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Medical

Terminology

The Basic
Structure and
Analysis of
Medical
Terms
By

By
E. Suryadi & Madarina Julia
Faculty of Medicine GMU

Cervix Sarcoma
Sarcoma of the cervix therapy
Sarcomas of the cervix show a variable and generally
poor response to radiotherapy. If possible therefore,
surgical removal is indicated if the disease is localized to
the pelvis. This may vary from simple hysterectomy to
total pelvic exenteration. Chemotherapy has not proved
effective in these tumor
The signs and symptoms of recurrent malignant disease
are:
1. Positive cytologic examination
2. Palpable tumor in pelvis or abdomen
3. Ulceration of cervix or vagina
4. Unilateral lower extremity edema
5. Supraclavicular lymphadenopathy

Medical Terminology
Our sessions :
 The structure and analysis of medical
terms
 Roots, prefix and suffix in medical
terms
 The basic of medical terminology
 Two practical sessions

Hippocrates: epilepsy.g.g. asthma. e. diarrhea New advances in medical science – new terms derived from everyday vocabulary.History a vocabulary from ancient Greek and Latin Ancient doctors. cyt – kytos (hollow container)-cell . dysentery. e.

Why do we need to learn medical terminology ? To speak and to write exactly Health professional around the world use medical vocabulary to speak and to write exactly International language .

How do we learn medical terminology? like learning other languages: memorize the vocabulary!! logical language:  most terms can be broken down into its basic component parts and understood  “basic word structure” .

Basic Word Structure PANCYTOPENIA PREFIX COMBININ WORD G VOWEL ROOT SUFFI X COMBINING FORM .

Medical Terminology Commonly Used Roots. Prefix and Suffix .

WORD ROOT FOUNDATION OF THE WORD GASTER =GASTROS ROOT (stomach ) .

PREFIX WORD BEGINNING EPIGASTRIC PREFIX (above) .

SUFFIX WORD ENDING GASTRITIS SUFFIX (inflammation) .

COMPOUND WORD
TWO OR MORE WORD ROOTS

ELECTROCARDIOGRA
M
GASTROENTERITIS
WORD ROOTS

LEUKOCYTE
LEUKOCYTOSIS
LEUKOCYTOPENIA
SUFFIX or COMPOUND
SUFFIX FORM

Correlate an
understanding of a word
with basic anatomy,
physiology, and disease
process of the human
PANCYTOPENIA
body
PAN : all
CYT : cell
PENIA : deficiency
DEFICIENCY OF ALL CELLS
(deficiency of all types of
blood cells)

LEUKEMIA LEUK (root): white EM (root): blood IA (suffix): state (noun) EMIA (compound-suffix form): state of blood “white blood” malignancy of white blood cells .

The origin of a medical term Greek noun or adjective Greek verb Latin noun or adjective Latin verb  Influence how it was used in modern medical term .

ys) nephros – nephritis neuron – neuritis leukos – leukemia tachys – tachypnea glykys -. s. on. e.Greek nouns and adjectives (1) Root of a noun or an adjective is found by dropping the ending (os.glycemia .

a combining vowel is needed leukocyte neurogenic nephroblast .Greek nouns and adjectives (2) … when a suffix begins with a consonant attached to a root ends with a consonant.

and not LEUKOEMIA . and not GASTROIC LEUKEMIA.so…drop the combining vowel before a suffix beginning with a vowel GASTRIC.

but… retain the combining vowel between two roots in a word GASTROENTERITIS ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM .

hematology stoma. stomatitis . dermatos hypodermic. somatos macrosomia. somatotroph haima. stomatos tracheostomy. dermatology soma.Greek nouns and adjectives (3) Some words may come in two combining forms: derma. haimatos hemoglobin.

Greek Verbs gignesth ai gen(e) pathogenesis .gen hematogen lyein ly(s)- hemolysis tome tom- cholecystoto my graphein graph.cardiograph rhein rhe- diarrhea. leukorrhea .

um) fistula – fistulectomy vagina – vaginoplasty lympha – lymphogen ileum – ileostomy cerebrum – cerebrovascular palatum – palatorrhaphy .Latin Nouns Combining form of a noun is found by dropping the ending (a.

Tissue Tissues may have different terms in normal and diseased states  NORMAL: LATIN WORD  DISEASED/ ABNORMAL: GREEK WORD .

TESTIS UTERUS VAGINA OVARIUM TUBA NASUS ORIS HEPAR normal and orch/o abnormal orchitis metr/o colp/o endometriti s colpitis vaginitis oophor/o Oophoritis salphynx salphyngiti rhin/o s stomat/one rhinitis p Stomatitis hepat/o .

normal and abnormal REN COR PULMO nephr/o cardi/o pneum/o nephritis carditis pneumoniti s pneumonia CORNEA kerat/o keratitis AURIS ot/o otitis CEREBRUM encephal/o encephaliti s .

Tissu e ADIPOSE TISSUE Fascia adiposa LIP/O : FAT – – – – Lipolysis Lipogenesis Lipodystrophy lipoma .

Tissu
e
OSSEUS/OS
Os femur, os radius, os
pallatum, medulla
osseum
OSTE/O - : BONE
– Osteogenesis imperfecta
– Osteoblast
– Osteomyelitis

Tissu
e
NERVUS
Nernus ischiadicus, n.
axillaris
NEUR/O
: NERVE
– neuralgia
– neuropathy
– neuritis

Tissu
e

MUSCULUS
Musculus pectoralis major,
m. rectus abdominis
MY/O
MYS/O: MUSCLE
– myopathy
– myositis
– Myoglobin
– Myofibra
– Myocardium
– Myometrium

Tissu e CARTILAGO Cartilago thyreoidea. cartilago septi nasi CHONDR/O : CARTILAGE – chondrodysplasia – Achondroplasia – Osteogenesis enchondralis – Chondrogenesis .

subcutane DERMIS DERMAT/O : SKIN – – – – dermatitis leukoderma epidermis dermatology .Tissu e CUTIS CUTANE/0 Intracutane.

Tissu e VASA VASCUL/O vascularisation. avascular ANGI/O : BLOOD VESSEL – – – – – angiopathy/ vasculopathy angiography Angiogram angioma Vasculitis .

SANGUINIS HEM/O =HAIMA EM HEMAT/O: BLOOD – – – – – hematology hematopoiesis anemia cholesterolemia hemoglobin .Tissu e SANGUIS.

Color= chrom LEUK/O : ALBUS : WHITE ALBINO. CORPUS ALBICAN LINEA ALBA FLUOR ALBUS LEUKOCYTE LEUKOCYTURIA LEUKOCYTOSIS LEUKEMIA LEUKODERMA LEUKODYSTROPHY LEUKOPLAKIA LEUKORRHEA .

Color = chrom MELAN/O : FUSCUS : BLACK MELANOCYTE MELANOBLAST MELANOMA MELANURIA MELANIN MELENA .

Color ERYTHR/O : RUBRO : RED CORPUS RUBRUM NUCLEUS RUBER ERYTHROBLAST ERYTHROCYTE ERYTHROCLAST ERYTHEMATOUS ERYTHREMIA ERYTHRODERMA .

Colo r CYAN/O: BLUE CYANOTIC CYANOSIS CYANOPHIL CYANOPSIA CYANOLABE glaucos : bluish green Griseus : bluish grey .

Color CHLOR/O:CHLOASMA : GREEN CHLOROMA CHLOROPHYL CHLOROPSIA CHLOROLABE .

COLOR GRISEUS = POLIOS = PHAIOS =GREY Substantia grisea Poliomyelitis .

Colo r XANTH/O: FLAVUS: LUTEUS: YELLOW CORPUS LUTEUM XANTHOCHROMIC XANTHOCHROMIA XANTHELASMA XANTHOMA XANTHOPSIA .

Body activities Audio = acouo = to hear Opsia = opia = blepo = to see Phagien = to eat Dipsa = to drink Phrasis = to speech Laleo = to talk Gradior = to walk Halo = pneu = to breathe Oureo = to urinate Ergo = to work Sedeo =sella = to sit Osme = bromo =to smell Mnena = memory Palpo = to touch Kineo= moveo = to move Gustatus = geuma = to taste Hypnos = somnus = sopor= to sleep Glutio = to swallow Defaecatio= chezo = to defaecate .

Qualitative Measurement Major= magnus = mega = great Minor = parvus = small Breve = short Longus = long Durum = hard Mollis = soft Bradys = tardus = slow Tachys = celer = fast Poly = multi = many Oligos = few = rare Asthenia = weak .

prefix – Location supra/super / retr/o ultra epi par/a peri end/o – ento en eso intra infra/ sub extra ect/o exo ec .

prefix – Location mes/o Circum/peri .

Ante = before Meta = behind Trans = beyond. among Dia = complete = through Per = through. upwards Cata = downward . over Ana = upon. to the other side Inter = between.

circumductio retroperitoneal suprarenal. etc. . exotoxin Periosteum. endoderm encephalitis endometrium vs. mesoderm.prefix – Location examples: ectopic pregnancy ectoderm. parametrium endotoxin vs. pericardium Circumoral.

prefix .number A/AN NULLI WITHOUT LACKING DEFICIENT ANEMIA APLASTIC ANEMIA ANALGESIA NULLIPARA .

½ prefix number hemi HALF semi PARTIAL HEMIPARESIS HEMIPLEGIA HEMIHYPERTROPHY SEMICOMATOSE .

prefix number uni .mono MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY MONOPARESIS MONONUCLEAR CELLS UNICELLULAR UNILATERAL .

PRIMIPAROUS PRIMIGRAVIDA PRIMITIVE PRIMORDIAL GERM CELLS .1 st primi prefix number PRIMIPARA.

prefix number BI DI(PLO) BICUSPID VALVE BICEPS BIFURCATIO DIPLOCOCCUS DIPLOID .

prefix number • MULTI – MANY :  MULTIPARA.PENTA : PENTAMER .TETRA :  TETRAPARESES.TRI :  TRICUSPIDALIS. TETRAPLEGIA • 5 . MULTINUCLEAR GIANT CELLS. TRI IN DIE • 4 . MULTIGRAVIDA • 3 .

OPPOSED • ANTIBIOTIC • ANTIHISTAMINE • ANTITOXIN • CONTRALATERAL .negative sense ANTI (ANT): CONTRA = AGAINST.

malaria. anemia. malformation A.MAL = BAD Malnutrition. DEFICIENT Anaerobe. anhidrosis . AN = ABSENCE OF SOMETHING.

painful. abnormal DYSMENORRHEA DYSPEPSIA DYSTROPHY (DUCHENNE MUSCULODYSTROPHY) .negative sense dys : difficult.

hyper and hypo hyper : beyond normal. deficient. below normal HYPOGLYCEMIA HYPERGLYCEMIA HYPOTHYROIDISM HYPERTHYROIDIS M HYPOTENSI HYPERTENSI HYPODERMIC . over hypo: under. excessive.

tachy and brady tachy: rapid. fast brady: slow tachycardia tachypnea bradycardia bradypnea .

ema. sia.suffix – noun a. condition • nephrolithiasis • erythema • hyperchromasi a • diuresis • synergism • hydrocephalus . asis. ia. sis. us: dyspnea. esis. osteomalacia hypertrophy ectasia arteriosclerosis state. y. asia. ism. rhinorrhea anemia.

suffix – noun itis oma . disease fibroadenoma adenocarcinoma glioma edema lymphoma .ma oophoritis endometritis colitis ulcerosa hepatitis carditis inflammation tumor.

Suffix NOUN .ADJECTIVE NOUN ADJECTIVE cyanosis anemia nervus sclerosis stenosis paralysis cyanotic anemic nervous sclerotic stenotic paralytic .

SUFFIXES -ALGIA = PAIN -CELE = HERNIA -CENTESIS = SURGICAL PUNCTURE TO REMOT A FLUID -PENIA = DECREASE -DYNIA = PAIN -LYSIS = DESTRUCTION = BREAKDOWN -MALACIA = SOFTENING -OPSY = TO VIEW -POIESIS = FORMATION -PLASIA = DEVELOPMENT .

SUFFIXES -OSIS = ABNORMAL CONDITION -PATHY = DISEASE -PEXY = FIXATION -STASIS = STOPPING. CONTROLING -SCOPE = INSTRUMENT FOR EXAMINATION -PTOSIS = DROPPING .

Medical Terminology The basic of medical terminology .

.ABREVIATIONS IN MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY SINGULAR-PLURAL CLINICAL TERMS/ PHRASES etc.

Abbreviations 1. Diagnoses 4. Charting . Procedures 5. Chemical 3. Health Professions 6. Measurements 2.

Abbreviations Measurements g or gm mcg tsp kcal mMol/L g/dL mg% BMI gram microgram teaspoon calorie mMol per liter gram per deciliter miligram percent body mass index .

Abbreviations Chemical O2 (oxygen) CO2 (carbon dioxide) NaCl (sodium chloride) RL (Ringer Lactate) K (potassium. kalium) .

Abbreviations Diagnoses CP (cerebral palsy) AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) ALL (acute lymphoblastic leukemia) CVA (cerebrovascular accident) CVD (cardiovascular disease) DHF (Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever) .

Abbreviations Procedures (1) radiology IVP: intravenous pyelography ECG: electrocardiography USG: ultrasonography MRI: magnetic resonance imaging CT-SCAN (CAT-SCAN): computerized axial tomography scanning .

Abbreviations Procedures (2) laboratory 2 hr pp (2 hour post prandial blood glucose) LDH (lactic dehydrogenase) CK (creatine kinase) LFT (liver function test) RFT (renal function test) .

nose. throat)  OB (obstetry)  GYN (gynecology) .Abbreviations Health professions  MD (medical doctor)  ENT (ear.

left eye)  tid (tri in die. thrice a day) .Abbreviations Charting  ex/ exam (examination)  Dx (diagnosis)  Tx (treatment)  Rx (prescribe)  BP (blood pressure)  iv (intravenous)  OS (oculus sinister.

Rules for commonly forming plurals ending change to is um us a ex/ix es a i ae ices .

Examples of plurals is to es SINGULAR PLURAL anastomosis metastasis epiphysis prosthesis anastomoses metastases epiphyses prostheses .

Examples of plurals um to a SINGULAR PLURAL bacterium diverticulum ovum bacteria diverticula ova .

Examples of plurals us to i SINGULAR calculus bronchus bronchiolus nucleus PLURAL calculi bronchi bronchioli nuclei .

Examples of plurals a to ae SINGULAR vertebra bursa bulla PLURAL vertebrae bursae bullae .

Examples of plurals ix or ex to ices SINGULAR PLURAL apex varix apices varices .

Clinical Terms/ Phrases anamnesis: history of symptoms examination: physical examination of signs diagnosis therapy/ treatment prognosis .

hemothorax syndrome: nephrotic syndrome. dysenteri. cystitis tumor/ cancer: hepatocellular carcinoma. nephrolithiasis. arteriosclerosis. neurofibromatosis condition: mitral stenosis. melanoma maligna. AIDS .diagnosis/diseases (1) related to organ system/ tissue inflammation: rhinopharyngitis. osteosarcoma. hepatorenal syndrome.

botulinum) . tetani) – botulism (botulinum – C.diagnosis/diseases (2) related to the causing factors organism: – – – – – Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) Chikungunya Fever Diphteria (C. tuberculosis) toxin: – tetanus (tetanin – C. diphteriae) Tuberculosis (M.

diagnosis/diseases (3) named after the person signs: who found it – Turner syndrome – Biot respiration – Spleen Schuffner 1-8 disease: – – – – – Duchenne muscular dystrophy Becker muscular dystrophy Hashimoto disease Grave’s disease Neurofibromatosis von Recklinghausen .

therapy/ treatment Causative/ Curative: address the cause of the disease – aimed at curing the disease Symptomatic/Palliative: address the symptoms of the disease – aimed at making the patients feel better Ex juvantivus: a try out .

nephrostomy. palatorraphy incision vs. gastrectomy rraphy (to sew): herniorrhaphy.surgical tomy (to cut): pyloromyotomi. procedures osteotomi stomy (to make an opening): tracheostomy. ileostomy ectomy (resection= to cut out): nephrectomy. excision . splenectomy.

prognosis dubia ad malam dubia ad bonam five years survival rate of 80% fatality rate remission rate cure rate .

sopor. lethargy. vertigo . soporocomatous. migraine. cluster headache. stupor.other terms acute vs. chronic degree of consciousness: compos mentis. coma shock headache/ cephalgia: tension headache.

Aware of spelling and pronunciation problem  pronounced alike – different spelling  may give wrong diagnosis CYSTITIS vs. HEMATOMA . CYTOSIS ILEUM vs. ILIUM HEPATOMA vs.

Aware of spelling and pronunciation problem similar pronunciation URETER vs. URETHRA ureteritis urethritis .

ventricle – vasa – vasculus – vesica – vesiculus.alveolus . vesicle olus – arteria – arteriole – alveus -.diminutive suffix (1) culus – venter – ventriculus.

globule illa – fibril -fibrilla ellum – cerebrum .cerebellum .diminutive suffix (2) ulus – calcis – calculus – globus – globulus.

How do we analyze a medical terms? break it down into its component part find the meaning of every part Read the meaning from the suffix back to the first part of the word .

PANCYTOPENIA PAN (prefix): all CYT (root): cell PENIA (suffix-form): deficiency DEFICIENCY OF ALL CELLS (deficiency of all types of blood cells) .

ELECTROCARDIOGRAM ELECTR (root): electricity CARDI (root): heart GRAM (suffix): record The record of the electricity of the heart .

GASTROENTERITIS GASTR (root): stomach ENTER (root): intestines ITIS (suffix): inflammation Inflammation of the stomach and intestines .

Read the meaning of medical terms from the suffix back to the first part of the word PANCYTOPENIA ELECTROCARDIOGRA M GASTROENTERITIS .

ASYNERGY A (prefix): without SYN (prefix): together ERG (root): working Y (suffix): noun-suffix without synergy without working together .

liposarcoma. etc. .OSTEOSARCOMA OSTEO (combining form): bone SARCOMA (suffix-form): tumor of the tissue – SARC (root): tissue – OMA (suffix): tumor tumor of bone tissue lymphosarcoma. chondrosarcoma.

RETROPERITONEAL RETRO (prefix): behind PERITONEUM (root– peritonaion): to stretch over AL (suffix): adjectival suffix behind the peritoneum Peritoneum is a serous sac that lines the abdominal cavity .

A Programmed Text. W. 1985 Dennerll JT.. 1981 Dunmore CW. The Language of Medicine. Medical Terminology. 2nd ed. Medical Terminology Bagian Pendidikan Kedokteran . F. Fleischer RM.B. E. John Wiley & Sons. 5th ed. Saunders Company.Further Readings Chabner DE. 1988 Suryadi. Inc.A Davis Company. Medical Terminology. Exercises in Etymology.