The Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) (Vol.

1)
SAR ISC S & T100 0005 TELE

ITU - T Recommendations
– – G.707 Bitrates

– – – – – – –

G.708 Signal Structure (NNI) G.709 Synchronous Multiplex Structure G.703 Electrical characteristic G.957 Optical interface characteristic

SDH Multiplexing Components
• • • • • • • • • • Containers – C Path Overheads - POH Virtual Containers – VC Pointers Tributary Units – TU Tributary Unit Groups – TUG Administrative Units – AU Administrative Unit Groups – AUG Multiplexer Section Overhead – MSOH Regenerator Section Overhead - RSOH

SDH BIT RATES

Synchronous Transport Modules (STM) STM-1: STM-4: STM-16: STM-64: STM-256: 155.520 622.080 Mbit/s Mbit/s 2,488.320 9,953.280 39.81312 Mbit/s Mbit/s Gbits/s





Multiplexing PDH to SDH
 

E1, T1, E3, T2,T3, E4 can be directly multiplexed/ de multiplexed to/from any higher order bit rates.

STM 1

• 63x E1 or


• 3x E3 or 3x T3

• 84x T1 or


• 1x E4 or


• 21x T2 or

SDH EQUIPMENTS

SDH PATHS
• • End to end of a Bandwidth( Circuits) • • Goes through different Network Elements • • Lower order Path • • Higher Order Path

SDH SECTIONS

Multiplex and Regenerator Sections

Multiplexing of E1
• • • • • • • • E1=2.048 Mbps(+ 50 ppm) 32x8bit in 125 micro sec 32x1Bytes in 125 micro sec 32 Bytes in 125 micro sec

Multiplexing of E1
• • Container for Multiplexing E1 = C12 • • C12 = 34 Bytes/ 125 micro sec

• 16 bits of Stuffing •

Virtual Container 12 (VC12)
• • =C12+ 1 Byte(LPOH) • • Using 1 Byte LPOH, 4 different Bytes are send in 500 Micro sec Multi frame • • LPOH Bytes are V5, J2, N2 and K4

Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N

LPOH

LPOH…

LPOH…

Tributary Unit 12 (TU12)
• TU12= VC12+ 1Byte TU Pointer • Pointer points the position of V5 Byte(Start of VC12) • Pointers mapped in 500 micro sec multi frame • Pointer Bytes are V1, V2, V3 and V4. • V1 and V2 used for Pointers • TU12= 36 Byte/125 micro sec • 9x4 matrix, each cell 1 byte=64kbps • TU12 is denoted as “M” in bandwidth configurations

Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N

Mapping VC12 into TU12

TU12 Multi frame

TU12 Multi frame

TU12 Multi frame

Tributary Unit Group 2 (TUG2)
• Multiplexing 3 x TU12

• Byte interleaved


• 108 Bytes/125 micro sec


• 9x12 Matrix, each cell 1 byte=64kbps


• TUG2 is denoted as “L”


• Each “L” contains 3 “M”

Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N

Mapping TU12’s into TUG2’s

SDH Multiplexing Structure

Tributary Unit Group 3 (TUG3)

• Multiplexing 7 x TUG2 + 18 Stuffing Bytes


• Byte interleaved.


• 774 Bytes / 125 micro sec


• 9 x 86 Matrix, each cell 1 byte=64kbps


• TUG3 is denoted as “K”

Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N

Virtual Container 4 (VC4)
• Multiplexing 3 x TUG3 + 18 stuffing Bytes + 9 Bytes Higher Order Path Overhead(HPOH) • • 2349 Bytes/ 125 micro sec • • 9x261 Matrix, each cell 1 byte=64kbps •

VC4 Frame structure

VC4 Path Over Head (HPOH)

HPOH….

HPOH…

HPOH …

Administrative Unit 4 (AU4)
• VC4 + 9Byte AU Pointer


• AU pointer points the Start Position of VC4 in the Frame (i.e. Position of J1 Byte in the frame)


• AU4= 2358 Bytes/ 125 micro sec


• AU4 is denoted as “J”


• Each “J” contains 3 “K”

Administrative Unit 4 (AU4)

AU-Pointer

Administrative Unit Group (AUG)
• AUG1 Contains 1 AU4, 1x J Leads STM1


• AUG4 Contains 4 x AUG1’s, 4x J Leads STM4


• AUG16 Contains 4 x AUG4’s,16 x J Leads STM16


• AUG64 Contains 4 x AUG16’s, 64 x J Leads STM64

Synchronous Transport Module1
• AUG1+ 45 Bytes MSOH + 27 Bytes RSOH • • 2430 Bytes/ 125 micro sec • • 155.52 Mbps • • 9x270 Matrix

SDH Multiplexing Structure

SDH Multiplexing Structure…

STM1 Section Overheads

Mapping E3/T3(DS3)

SDH ALARMS

What Next?
• Protection • Bandwidth Configuration-Provisioning • Structure of SDH Equipments

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