions). Integers and certain decimals are rational numbers because they can be written as fractions. with integers for numerators and denominators.

625 = 625/1000 = 5/8 . or you can reduce a decimal by placing the decimal equivalent over the appropriate place value. O.Remember you can simplify a fraction into a decimal by dividing the denominator into the numerator.

Write each rational number as a fraction: .

. change the fractions to decimals by dividing and comparing their decimal values.Hint: When checking to see which fraction is larger.

This is called ordering real numbers. . As you can see from the example at the left.Since Real Numbers are both rational and irrational ordering them on a number line can be difficult if you don’t pay attention to the details. there are rational and irrational numbers placed at the appropriate location on the number line.

414213562… .Irrational numbers √2 = 1.

• Irrational numbers are non-terminating. . • Irrational numbers cannot be represented as terminating or repeating decimals.Irrational number – a number that cannot be expressed as a ratio of two integers (fraction) or as a repeating or terminating decimal. • An irrational number cannot be expressed as a fraction. nonrepeating decimals.

101001000 .Below are three irrational numbers. Decimal representations of each of these are nonrepeating and nonterminating 10 0.

12122122212 √7.414213562… 0.Examples of irrational numbers are:  = 3. √11. √5. √25 = 5 √16 = 4 √81 = 9 Remember: Rational numbers when divided will produce terminating or repeating decimals. 343√ Non-perfect squares are irrational numbers Note: The √ of perfect squares are rational numbers.141592654… √2 = 1. . √3.

certain math problems ask you to use  as 3.14.NOTE: Many students think that  is a terminating decimal.14. It is actually an infinite decimal and is an irrational number. but that problem is rounding the value of to make your calculations easier. Yes. 3. but it is not.  .

   . The number is exactly equal to the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. and it can be located on a real number line by using geometry. The number is not a rational number. The number is not equal to 22/7. which is only an approximation of the value.There are many numbers on a real number line that are not rational.