You are on page 1of 24

BING 4316

English Morpho-Syntax
1st Class : August 21, 2016

Siti Marina (Irin)


ukhtuka@gmail.com

Universitas Terbuka
Korea Selatan

Tutor Introduction
KELAS UTARA
Siti Marina (Irin)
Graduate student at Seoul National
University (SNU)
Major: Geology
(Earth and Environmental Sciences)
Personal contact
Katalk : ireneayu13
Skype : ireneayu

Course Introduction
Text Book

Materi Pokok English Morpho-Syntax,


Leany Nani Harsa, Cet.3 Ed.1,
Universitas Terbuka, 2013.

Tutorial
Module

9 modules for 8 classes.

Tutorial
Method

Direct tutorial (in class)


Discussion
Q&A

Outline of classes
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Module 1
Module 2
Module 3, and task-1
Module 4
Module 5, and task-2
Module 6
Module 7, and task-3
Modules 8 & 9, review

TASKS + PARTICIPATION = 50%


Grading Components:
( if grade of final exam 30 )
FINAL EXAM = 50%
( final exam = 100% if grade of
task+participation = 0 )
Final Exam < 30 , FAILED

Course Objective
Students are expected to understand how to
arrange and form words in English correctly to
form right sentences.

Mahasiswa diharapkan memiliki kompetensi


dalam menyusun dan membentuk kata dalam
kalimat bahasa Inggris dengan tepat.

Module Overview
1. Introduction to words and morphemes
2. Morphological and word formation
3. Grammatical morphemes and words categories
4. Constituent order, grammatical verb phrase operation, and verb

groups
5. Noun phrases and predicate nominal constructions
6. Grammatical relations and verb and verb phrase operation
7. Clause combinations
8. Diagramation forms and hierarchy constituents
9. Tree diagrams

MODULE 1

INTRODUCTION TO WORDS
AND MORPHEMES
Keywords:

Morpho-syntax

Morphology

Syntax

Content and Function Words

Bound and Free Morphemes

MODULE 1

INTRODUCTION
TO WORDS AND
MORPHEMES
Keywords:
Morpho-syntax
Morphology
Syntax
Content and Function Words
Bound and Free Morphemes

MORPHOSYNTAX
UNIT 1

Terminology

Definition

Morphology

The study of the internal structure of words or the way in


which words are constructed out of smaller meaningful
units

Morphs

Segments of the phonological unit

Lexeme

The word which the phonological unit is a realization of the


form

Morphemes

Segments of the grammatical word which represent


choices from a set of options forming a grammatical
category

Syntax

A branch of linguistics, dealing with the internal structure


of sentences and the interrelationships among the internal
parts

Semantics

A branch of linguistics, studies the nature of the meaning


of individual words, and the meaning of words, phrases and
sentences

Phonology

A branch of linguistics that studies the structure and


systematic patterning of sounds in human language

Sentences

The largest unit to which syntactic rules apply

Sentence Analysis

An analysis of group together units within a sentence

Constituent
Analysis

An analysis of syntactic units in a phrase structure tree


An analysis of a sentence based on the functions of the

Terminology

Definition

Morphology

Cabang linguistik yg mempelajari tentang struktur internal


kata dan cara pembentukannya dari unit-unit yg lbh kecil
sehingga menjadi bermakna

Morphs

Bagian dari unit fonologi

Lexeme

Kata (dasar) dari suatu bentukan kata yg dibentuk oleh


unit fonologigmai

Morphemes

Bagian dari kata gramatikal yg tersusun dari satu atau


kumpulan morf yang membentuk kategori gramatikal yg
bermakna

Syntax

Cabang linguistik yg mempelajari struktur internal kalimat


dan hubungan antar bagian-bagian kalimat

Semantics

Cabang linguistik yg mempelajari arti kata dasar, arti kata


bentukan, dan arti kata gabungan pada frasa dan kalimat

Phonology

Cabang linguistik yg mempelajari struktur dan pola


sistematik bunyi pada bahasa manusia

Sentences

Unit terbesar yg pengaturannya dipelajari dalam sintaksis


(ilmu tata kalimat)

Sentence Analysis

Analisis kumpulan unit dalam kalimat

Constituent
Analysis

Analisis unit sintaksis dalam diagram struktur sebuah frasa

Immediate

Analisis kalimat berdasarkan fungsi komponen untuk


menentukan jenis komponen-komponen utama dan

Formative test 1
No

1.

Syntax describes the ways that words fit together


to form sentences or utterances.

T/F

2.

At present, linguists find the term grammar is


equated with not only Morphology, but also
Syntax.

T/F

3.

The past participle of the lexeme is called


grammatical word.

T/F

4.

Semantics focuses on grammar which describes


the way in which words are arranged and how
words put together.

T/F

5.

Words that we find in the dictionary is the lexeme.

T/F

6.

Constituent Analysis is an analysis of


morphological units in a phrase structure tree.

T/F

7.

Morphological structure is the structure which


consists of the elements to form words.

T/F

Words and Word-Structure


UNIT 2

Words & Word-Structure


Topic

Example

Lexeme

see

Word-form

to see, sees, seeing, saw, seen

Grammatical Word

Wati studied for her exams last


night

Function Word

the, of, nor

Content Word

book, try, well

Content words
Content words
Nouns
Adjectives
Full verbs
Adverbs
Numerals
Interjections
Yes/No answers

Examples

Function words
Function Words
Prepositions
Pronouns
Determiners
Conjunctions
Modal verbs
Auxiliary verbs
Particles
interjections
expletives

Examples

Formative test 2
No

Italized word

1.

Sickness made the child


irritable.

2.

Wounds made by words are


hard to heal.

3.

Great is your reward in Heaven.

Lexem
e

MorphoSyntax
process

Wood-burning
stoves
are
helping many Americans
4. In him, India lost
a true
patriot.
beat the huge inflation of oil prices. Wood is still
readily available in some parts of the United States.
Function Word

Content Word

Morphemes
UNIT 3

Number of morpheme

Example

One

Boy
Desire

Two

Boy + -ish
Desire + -able

Three

Boy + -ish + -ness


Desire + -able + -ity

Four

Gentle + -man + -ly + -ness


Un- + desire + -able + -ity

More than four

Anti- + dis- + establish + -ment +


-arian + -ism

Rule productivity
Productive : -able, -un, -ness
e.g. detectable drinkable unhappy
uncertain laziness - sadness

Not fully productive : -un, suffix means


diminutive

Identification of
Morphemes
Phonological shape
e.g. un+sad (X) pig+let sap+ling

The girl plays.

The boy plays.

Meaning
The girl plays.

The boy played.

Morphs
Sentence
1. I parked the
car.
2. We parked the
car.
3. I park the car.
4. He parks the
car.
5. She parked the
car.
6. She parks the
car.
7. We park the
car.
8. He parked the

List the
morphs

Identify free or bound


morphemes

Unique morphs
The status is determined by parallelism with other morphs
which are not unique.
-ter in laughter suffix parallel to arriv-al , marri-age , inject-ion
cran- in cranberry root parallel to blue-berry , snow-berry , waxberry

Allomorphs

Allomorphs are variants of a morpheme that differ in


pronunciation but are semantically identical (not changing
the meaning), usually differed by voiced or voiceless
phonemes in the ending.
Alveolar stops: t d
Voiceless phonemes: p f th (in three) t (see above) s sh
ch k h
Voiced phonemes: b v th (in they) d (see above) z g j gh
n m and all the rest

Formative test 3
Divide by their
morphemes:
1.
retroactive

retro+active

Bound morpheme meaning


retro- = back, backward

2. televise
3. holiday
4.
unpalatably
A
B
5.
1. shortened
Noisy crow A. Compound noun
2. Scarecrow

B. Root morpheme plus derivational prefix

3. The crow

C. Phrase consisting of adjective plus noun

4. Crowlike

D. Root morpheme plus inflectional affix

5. Crows

E. Root morpheme plus derivational suffix


F. Grammatical morpheme followed by lexical
morpheme

Thank you

See you next


class!
Please prepare for Module 2