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PCI 6  Edition

th

Connection Design

Presentation Outline
• Structural Steel Design
• Limit State Weld Analysis
• Strut – Tie Analysis for Concrete
Corbels
• Anchor Bolts
• Connection Examples

Changes
• New method to design headed studs (Headed Concrete
Anchors - HCA)
• Revised welding section
– Stainless Materials
– Limit State procedure presented

• Revised Design Aids (moved to Chapter 11)
• Structural Steel Design Section
– Flexure, Shear, Torsion, Combined Loading
– Stiffened Beam seats

• Strut – Tie methodology is introduced
• Complete Connection Examples

Structural Steel Design
• Focus on AISC LRFD 3rd Edition
– Flexural Strength
– Shear Strength
– Torsional Strength
– Combined Interaction

• Limit State Methods are carried through
examples

Structural Steel Details

• Built-up Members
• Torsional Strength
• Beam Seats

Steel Strength Design
• Flexure

 Mp = ·Fy·Zs
Where:
 Mp
= Flexural Design Strength
Fy =
Yield Strength of Material
Zs =
Plastic Section Modulus

6·Fy)·Aw Where:  Vp = Shear Design Strength Aw = Area subject to shear .Steel Strength Design • Shear Vn = (0.

Steel Strength Design • Torsion (Solid Sections)  Tn = (0.6·Fy)··h·t2 Where:  Tp = Torsional Design Strength  = Torsional constant h = Height of section t = Thickness .

Torsional Properties • Torsional Constant.  • Rectangular Sections .

6·Fy)·Ᾱ·t Where:  Tp = Torsional Design Strength Ᾱ Ᾱ = Area enclosed by centerline of walls t = Wall thickness .Steel Strength Design • Torsion (Hollow Sections)  Tn = 2·(0.

Torsional Properties • Hollow Sections Ᾱ = w·d .

It A fv Tc T T  .Combined Loading Stress • Normal Stress P Mc M fn  . . 2 J ht 2At bending • Torsion Shear Stress torsion . A I S • Bending Shear Stress fv VQ V  . .

60fy    0.90  .Combined Loading • Stresses are added based on direction • Stress Limits based on Mohr’s circle analysis – Normal Stress Limits fun    fy   0.90 – Shear Stress Limits fuv    0.

Built­Up Section Example .

Example F x 0 TC0 AtF y AcFy  0 At  Ac .

25  0.Determine Neutral Axis Location. y Tension Area At  4in y Compression Area Tension = Compression Ac  2 3 in1in   3 in  y  4in  8  8 Ac  2.25  4  y 4  y  2.25  4  y y 2.281 in 8 .

 Zp Either Tension or Compression Area x Distance between the Tension / Compression Areas Centroids  Zp  At H  yt  yc  .Define Plastic Section Modulus.

281 yt    0.683 in A .14 in 2 2 • Compression yc __ Ay    0.Determine Centroid Locations • Tension y 0.

2811.Calculate Zp   Z  4  yH  y  y   4  0.683 Zp  At H  yt  yc p Zp t Zp  0.62 in3 c .14  0.375  0.

Beam Seats • Stiffened Bearing – Triangular – Non-Triangular .

9 b = Stiffener projection t = Stiffener thickness z = Stiffener shape factor .Triangular Stiffeners • Design Strength  Vn=·Fy·z·b·t Where:  Vn = Stiffener design strength  =Strength reduction factor = 0.

75   2.0 a  b  b z  1.27    a  a 2  b  0.Stiffener Shape Factor b 0.39  2.2    1.25    a 3 .

Thickness Limitation b 250  t Fy .

ts = 3/8 in.Triangular Stiffener Example Given: A stiffened seat connection shown at right. Stiffener thickness. . Fy = 36 ksi Problem: Determine the design shear resistance of the stiffener.

8  1.39  2.0 a 10  b  b z  1.27 0.39  2.2    1.25 0.75 and  1.315 3 .8  0.27    a  a   2   2  b  0.25    a 3   z  1.2 0.Shape Factor b 8   0.8 z  0.8  0.

3  41.7 .Thickness Limitation b 250  t Fy 8  21.7  41.3 0.375 250 36 21.

9 36 ksi 0.Design Strength Vn    Fy  z  b  t      Vn  0.315 8 in 0.9 kips .375 in Vn  28.

EVM – Instantaneous Center Method – ICM .Weld Analysis • Elastic Procedure • Limit State (LRFD) Design introduced • Comparison of in-plane “C” shape – Elastic Vector Method .

Elastic Vector Method – (EVM) • Stress at each point calculated by mechanics of materials principals fx  fy  fz  fr  Px Aw Py Aw Pz Aw    Mzy Ip Mzx Ip Mx y I xx  Myx I yy fx2  fy2  fz2 .

Elastic Vector Method – (EVM) • Weld Area ( Aw ) based on effective throat • For a fillet weld: Aw  a 2 lw Where: a = Weld Size lw = Total length of weld .

Instantaneous Center Method (ICM) • Deformation Compatibility Solution • Rotation about an Instantaneous Center .

load orientation • General solution form is a nonlinear integral • Solution techniques – Discrete Element Method – Tabular Method .Instantaneous Center Method (ICM) • Increased capacity – More weld regions achieve ultimate strength – Utilizes element vs.

ICM Nominal Strength • An elements capacity within the weld group is based on the product of 3 functions. – Strength – Angular Orientation – Deformation Compatibility Rn  j f  g h .

 f f  0.6  FEXX  Aw Aw .Weld area based on effective throa .Strength.

 g Weld capacity increases as the angle of the force and weld axis approach 90o Rj  R  g  g  1.0  0.5sin  3 2 .Angular Orientation.

9  0.17a .64 a  0.209   2 a     Where the ultimate element deformation u is:    u  1.Deformation Compatibility.32  1.32 0.209   2 0.087   6 0.3  r rcritical   0.9 a   u 0. h u h   r  rcritical  0.

5sin    j      r r  u u    rcritical rcritical  1.209   2 a           0.32 0.9  0. x and y    .Element Force     3 2  Rn  0.0  0.3     Where: r and  are functions of the unknown location of the instantaneous center.6FEXXAw   1.32   0.209   2 a 0.9   0.

Equations of Statics F y M IC 0 Number of Elements  Rn  Pn  0 yj j1 0 Number of Elements  j1   Rn rj  Pn e  r0  0 j .

includes  electrode strength factor weld length .Tabulated Solution • AISC LRFD 3rd Edition. Tables 8-5 to 8-12 Vn = C·C1· D·l Where: D = C = C1 = l = number of 16ths of weld size tabulated value.

Comparison of Methods • Page 6-47: .

Corbel Design • Cantilever Beam Method • Strut – Tie Design Method • Design comparison – Results comparison of Cantilever Method to Strut – Tie Method • Embedded Steel Sections .

Step 4 – Determine tension steel by shear friction Step 5 – Compare results against minimum Step 6 – Calculate shear steel requirements .Cantilever Beam Method Steps Step 1 – Determine maximum allowable shear Step 2 – Determine tension steel by cantilever Step 3 – Calculate effective shear friction coeff.

B As    Nu  fy   3 e   1 Eq. A As  fy  • Tension steel development is critical both in the column and in the corbel .Cantilever Beam Method • Primary Tension Reinforcement • Greater of Equation A or B  a  h   Vu    Nu     d  d    1   2Vu    Eq.

Cantilever Beam Method • Shear Steel Ah  0.5  As  An  • Steel distribution is within 2/3 of d .

Cantilever Beam Method Steps Step 1 – Determine bearing area of plate Step 2 – Select statically determinate truss Step 3 – Calculate truss forces Step 4 – Design tension ties Step 5 – Design Critical nodes Step 6 – Design compression struts Step 7 – Detail Accordingly .

85 f`c   0.75 .Strut – Tie Analysis Steps Step 1 – Determine of bearing area of plate Apl  Vu   0.

.Strut – Tie Analysis Steps Step 2 – Select statically determinate truss AC I provides guidelines for truss angles. etc. struts.

Strut – Tie Analysis Steps Step 3 – Determine of forces in the truss members Method of Joints or Method of Sections .

Strut – Tie Analysis Steps Step 4 – Design of tension ties As  Fnt fy   0.75 .

6 in nodal zones anchoring two or more ties .Strut – Tie Analysis Steps Step 5 – Design of critical nodal zone fcu  0.85  nf`c where: βn = 1.0 in nodal zones bounded by structure or bearing areas = 0.8 in nodal zones anchoring one tie = 0.

Strut – Tie Analysis Steps Step 6 – Check compressive strut limits based on Strut Shape The design compressive strength of a strut without compressive reinforcement Fns = ·fcu·Ac where:  = 0.75 Ac = width of corbel × width of strut .

Strut – Tie Analysis Steps Compression  Strut Strength • From ACI 318-02. for all other cases .75.60bottle shaped strut = 0.85 s  f`c Where: s – function of strut shape / location = 0. when reinforcement is provided = 1. uniform cross section = 0.3.6.2: fcu  0. Section A.4. in tension regions of members = 0.0.

Strut – Tie Analysis Steps Step 7 – Consider detailing to ensure design technique .

Corbel Example Given: Vu = 80 kips Nu = 15 kips fy = Grade 60 f′c = 5000 psi Bearing area – 12 x 6 in. Problem: Find corbel depth and reinforcement based on Cantilever Beam and Strut – Tie methods .

6.1 Vumax  1000  A cr  2      196 kips  80 kips 1000 12 14 14 1000 . From Table 4.3.Step 1CBM – Cantilever Beam Method (CBM) h = 14 in d = 13 in. a = ¾ lp = 6 in.

75 60   1.18 in2   6  14   15   80      13  13     .Step 2CBM – Tension Steel • Cantilever Action 1 As  fy   a  h  1  Vu    Nu      d  d  .

4 Use  e  3.4 .43  3.Step 3CBM – Effective Shear Friction Coefficient      1000   b  h  1000 1 14 14 1.4 e   Vu 80  3.

75 60   0.Step 4CBM – Tension Steel • Shear Friction    15       1   2Vu  1    As   N   u fy   3 e  0.68 in2   2 80     3 3.4  .

4  b  d  0.4 14 13 fy 60  0.min f`c    5  0.61 in2 As based on cantilever action governs As = 1.18 in2 .Step 5CBM – As minimum As.

75 60     0.5  As  An   0.44 in2 Spaced in top 2/3 (13) = 8 ½ in .18   0.5  1.11 in2) = 0.42 in   Use (2) #3 ties = (4) (0.Step 6CBM – Shear Steel  15   Ah  0.

Step 1ST – Strut ­ Tie Solution (ST) Determination of bearing plate size and protection for the corner against spalling Required plate area: Abearing   Vu  0.1 in2 Use 12 by 6 in.85f`c   25. area = 72 in2 > 25.75 0.1 in2 .85f`c   80  0. plate.

l2 = (hc .cc) = (14 .94 in.Step 2ST – Truss Geometry tan R=Nu / Vu = (15)/(80) = 0.cc) – ws/2 = (14 .19) + 6 + (14 .19 l1 = (h .2.25) .2.13)(0.25) = 17.75 .d) tanR + aw + (hc .ws/2 = 11.ws/2 .

2] .5ws) = 0 [Eq.94) + (15)(13) – Nc(11. Nc. 1] (80)(17.75 – 0.Step 2ST – Truss Geometry Find ws Determine compressive force. at Node ‘p’: ∑Mm = 0 Vu·l1+Nu·d – Nc·l2=0 [Eq.

8)(5)= 3.4 ksi An = area of the nodal zone = b·ws = 14ws .85(0.Step 2ST – Truss Geometry • Maximum compressive stress at the nodal zone p (anchors one tie.85·n·f`c = 0.8) fcu = 0. βn = 0.

5(4.9in l2 = 11.28)(175) = 4. l2 • From Eq.0.Step 2ST – Determine ws .1630 = 0 Nc = 175 kips ws = 0.75Nc .014Nc2 .3 .0.9) = 9.11.75 .28Nc = (0.5 ws = 11.75 . 2 and 3 0.

0 kips (t) .2 kips (t) 116.Step 3ST – Solve for Strut and Tie Forces • Solving the truss ‘mnop’ by statics.8 kips (c) 14.0 kips (c) 68. the member forces are: Strut op Tie no Strut np Tie mp Tie mn = = = = = 96.9 kips (t) 95.

2 kips (t) As  Fnt fy  62   0.75 60  1.Step 4ST – Critical Tension Requirements • For top tension tie ‘no’ Tie no = 68.52in2 Provide 2 – #8 = 1.58 in2 at the top .

Figure 6.2.8. it is obvious that the nodal zone ‘p ’ is under the maximum compressive stress due to force Nc. • Nc is within the acceptable limit so all nodal zones are acceptable. . Vu • From the compressive stress flow in struts of the corbel.Step 5ST – Nodal Zones • The width `ws’’ of the nodal zone ‘p ’ has been chosen in Step 2 to satisfy the stress limit on this zone • The stress at nodal zone ‘o ’ must be checked against the compressive force in strut ‘op ’ and the applied reaction.1.

Step 6ST – Critical Compression Requirements • Strut ‘np’ is the most critical strut at node ‘p’. The nominal compressive strength of a strut without compressive reinforcement Fns = fcu·Ac Where: Ac = width of corbel × width of strut .

03 in  4.4 )  6.4o ) .Step 6ST – Strut Width • Width of strut ‘np’ Strut Width  ws o sin(54.9 sin(54.

5 kips 161 kips ≥ 116.8 kips OK .03   161.75 2.6 1  5  2.Step 6ST – Compression Strut Strength • From ACI 318-02. Section A.85 s  f`c Where .85 0.55  14 6. s = 0.bottle shaped strut.2: fcu  0.60  fcu  0.55 ksi      Fns    fcu  Ac  0.3.

surface reinforcement is not required based on ACI 318 Appendix A .Step 7ST – Surface Reinforcement • Since the lowest value of s was used.

Example Conclusion Cantilever Beam Method Strut-and-Tie Method .

Embedded Steel Sections .

6e le .85 f`c b  l e 1  3.Concrete and Rebar Nominal Design Strengths • Concrete Capacity Vc  0.

Concrete and Rebar Nominal Design Strengths • Additional Tension Compression Reinforcement Capacity 2 As  fy Vr  6e 1 4.8s le le 1 .

75  .Corbel Capacity • Reinforced Concrete  Vn   Vc  VR   0.

250 % x Actual  = 0. occurs when shear in steel section = 0.Steel Section Nominal Design Strengths • Flexure .0 Vn  Where:   Zs  fy a 0.5 Vu 0.85 f`c b b = effective width on embed.9 .Based on maximum moment in section.

9 . t = depth and thickness of steel web  = 0.6fy  h t where: h.Steel Section Nominal Design Strengths • Shear Vs    0.

Appendix D. procedures for the strength of anchorages are applicable for anchor bolts in tension. .Anchor Bolt Design • ACI 318-2002.

Strength Reduction Factor Function of supplied confinement reinforcement   = 0.70 with out reinforcement .75 with reinforcement = 0.

Headed Anchor Bolts
No = Cbs·AN·Ccrb·ed,N
Where:
Ccrb = Cracked concrete factor,
1 uncracked, 0.8 Cracked
AN = Projected surface area for a stud or group
ed,N =Modification for edge distance
Cbs = Breakout strength coefficient
Cbs  2.22  

f 'c
3

hef

Hooked Anchor Bolts
No = 126·f`c·eh·do·Ccrp
Where:
eh = hook projection ≥ 3do
do = bolt diameter
Ccrp = cracking factor (Section 6.5.4.1)

Column Base Plate Design
• Column Structural Integrity
requirements 200Ag

Completed Connection Examples • Examples Based – Applied Loads – Component Capacity • Design of all components – Embeds – Erection Material – Welds • Design for specific load paths .

Completed Connection Examples • Cladding “Push / Pull” • Wall to Wall Shear • Wall Tension • Diaphragm to Wall Shear .

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Questions? .