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Introduction to VLSI

Design
Amit Kumar Mishra
ECE Department
IIT Guwahati

Tale of two queries!
Y R U here?
 Y M I here?

Landmarks Moore’s axiom  Some more funda  Free CAD tool  Parting notes  .

g.Moore’s Law Gordon Moore: co-founder of Intel  Predicted that the number of transistors per chip would grow exponentially (double every 18 months)  Exponential improvement in technology is a natural trend:   e.Dynamo .Automobile . Steam Engines .

Moore’s Law Transistors Microprocessors 10M 1M 80386 68020 68000 100K 10K 1K PPC603 Pentium 80486 Pentium Pro PPC601 MIPS R4000 68040 8086 4004 8080 10x/6 years 10x/6 years 100 10 1 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 [©Keutzer] .

com . audio/video processing Programmable   RAM.IC Products  Processors   Memory chips   Mobile communication. DSP. ROM. Controllers PLA. factories  Network cards   System-on-chip (SoC) Images: amazon. EEPROM Analog   CPU. FPGA Embedded systems Used in cars.

IC Product Market Shares Source: Electronic Business .

0 0.com/ 0.35 0.5 Technology 1.6 Intel386TM DX Processor Intel486TM DX Processor Pentium® Processor Pentium® Pro & Pentium® II Processors Source: http://www.8 0.intel.Example: Intel Processor Sizes Silicon Process 1.25 .

Heterogeneity on Chip  Greater diversity of onchip elements  Processors  Software Heterogeneity  Memory  Analog More Moretransistors transistorsdoing doingdifferent differentthings! things! [©Keutzer] .

Stronger Market Pressures Decreasing design window  Less tolerance for design revisions  Time-to-market Exponentially Exponentiallymore morecomplex. greater greaterdesign design risk. greater greatervariety.and and aasmaller smallerdesign design window! window! [©Keutzer] . complex. variety. risk.

VLSI Design Styles Full Custom  Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC)  Programmable Logic (PLD. FPGA)  System-on-a-Chip  .

Full Custom Design      Each circuit element carefully “handcrafted” Huge design effort High Design & NRE Costs / Low Unit Cost High Performance Typically used for high-volume applications .

Unit Cost Medium Performance .ASIC      Constrained design using pre-designed (and sometimes pre-manufactured) components Also called semi-custom design CAD tools greatly reduce design effort Low Design Cost / High NRE Cost / Med.

Programmable Logic (FPGA)     Pre-manufactured components with programmable interconnect CAD tools greatly reduce design effort Low Design Cost / Low NRE Cost / High Unit Cost Lower Performance .

microcontroller) “intellectual property” (IP)  ASIC logic for special-purpose hardware  Programmable Logic (PLD.System-on-chip (SOC)  Idea: combine several large blocks  Predesigned custom cores (e.g.. FPGA)  Analog  Open issues  Keeping design cost low  Verifying correctness of design .

The Inverted Pyramid Electronic Systems > $1 Trillion Semiconductor > $220 B CAD $3 B [©Keutzer] .

Where is the money?  Gaps to be filled:  System-semiconductor gap  Semiconductor-CAD gap .

A free CAD flow for all who care! Alliance CAD tools  "Architecture des Systèmes intégrés et Micro électronique" department of LIP6  875 000 Transistor design done  Limit is your processor power and your design abilities!  .

Scenario in India??? HUGE outsourcing  Loads of startups (WHY?)  VLSI design is nowhere a single nation job  Fabrication labs (fabs) in USA getting sold out  India getting 4 fabs by next year!  .

Thank You Best of Luck for End-Sems and Internships .