You are on page 1of 71

PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE

CHAPTER 3:
THE CELLULAR CONCEPT SYSTEM
DESIGN FUNDAMENTALS

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

WIRELESS
COMMUNICATIONS

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

The Cellular Concept

Figure 3.2 Method of locating co-channel cells in a cellular system. In this example, N = 19 (i.e., I = 3, j =
2). (Adapted from [Oet83] IEEE.)

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

19-cell reuse example (N=19)

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Handoffs the basics

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Umbrella Cells

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Smaller N is greater capacity

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Co-channel cells for 7-cell reuse

1) Co-Channel Interference (CCI) discussed


in last lecture
2) Adjacent Channel Interference (ACI)

Adjacent Channel Interference (ACI)


Imperfect Rx filters allow energy from
adjacent channels to leak into the
passband of other channels
8

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

I. Adjacent Channel Interference


Two major types of system-generated
interference:

actual filter response

9
2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

desired filter response

interference @ mobile Rx from a ______ Tx (another


mobile or another base station that is not the one the
mobile is listening to) when mobile Rx is ___ away from
base station.
signal from base station is weak and others are
somewhat strong.

Reverse Link mobile-to-base


interference @ base station Rx from nearby mobile Tx
when desired mobile Tx is far away from base station
10

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

This affects both forward & reverse links


Forward Link base-to-mobile

Near/Far Effect

ACI is primarily from mobiles in the same cell


some cell-to-cell ACI does occur as well but a
secondary source

Control of ACI
dont allocate channels within a given cell from a
contiguous band of frequencies
for example, use channels 1, 4, 7, and 10 for a cell.
no channels next to each other
11

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

interfering source is near some Rx when desired source


is far away

separation of as many as N channel


bandwidths
some schemes also seek to minimize ACI
from neighboring cells by not assigning
adjacent channels in neighboring cells

12

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

maximize channel separation

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

13

395*2 = 790, plus 42 control channels

Provider A is a company that has not traditionally


provided telephone service
Provider B is a traditional wireline operator
21 VC groups with 19 channels/group
at least 21 channel separation for each group
14

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Originally 666 channels, then 10 MHz of spectrum


was added
666+166 = 832 channels
395 VC plus 21 CC per service provider (providers
A & B)

For example, choose groups 1A, 1B, and 1C for a cell


so channels 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, etc. are used.
57 channels/cell
at least 7 channel separation for each cell group

to have high quality on control channels, 21 cell


reuse is used for CCs
instead of reusing a CC every 7 cells, as for VCs,
reuse every 21 cells (after every three clusters)
greater distance between control channels, so less CCI
15

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

for N = 7 3 VC groups/cell

better filters are possible in base stations since they


are not constrained by physical size and power as
much as in the mobile Rx
makes reverse link ACI less of a concern than forward
link ACI
also true because of power control (discussed below)

choice of modulation schemes


different modulation schemes provide less or more
energy outside their passband.
16

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

use high quality filters in base stations

technique to minimize ACI


base station & MSC constantly monitor mobile
received signal strength
mobile Tx power varied (controlled) so that
smallest Tx power necessary for a quality
reverse link signal is used (lower power for
the closer the mobile is to the base station)
also helps battery life on mobile
17

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Power Control

18

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

dramatically improves adjacent channel S / I


ratio, since mobiles in other cells only
transmit at high enough power as transmitter
controls (not at full power)
most beneficial for ACI on reverse link
will see later that this is especially important
for CDMA systems

III. Trunking & Grade of Service (GOS)

channel allocated on demand & returned to


channel pool upon call termination
exploit statistical (random) behavior of users
so that fixed # of channels can
accommodate large # of users
Trade-off between the number of available
channels that are provided and the likelihood of a
particular user finding no channels available
19
during the busy hour of the day.

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Trunked radio system: radio system


where a large # of users share a pool of
channels

blocked call : access denied blocked call


cleared
delayed call : access delayed by call being put into
holding queue for specified amount of time

20

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

trunking theory is used by telephone


companies to allocate limited # of voice
circuits for large # of telephone lines
efficient use of equipment resources
savings
disadvantage is that some probability exists
that mobile user will be denied access to a
channel

specified as probability (Pr) that call is blocked


or delayed
designed to handle the busiest hour
typically ______
Erlang : unitless measure of traffic intensity
e.g. 0.5 erlangs = 1 channel occupied 30 minutes
during 1 hour

Table 3.3, pg. 78 trunking theory definitions


21

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

GOS : measure of the ability of user


access to a trunked system during the
_______ hour

Offered? not necessarily carried by system (some is blocked


or delayed)
each user Au=H Erlangs (also called in queueing theory)
= traffic intensity (average arrival rate of new calls, in new
requests per time unit, say calls/min).
H = average duration of a call (also called 1/ in queueing theory)

system with U users A = UAu = UH Erlangs


capacity = maximum carried traffic = C Erlangs = (equal to total
# of available channels that are busy all the time)

22

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Offered Traffic Intensity (A)

Erlang B formula

A = total offered traffic


C = # channels in trunking pool (e.g. a cell)

AMPS designed for GOS of 2%


blocked call cleared (denied) BCC
23

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Calls are either admitted or blocked

Note that twice the capacity can support much more than
twice the load (twice the number of Erlangs).

24

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

capacities to support various GOS values

blocked call delayed BCD put into


holding queue
GOS is probability that a call will still be
blocked even if it spends time in a queue and
waits for up to t seconds
equations (3.17) to (3.19) in book

25

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Erlang C formulas

26
2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Graphical form of Erlang B formulas

27
2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Graphical form of Erlang C formulas

What is the corresponding C from the figure?


What is A (Traffic Intensity) from the figure?
So, how many users can be supported?

28

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Example: Find how many users can be supported in a


cell containing 50 channels for a 2% GOS (Blocked Calls
Cleared) if the average user calls twice/hr with an
average call duration of 5 minutes.

measure of the # of users supported by a


specific configuration of fixed channels,
efficiency in terms of users per available
channel = U / C
Table 3.4, pg. 79 assume 1% GOS
Assume Au = 0.2
1 group of 20 channels:

2 groups of 10 channels, with equal number of


users per group:

29

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Trunking Efficiency

The larger the trunking pool, the better the


trunking efficiency.
as trunking pool size then trunking efficiency
What is the relationship between trunking pool size,
trunking efficiency, received signal quality, and cluster
size?
As cluster size decreases
30

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

the allocation of channel groups can


substantially change the # of users
supported by trunked system

31

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Note: Trunking efficiency is an issue both


in FDMA/TDMA systems and in CDMA
systems (where the capacity limit is the
number of possible codes and the
interference levels).

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

32

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

33

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

34

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

35

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

36

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

37

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

38

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

39

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

40

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

41

Need to provide more channels per unit


coverage area
Would like to have orderly growth
Would like to upgrade the system instead of
rebuild
Would like to use existing towers as much
as possible
42

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

IV. Improving Cellular System Capacity


A cellular design eventually (hopefully!)
becomes insufficient to support the
growing number of users.

subdivide congested cell into several smaller


cells
increases number of times channels are
reused in an area
must decrease antenna height & Tx power
so smaller coverage per cell results
and the co-channel interference level is
held constant
43

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Cell Splitting

this means that we keep that same cluster


size

capacity because channel reuse per


unit area
smaller cells micro-cells
44

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

each smaller cell keeps same # of


channels as the larger cell, since each
new smaller cell uses the same number
of frequencies

45
2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Illustration is for towers at the corners

only needed for cells that reach max. capacity not


all cells
implement when Pr [blocked call] > acceptable GOS
system capacity can gradually expand as demand

disadvantages include:
# handoffs/unit area increases
umbrella cell for high velocity traffic may be needed
more base stations $$ for real estate, towers, etc.

46

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

advantages include:

new base stations use lower power and antenna


height
What about existing base stations?
If kept at the same power, they would overpower new
microcells.
If reduced in power, they would not cover their own cells.

One solution: Use separate groups of channels.


One group at the original power and another group at the
lower power.
New microcells only use lower power channels.
As load growth continues, more and more channels are
moved to lower power.
47

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

complicated design process

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

48

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

49

cell splitting keeps D / R unchanged (same


cluster size and CCI) but increases
frequency reuse/area
alternate way to capacity is to _____ CCI
(increase S / I ratio)

50

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Sectoring

51

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

replace omni-directional antennas at base


station with several directional antennas
3 sectors 3 120 antennas
6 sectors 6 60 antennas

24.2 dB

52

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

cell channels broken down into sectored groups


CCI reduced because only some of neighboring cochannel cells radiate energy in direction of main cell
center cell labeled "5" has all co-channel cells
illustrated
only 2 co-channel cells will interfere if all are using
120 sectoring
only 1 co-channel cell would interfere when using
60 sectoring
If the S/I was 17 dB for N = 7 and n = 4, what is the
S / I now with 120 sectoring?

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

53

sectoring only improves S/I which increases voice


quality, beyond what is really necessary
by reducing CCI, the cell system designer can choose
smaller cluster size (N ) for acceptable voice quality
smaller N greater frequency reuse larger system
capacity
What would the system capacity, Cnew, now be when
120 using sectoring, as compared to the old capacity,
Cold ?
54

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

How is capacity increased?

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

55

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

56

much less costly than cell splitting

primary disadvantage is that the available


channels in a cell are subdivided into sectored
groups
trunked channel pool , therefore trunking efficiency
There are more channels per cell, because of smaller
cluster sizes, but those channels are broken into
sectors.
57

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

only require more antennas @ base station vs.


multiple new base stations for cell splitting

must design network coverage with sectoring


decided in advance
cant effectively use sectoring to increase capacity
after setting cluster size N
cant be used to gradually expand capacity as
traffic like cell splitting
More Handoffs
More antenna, more cost
58

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

other disadvantages:

Free space propagation loss


Reflections
2-ray model
Diffraction
Fading
Multipath
59

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Next topic: Mobile Radio Propagation Large-scale path loss, small-scale fading,
and multipath

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

AMPS Duopoly Channels

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Key Definitions for Trunked


Radio

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Erlang B Trunking GOS

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Erlang B

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Erlang C

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Cells are split to add channels


with no new spectrum usage

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Cell Splitting increases capacity

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Sectoring improves S/I

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Sectoring improves S/I

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

In-building deployment is the


next great growth phase

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

The Zone Cell Concept

2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Commercial use, distribution, or sale prohibited.

Zone Cell Concept