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It may be defined as the method by which
individuals are paired for crossing. Or
various schemes which are used for
crossing or mating of individuals.

female gametophyte .e. The outcome of this cryptic intractions determines the mating system(by Joe Williams) . male . sporophytes..DETERMINATION OF MATING SYSTEMS  In flowering plants mate recognition is developmental process involves physical interactions’ i. zygotes endosperm.

EFFECT OF MATING SYSTEM   Inbreeding depression in a perennial plant.629) were high for a plant with a mixed mating system.057 to 0. The observed levels of inbreeding depression (cumulative inbreeding depression. . Lychni viscaria. in three populations differing in their inbreeding history and population size by measuring several traits at two nutrient levels over the plant's life cycle. from – 0.

University of Georgia. USA   . the population with a low level of isozyme variation expressed the least inbreeding depression for seed germination. ( Mary Jo W Godt 1995) Departments of Botany and Genetics.CONT   As expected. Highest inbreeding depression for germination was found in the largest and genetically most variable population. Athens.

.EFFECT OF MATING SYSTEM 1. 3. 4. Prepotency is effected by homozygosity.Prepotency of individuals increases under inbreeding. the characters for the Variation produced by the environment.Mating system in plants increases homozygosity and reduces heterozygosity. the number of non-interbreeding groups increases rapidly. 2.dominance epistasis and linkage.Alleles as a results.Under intense inbreeding.

The mating systems evaluated measured gene flow through (1) male gametes. from Phaseolus coccineus into P. and (3) female gametes when a random sib mating generation was inserted between backcross generations. . (2) female gametes. hypogeal germination. vulgaris.EFFECT ON THREE BACKCROSS MATING SYSTEMS   Effects of three backcross mating systems upon the introgression of a quantitatively determined morphological character.

CONT    The results demonstrate that mating systems significantly affect gene flow between partially isolated species effects of recombination which lead to hybrid breakdown and a disruption of interspecific gene flow. . vulgaris x F1 ) to P. Reciprocal backcrosses of the BC1 (P. vulgaris again resulted in greater donor parent germplasm transmission through female gametes.

CONT   BC1 increased phenotypic variance for the selected character (hypogeal-like germination) BC3 populations in all instances greatly increased phenotypic variance for the selected character and led to some hybrid breakdown in the progeny. .

.MUTATION   Mutation is a sudden and heritable change in an organism and is generally due to a structural change in a gene. Mutation may produce a new allele not present in the population or may change the frequencies of existing all.

Sub Lethal & Sub Vital :. Vital :.EFFECTS OF MUTATION       Effects Of mutation Lethal : They kill each & every individual that carry them in appropriate genotype .Both mutation reduce viability but don’t kill all the individual carrying them in appropriate genotype. Dominant lethal : It can’t survive.   . Sub Lethal : Kill more than 50%.a) Don’t reduce the viability. Recessive lethal : kill in homozygous state. b) Crop improvement can utilize only such mutations. Sub Vital : Kill less than 50%.

Most of mutation are clonal crops. Quantitative traits are usually in the direction away from the selection history of the parent variety. polyploidy species. Often mutation produce pleiotropic delayed flowering. chromosomal aberrations. . e.EFFECT OF MUTATION BREEDING     Desirable mutations are commonly associated with undesirable side effects due to other mutations.g: yield.

. Migration may introduce new alleles into the population or may change the frequencies of existing alleles. Migration is represented by intervarietal crosses .MIGRATION    Migration is the movement of individuals into a population from different population..etc.polycrosses.

SELECTION  Differential reproduction rates of various genotypes is known as selection. .

If there is un equal survival. aA and aa have a equal survival. it may increase or decrease the rate at homozygosivity. Self pollinated plant population completely homozygous after selection mixture of several homozygous genotypes. Three genotypes AA.EFFECT ON SELF POLLINATED CROPS    During selection in self pollinated crops every generation self-pollination will reduce the frequency of heterozygote Aa to 50% in the previous generation. .

21 3.60 99.5 49.1 7 49.6 0.75 87. Of Frequency Frequenc generation (%) y(%) AA Aa Frequency( %) aa Homoz ygosity (%) heterozyg osity(%) 1 25 100 25 50 100 2 (25+12.25 48.8 6.EFFECT ON SELF FERTILIZATION No.25 25 43.12 49.2 6 49.5+6.5 50 37.78 49.80 0.8 6.8 93.4 3.20 98.5 8 49.2 1.1 12.5 75 50 3 37.5 5 46.7 12.4 96.75+3.90 99.5 46.5 25 4 43.7 .60 1.

INDEL-ASSOCIATED MUTATION RATE VARIES WITH MATING SYSTEM IN FLOWERING PLANTS   A recently proposed mutational mechanism. and Oryza rufipogon. In this study. index-associated mutation (IDAM). posits that heterozygous insertions/deletions (indels) increase the point mutation rate at nearby nucleotides due to errors during meiosis. They investigated the consequences of IDAM for species differing in mating system using both forward population genetic simulations and genomewide DNA resequencing data from Arabidopsis thaliana. Oryza sativa. .

thaliana and Oryza DNA sequence data sets empirically confirmed our simulation results. .CONT    Simulations of different levels of selfing suggest that the effect of IDAM on surrounding nucleotide diversity should decrease with increasing selfing rate. can affect the per-individual mutation rate among species. revealing the strongest effect of IDAM in the outcrossing O. and the weakest effect in the relatively ancient selfer A. Population genetic analyses of A. sativa. such as the level of selfing. weaker effect in the recently evolved selfer O. rufipogon. These results support the novel idea that differences in life history. selfing also affects patterns of nucleotide diversity due to IDAM. thaliana.

D Charlesworth. and M Kreitma) . stylosa. L. and moderate diversity in L. crassa. (F Liu. crassa populations with partial or complete self-incompatibility.     To test the theoretical prediction that highly inbreeding populations should have low neutral genetic diversity relative to closely related outcrossing populations. torulosa and in three highly inbreeding populations of L. while high diversity was found In self-incompatible L. On the basis of sequences of intron 12 of this gene.THE EFFECT OF MATING SYSTEM DIFFERENCES ON NUCLEOTIDE DIVERSITY AT THE PHOSPHOGLUCOSE ISOMERASE LOCUS IN THE PLANT GENUS LEAVENWORTHIA. the expected low diversity was seen in both populations of the selfers Leavenworthia uniflora.

S. MATING SYSTEM. and level of isozyme variation in their populations. AND EVOLUTIONARY ORIGIN ON GENETIC DIVERSITY IN SPIRANTHES SINENSIS AND S. Spiranthes hongkongensis. HONGKONGENSIS   Hong Kong once supported more than 109 species of wild orchids. and its diploid progenitor. allotetraploid. to assess the effects of the population associated with the origin of the polyploid and to investigate the relationships between number of breeding individuals. mating system. . sinensis.EFFECTS OF POPULATION SIZE.

hongkongensis. . S. sinensis had high levels of genetic variation for all of the genetic parameters examined various measures of withinpopulation variation.CONT   complete genetic uniformity was observed both within and among populations of S. the proportion of polymorphic loci (P) and average number of alleles per locus (A) or per polymorphic locus (Ap) were the most sensitive to population size.

classified as fully resistant. MABLE)¶ Inoculated individuals from outcrossing and inbreeding populations of North American Arabidopsis lyrata with Albugo candida (white blister rust) to test the effect of mating system and heterozygosity on disease response We observed three host infection phenotypes. STIFT. HOEBE†. partially resistant and fully susceptible . N. HOLUB. K. B. B. E.THE EFFECT OF MATING SYSTEM ON GROWTH OF ARABIDOPSIS LYRATA    (P. M.

but there were strong effects of population and infection phenotype. .CONT   Mating system did not affect relative growth rate of inoculated plants. Increased variability in responses among inbreeding populations may be due to reduced effective population size.

number of flowers per plant. including plant density. In this study. Changes in the number of flowers per plant affect outcrossing rate through their effect on the density of flowers. . and pollinator movements. we investigated the simultaneous effects of these three factors on the mating system of a self-compatible Brazilian shrub species:Helicteres brevispira Outcrossing rate is directly correlated with plant density.THE EFFECT OF ECOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE MATING SYSTEM OF A SOUTH AMERICAN SHRUB SPECIES (HELICTERES BREVISPIRA)    Mating systems are influenced by several ecological factors.

Glasgow.REFERENCES 1. 4. June 1996 3.Division of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.D. 1999 January.PLANT BREEDING PRINCIPLES AND METHODS B. UK Article first published online: 22 NOV 2010. D Charlesworth.Genetics.SINGH. and M Kreitma Genetic variation within and among populations of Arabidopsis thaliana. 151(1): 343 –357  F Liu.Conservation Biology Volume 10pages 785–795. 2. University of Glasgow. .