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PUAN NORWADIAH BINTI

MOHD ANDAI
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING (JKM)
POLITEKNIK MELAKA (PMK)
DJJ3103 Strength of Materials

DJJ3103
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
CONTINOUS ASSESSMENT (CA)
a. QUIZ (2) = 10%
b. END OF CHAPTER (1) = 10%
c. TEST (2) = 20%
d. Practical Task (4)
= 5%
e. Report (4)
= 5%
FINAL EXAMINATION (FE)
a. Final Examination = 50%
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6 CHAPTERS IN DJJ3103
1. FORCES ON MATERIALS
2. THERMAL STRESSES AND
COMPOSITE BAR
3. SHEAR FORCES AND BENDING
MOMENTS
4. BENDING STRESSES
5. BEAM DEFLECTION
6. TORSION
3

UNIT
SI

TERA
GIGA
MEGA
KILO
HEKTO
DEKA
DESI
SENTI
MILI
MIKRO
NANO
PIKO

T
G
M
K
H
da
D
s
m

n
p

1012
109
106
103
102
101
10-1
10-2
10-3
10-6
10-9
10-12

Timah
Gigi
Mak
Kau
Habis
Da
Dah
Senget
Macam
Mana
Nak
pakai

CHAPTER 1
FORCES ON MATERIAL
(DAYA-DAYA PADA BAHAN)

1.1 Types of loads on material


TYPE

EXAMPLE

Static (statik)

Bangunan pd suatu tempat

Dynamic
(dinamik)

Kenderaan melalui jambatan

Impact
(hentaman)

Tukul mengetuk paku

Fatigue (lesu)

Penghantaran kuasa (kincir


angin)

Alternating
(ulang-alik)

Spring diletak beban


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1.2 Differentiate between tensional force,


compression force & shear force.
tensional

compression

-cause
elongation
P

-cause
shortening
P

shear
-derailment
from another
layer

1.3 Types of stress


STRESS

SHEAR
(RICIH)

TENSIONAL
(TEGANGAN)
COMPRESSION
(MAMPATAN)

1.3 DEFINE STRESS


Stress (tegasan): a force exerted when
one body or body part presses on, pulls
on, pushes against, or tends to compress
or twist another body or body part
(sesuatu daya dikenakan pada suatu
objek berlaku tindakan daya yang
bertentangan sama ada secara tegasan
tegangan atau tegasan mampatan atau
tegasan ricihan).
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P (Newton, N)
A (Area,m2)

hence..
Unit:

P(N)

A(m2 )

N
2
m
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1.4 Define Strain


STRAIN

SHEAR
(RICIH)

TENSILE
(TEGANGAN)
COMPRESSION
(MAMPATAN)

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Strain( terikan): deformation of a material


body under the action of applied forces
(nilai ukuran pemanjangan atau pemendekan atau
perubahan sudut yang berlaku apabila sesuatu
bahan dikenakan daya).

L

L

Strain (Keterikan)

Final Long
(Perubahan panjang)

Original Long(Panjang asal)

L( m)

L ( m)
m

m

There is no unit!!!!
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1.5 Define of Modulus of elasticity


(Youngs Modulus)

(N / m )
E

Modulus Young

Stress (Tegasan)

Srain (Terikan)

Hence, unit for E same


as ; N/m2 .
No unit!!!!

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EQUATION 1

EQUATION 2

EQUATION 3
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P
E A
L
L
P L
E
A L
PL
E
LA

FROM EQUATION 3

FROM EQUATION 1
deform
FROM EQUATION 2

NEW EQUATION

ATTN: Formula of E can be used depend on the question


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EXAMPLE 1 :
Figure 1.0 show one steel bar has rectangle cross
section measuring 30mm x 25mm. That bar
imposed 40kN tension force. Calculate stress
resultant.
Rajah 1.0 menunjukkan satu bar keluli mempunyai keratan rentas segiempat
tepat berukuran 30mm x 25mm. Bar tersebut dikenakan daya tegangan 40kN.
Kirakan tegasan yang terhasil.

40kN
40kN
Figure 1.0
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Solution Example 1 :
Step 1
P
= 40kN
30mm = 0.03m
25mm = 0.025m
A = 0.03 x 0.025
= 7.5 x 10-4m2

Step 2
P(N)

2
A(m )

40 10

7.5 x 10-4
6
2
53.33 10 N / m
3

53.33MN / m

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EXAMPLE 2 :
Figure 1.1 show one blocks cylinder that length
30cm, have diameter 10cm. This block bring
70kN compression load and contract as much
as 0.02cm. Find compressive stress and
compression strain.
Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan satu bongkah silinder yang panjangnya 30cm,
mempunyai ukur lilit 10cm. Bongkah ini membawa beban mampatan 70kN
dan mengecut sebanyak 0.02cm. Cari tegasan mampatan dan terikan
mampatan.

70kN

70kN
Figure 1.1

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Solution Example 2 :
Step 1
P = 70kN
L = 30cm = 0.3m
L = 0.02cm = 2 x 10-4m
= 10cm = 0.1m
r = 0.05m
Cylinder Area

A = r2
= x 0.052
= 7.85 x 10-3m2

Step 2

A
3
70 10

3
7.85 10
6
2
8.92 10 N / m

8.92MN / m

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Langkah 3

L
4
2 10

0.3
4
6.67 10
NO UNIT.
Remember!
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EXAMPLE 3 :

One glasses that have 2m length and


25mm x 20mm cross sectional area. That
bar imposed force as much as 52kN.
Determine that glass elongation if Modulus
Young was 60GPa
Satu batang kaca yang mempunyai panjang 2m dan luas keratan
rentas 25mm x 20mm. Bar tersebut dikenakan daya sebanyak 52kN.
Tentukan pemanjangan kaca tersebut sekiranya Modulus Young ialah
60GPa

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Solution Example 3 :
Step 1
P = 52kN
L = 2m
E = 60GPa
= 60 x 109 Pa
= 60 x 109 N/m2
A = 25 x 20
= 500mm2
= 5x10-4m2

Pa = N/m2

Step 2

PL
E
LA
PL
L
EA
(52 10 ) 2
L
(60 109 ) (5 10 4 )
3

L 3.47 10 3 m

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1.6 HOOKES LAW


Flexible material is material which vary
form easily when given load towards him.
When load/force not imposed it shall get
back to original state.
Bahan anjal adalah bahan yang berubah bentuk dengan
mudah apabila dikenakan beban terhadapnya. Apabila
beban tidak dikenakan ia akan kembali kepada keadaan
asal.

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1.7 Tensile Test

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A = Ratio Limit (had perkadaran)


B = Elastic limit (Had Anjal)
C = Upper yield point (Titik Alah Atas)

D = Down Yield point (Titik Alah Bawah)


E = Maximum tension strength
(Titik Beban Maksimum)
F = Failure Point (Titik Putus)
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i.

Percentage of elongation

X 100%

Percentage of elongation = changes of length


original length

L
%L
100%
L
ii. Percentage of area reduction
ii

Percentage of area
reduction
=
original area

changes area

A
%A
100%
Ao

X 100%

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EXAMPLE 1 :
Tensional test carried out on a matter, data
that recorded as follows :
Original Gauge length = 260mm
Final gauge length
= 295mm
Original diameter
= 30mm
Final diameter
= 19mm
Force, kN

20

60

100

140

160

170

172

176

178

Elongation x 10-3 mm

50

160

260

360

410

440

470

550

720

Force, kN

180

190

220

240

257

261

242

229

180

Elongation x 10-3 mm

760

900

1460 1990 3120 4500 5800 5850 760


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Draw graph force versus elongation and define:


a. Modulus Young

d. Maximum tension stress

b. Yield stress

e. Percentage of area reduction

c. Percentage of elongation

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Solution Example 1:
Step 1

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Step 2

Step 3
Lo = 260mm = 0.26m
Lf = 295mm = 0.295m
Do= 30mm = 0.03m
Df = 19mm = 0.019m

X1= 35 x 10-3mm
= 3.5 x 10-5m
X2 = 320 x 10-3mm
= 3.2 x 10-4m
Y1 = 25kN
Y2 = 125kN

Ao = ro2
= x 0.0152
= 7.069 x 10-4m2

Graph Gradient
125 25

( 3.2 10

351kN / m

) ( 3.5 10

)
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Step 4
a. Modulus Young

P
A
E O
L
LO
PLO
E
LAO

Step 5
b.Yield stress

E (351103 )

LO
AO

0.26
E (35110 )
7.069 10 4
E 129.09 106 N / m 2

E 129.09MN / m

P
y
A

O
160 10

7.069 10

3
4

6
2
226.34 10 N/m
226.34MN/m

2
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Step 6

Step 7

c.Percentage of
elongation

d.Maximum tension
stress

100%
L
0.295 0.26

100%
0.26
13.46%

Pm
m
Ao
260 10
m
4
7.069 10
2
m 367.8MN / m
3

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Step 8
e.Percentage of area reduction
2

Af r f

A f (9.5 10 3 ) 2
A f 2.84 10 4 m 2

100%
Ao
(7.069 10 4 ) (2.84 10 4 )

100%
4
7.069 10
59.89%
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1.7 Working stress, proof stress &


factor of safety
Factor of safety =

Maximum stress( tegasan bukti)


Working stress (tegasan kerja)

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1.8 Poissons Ratio ( Nisbah Poisson)

G A
H

F
C

Square ABCD that imposed tension force,P will be transformed to


become EFGH. Under this force action, strain which occurred towards x
known as PRIMARY @ LINEAR @ LONGITUDINAL STRAIN(x), while
this square also experience shortages in the broad measurement namely
Y direction which is known as LATERAL @ RADIAL STRAIN (y).
Segi empat ABCD yang dikenakan daya tegangan P akan berubah bentuk menjadi EFGH,
di bawah tindakan daya ini, keterikan yang berlaku ke arah x dikenali sebagai KETERIKAN
MEMBUJUR (x), manakala segiempat ini juga mengalami kekurangan dalam ukuran
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lebarnya iaitu arah y yang dikenali sebagai KETERIKAN SISI (y).

Longitudinal
strain

L
x

L E
L

Lateral
strain

d
y
d
d
d

L
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Formula of Poisson Ratio.

y
x

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EXAMPLE :
A bar has been forced as shown in Figure 1.3. Given E = 200GN / m 2,
= 0.4 calculate:
a. stress
b. longitudinal strain
c. lateral strain
Sebatang bar di kenakan daya seperti dalam rajah 3.2. Diberi E = 200GN/m 2, = 0.4 kirakan :
a. tegasan
b. keterikan membujur
c. keterikan sisi

250mm

45kN

30mm

45kN

50mm

Figure 1.3

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Step 1
p = 250mm = 0.25m
t = 50mm = 0.05m
L = 30mm = 0.03m
P = 45kN

A=txL
= 0.05 x 0.03
= 1.5 x 10-3m2

Step 2
a.

A
3
45 10

3
1.5 10
2
30 MN / m
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Step 3
b.

x
E
6
30 10
x
9
200 10
4
x 1.5 10

Step 4
c.

x
y
0.4
4
1.5 10
5
y 6 10
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1.9 Shear stress (Tegasan Ricih) &


Shear strain ( Terikan ricih)
Shear stress is friction between two grounds
abcd and efgh as shown in Figure 1.9.1.
Tegasan ricih adalah geseran antara dua permukaan
abcd dan efgh seperti dalam rajah 1.9.1 berikut.

Shear force,P
a
Shear force,P
Rajah 1.9.1

b
e

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Differentiate between single


shear and double shear
Single shear stress only double opposite
force direction who act on something
extension.
V

Ax n

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Double shear stress- more than a pair of


opposite force direction act on this
extension.
More than two members continuing on.

V

2A x n

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Shear strain will cause distortion in either block


surface or structure as shown in Figure 1.9.2
Terikan ricih akan mengakibatkan pengherotan pada salah satu
permukaan bongkah atau struktur seperti dalam rajah 1.9.2.

x
Shear force,P

Figure 1.9.2
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Formula..
Shear stress
(TEGASAN Ricih)

Shear strain
(TERIKAN Ricih)

Modulus of rigidity
(Modulus
Ketegaran)

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THANK YOU

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