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Introduction to Training

and Development
Ram Singh
JRF
Department of Business Administration,
University of Lucknow
Lucknow

Training
It is the systematic development of
knowledge, skills and attitudes required to
perform a given task or job successfully in
an individual. It includes
To identify the trainig needs of the individual
To design the suitable training programme to
eliminate the gaps in knowledge, skill or
attitude.
To conduct training programme
To evaluate the effectiveness of the training
programme and making necessary changes.

Objectives of Training
To impart the basic knowledge and skill to the
new entrants and enable them to perform their
jobs well.
To equip the employees to meet the changing
requirement of the job and the organization.
To prepare the employees for higher level tasks
and build up a second line of competent
mangers.
To teach the employees the the new techiniques
and ways of performing the jobs or operations.

Purpose of Training
Increasing Productivity
Improving quality
Help a organization to fulfil its future
personnel needs.
Obsolescence Prevention
Personal Growth

BENEFITS OF TRAINING
workers can work more efficiently
There are less chances of accidents
Trained workers require less
supervision
They can turn our better quality
goods by putting the materials, tools
and equipment to use.

Benefits to the Employees


It makes employees more loyal,
useful efficient and effective for an
organization.
By combining materials, tools and
machines with confidence
Higher productivity
Fewer mistakes
Lower labour turnover

TRAINING NEED
ASSESSMENT
Whether the training need exist and
if it does, what training require to fill
the gap.

Purpose of TNA
To determine
needed?
To determine
performance
To determine
of training
To determine
outcomes

whether training is
the causes of poor
the content and scope
desired learning

Levels of Training Need


Assessment
Individual Analysis
Organizational Analysis
Task Analysis

Individual Analysis
It analyses how well the individual employee is
doing the job and examines that what kind of
training which employee needs
Sources of information to conduct Individual
analysis are
Performance evaluation
Performance problems
Observation
Work samples
Interviews
Attitude surveys
Checklist

Organizational Analysis
It identifies the effectiveness of the organizations
and finds out where and under what conditions
the training may be conducted.
The sources of information for organizational
analysis are
Organization goals, objectives mission statement and
strategic plans.
Staffing inventory, succession planning log term and
short term staffing needs.
Annual reports
Audit exceptions
Employee attitude and satisfaction

Task Analysis
It provides data about a job or a group of jobs
and knowledge skills attitudes and abilities
needed to achieve optimum performance.
Sources of information to conduct task
analysis are :
Job description
KSA analysis (knowledge, Skills and Attitude)
Performance Standards
Job Inventory Questionnaire
Analysis of operating problems.

Process of Training Need


Assessment

Competency Mapping
It is used in self and multi rater
assessments in identifying the area of
strength and the need for improvement .
These are identified behaviors, knowledge,
skills and abilities that directly and
positively impact the success of employees
and the organization.
It can be measured enhanced and improve
through coaching and employee
development opportunities.

Core Competency

Technical and functional expertise


Understanding the business
Achieving tresults
Serving the customer
Teamwork
Interpersonal Communicatiion skills
Leadership and personal
effectiveness

Competency Model
Basic Level
Someone new to a skill or area performs

Intermediate Level
Someone with detailed knowledge in the
area

Advance Level
Specialised knowledge and Specialised
area

Issues related to Training


Programme
Goal Setting
Realistic
Usefullness
Selection of particular programme and
of suitable people for them

Action Perspective
Planning the specifications

Outline of Training Content

Introduction
Learning Component
Warp up and Evaluation segment
Written Training Design
Prepare Participants Evaluation forms
Follow up

Manpower Development in 21st


Century
Planning Sufficiently
Strategic man power planning
Must be as per the requirement of Business plan
Developing HR Capablities and comfort level
Establishing common language to describe job
competencies
Integrating the HRP with the business and
budget planning

Human capital planning


Segment wise workforce investment

Performance Appraisal
Performance appraisal is the
systematic, periodic and an impartial
rating of an employees excellence in
the matters pertaining to his present
job and his potential for a better job.
-Fillipo

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Performance Appraisal
It is a powerful tool to calibrate,
refine and reward the performance of
the employee. It helps to analyze his
achievements and evaluate his
contribution towards the
achievements of the overall
organizational goals.

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OBJECTIVES OF Performance
appraisal
To review the performance of the employees over
a given period of time.
To judge the gap between the actual and the
desired performance.
To help the management in exercising
organizational control.
Helps to strengthen the relationship and
communication between superior subordinates
and management employees.
To diagnose the strengths and weaknesses of the
individuals so as to identify the training and
development needs of the future.
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OBJECTIVES OF Performance
appraisal
To provide feedback to the
employees regarding their past
performance.
Provide information to assist in the
other personal decisions in the
organization.

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OBJECTIVES OF Performance
appraisal
Provide clarity of the expectations
and responsibilities of the functions
to be performed by the employees.
To judge the effectiveness of the
other human resource functions of
the organization such as recruitment,
selection, training and development.
To reduce the grievances of the
employees.
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Process of Performance Appraisal


Step 1

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Step 4

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ESTABLISHING PERFORMANCE
STANDARDS
The first step in the process of
performance appraisal is the setting
up of the standards which will be
used to as the base to compare the
actual performance of the
employees. This step requires setting
the criteria to judge the performance
of the employees as successful or
unsuccessful and the degrees of their
contribution to the organizational
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The standards set should be clear,


easily understandable and in
measurable terms. In case the
performance of the employee cannot
be measured, great care should be
taken to describe the standards.

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COMMUNICATING THE
STANDARDS
Once set, it is the responsibility of the
management to communicate the standards to all
the employees of the organization. The
employees should be informed and the standards
should be clearly explained to the. This will help
them to understand their roles and to know what
exactly is expected from them. The standards
should also be communicated to the appraisers or
the evaluators and if required, the standards can
also be modified at this stage itself according to
the relevant feedback from the employees or the
evaluators.
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MEASURING THE ACTUAL


PERFORMANCE
The most difficult part of the Performance
appraisal process is measuring the actual
performance of the employees that is the work
done by the employees during the specified
period of time. It is a continuous process which
involves monitoring the performance throughout
the year. This stage requires the careful selection
of the appropriate techniques of measurement,
taking care that personal bias does not affect the
outcome of the process and providing assistance
rather than interfering in an employees work.

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COMPARING THE ACTUAL WITH


THE DESIRED PERFORMANCE
The actual performance is compared with the
desired or the standard performance. The
comparison tells the deviations in the
performance of the employees from the
standards set. The result can show the actual
performance being more than the desired
performance or, the actual performance being
less than the desired performance depicting a
negative deviation in the organizational
performance. It includes recalling, evaluating and
analysis of data related to the employees
performance.
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DISCUSSING RESULTS
The result of the appraisal is communicated and
discussed with the employees on one-to-one
basis. The focus of this discussion is on
communication and listening. The results, the
problems and the possible solutions are discussed
with the aim of problem solving and reaching
consensus. The feedback should be given with a
positive attitude as this can have an effect on the
employees future performance. The purpose of
the meeting should be to solve the problems
faced and motivate the employees to perform
better.
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DECISION MAKING
The last step of the process is to take
decisions which can be taken either
to improve the performance of the
employees, take the required
corrective actions, or the related HR
decisions like rewards, promotions,
demotions, transfers etc.

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Pre-requisites for Effective & Successful


Performance Appraisal

Documentation means continuous noting and documenting the


performance. It also helps the evaluators to give a proof and the
basis of their ratings.
Standards / Goals the standards set should be clear, easy to
understand, achievable, motivating, time bound and measurable.
Practical and simple format - The appraisal format should be
simple, clear, fair and objective. Long and complicated formats are
time consuming, difficult to understand, and do not elicit much
useful information.
Evaluation technique An appropriate evaluation technique
should be selected; the appraisal system should be performance
based and uniform. The criteria for evaluation should be based on
observable and measurable characteristics of the behavior of the
employee.
Communication Communication is an indispensable part of the
Performance appraisal process. The desired behavior or the
expected results should be communicated to the employees as
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well as the evaluators.

Feedback The purpose of the feedback should be


developmental rather than judgmental. To maintain its
utility, timely feedback should be provided to the
employees and the manner of giving feedback should be
such that it should have a motivating effect on the
employees future performance.
Personal Bias Interpersonal relationships can influence the
evaluation and the decisions in the performance appraisal
process. Therefore, the evaluators should be trained to
carry out the processes of appraisals without personal bias
and effectively

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TRADITIONAL
METHOD

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ESSAY METHOD
In the essay method the rater must
describe the employee within a
number of broad category such as:
The raters overall performance
The promotablitiy of the employee
The jobs that the employee is now able
or qualified to perform.

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Ranking method
In this the superior ranks his or her
subordinates in the order of their
merit sarting from the best to the
worst.
All that the HR department knows is
that A is better than B, then there is
now question of how and why.

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Paired Comparison Method


In this method the appraiser compares each
employee with every other employee one at a
time.
For example there are five employees name A B C
D and E the performance of A is first compared
with the performance of B and a decision is made
about whose performnce is better. Then A is
compared with C,D, and E in that order. The same
procedure is repeated with other employee
The number of comparison can be may be
calculated by using following formulae
N(N-1)/2
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Critical Incident Method


The approach focuses on certain
critical behaviors of an employee
that makes all the difference
between effective and non effective
performance of a job.
Such incidents are recorded by the
superirs as and when they occur.

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Checklist Method
In this method the rater doesnt evaluate
employee perfromance he supplies reports
about it and the final rating is done by the
personal deaprtment.
A series of question are presented
concerning an employee to his behaviour.
To value of each question may be weighed
equally or certain questions may be
weighed equally or more heavily than
other.
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Forced Choice Method


In this the rater is given a series of
statements about an employee. These
statements are arranged in block of two or
more and the rter indicates which
statement is most or least descriptive of
the employee.
Typical statements are
Learns fast-------------------works hard
Work is reliable----------------performance is good
Often absent-------------------regular.
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Rating scales
This is the simplest and most popular
technique for appraising employee
It consist of several numerical scales
each representing job related criterion
such as dependability, initiative output
attendance, attitude etc.
Each scale ranges from excellent to poor
The rater check the employee
performance on each criterion.
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Modern Method

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360 DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS

360 degree feedback, also known as 'multi-rater feedback',


is the most comprehensive appraisal where the feedback
about the employees performance comes from all the
sources that come in contact with the employee on his job.
360 degree respondents for an employee can be his/her
peers, managers (i.e. superior), subordinates, team
members, customers, suppliers/ vendors - anyone who
comes into contact with the employee and can provide
valuable insights and information or feedback regarding the
on-the-job performance of the employee.

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360 degree appraisal has four


integral components:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Self appraisal
Superiors appraisal
Subordinates appraisal
Peer appraisal.

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360 degree appraisal is also a powerful


developmental tool because when conducted
at regular intervals (say yearly) it helps to
keep a track of the changes others
perceptions about the employees. A 360
degree appraisal is generally found more
suitable for the managers as it helps to
assess their leadership and managing styles.
This technique is being effectively used
across the globe for performance appraisals.
Some of the organizations following it are
Wipro, Infosys, and Reliance Industries etc.
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MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES

The concept of Management by Objectives (MBO) was first


given by Peter Drucker in 1954. It can be defined as a
process whereby the employees and the superiors come
together to identify common goals, the employees set their
goals to be achieved, the standards to be taken as the
criteria for measurement of their performance and
contribution and deciding the course of action to be
followed.
The essence of MBO is participative goal setting, choosing
course of actions and decision making. An important part of
the MBO is the measurement and the comparison of the
employees actual performance with the standards set.
Ideally, when employees themselves have been involved
with the goal setting and the choosing the course of action
to be followed by them, they are more likely to fulfill their
responsibilities.
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UNIQUE FEATURES AND ADVANTAGES OF


MBO

Clarity of goals With MBO, came the concept of SMART goals i.e. goals
that are:
Specific
Measurable
Achievable
Realistic, and
Time bound.
The goals thus set are clear, motivating and there is a linkage between
organizational goals and performance targets of the employees.
The focus is on future rather than on past. Goals and standards are set for
the performance for the future with periodic reviews and feedback.
Motivation Involving employees in the whole process of goal setting and
increasing employee empowerment increases employee job satisfaction
and commitment.
Better communication and Coordination Frequent reviews and
interactions between superiors and subordinates helps to maintain
harmonious relationships within the enterprise and also solve many
problems faced during the period.
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Assesment Center
It is mainly used for executive hiring,
assessment centers are now being
used for evaluating executive or
supervisory potential.
An assesment centre is a central
location where manages may come
together to have their participation in
job related exercises evaluated by
trainid observers
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The principle idea is to evaluate


managers over a period of time say
one to three days by observing and
later evaluating their behavior across
a series of selected exercises or work
samples.(Role
playing,
computer
simulation, in basket method etc.)

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Behavioural anchored rating scale


These are the rating scales whose scales
points are determined by statements of
effective and ineffective behavior.
The scale represent a range of descriptive
statements of behavior varying from the
least to the most effective.
Rater must describe the behavior that
describe the employee performance in a
best way.
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Human resource Accounting Method


HR is a valuable asset for the organization
This asset can be valued in terms of money
When competent and well trained
employees leave an organization the
human assest is decreased and vice versa.
It deals with the cost of and contribution of
human resource to the organization.
Difference between cost and contribution
reflect the performance of employee.
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Performance Management in New


Technology
One of the important area of influence of
Technology is to redesign the performance
management system in the organization.
Technology requires investment and selction of
appropriate technological fit which require
measurement of outcome of technological change.
Performance management as a new human
resource management model emphasis on
failitaion approach of leadership. It recognizes that
people in the organization are the key drivers for
technological change.

PMS must focus on how to make mutual


setting of goals and objectives the mangers
and subordinates providing opportunity to
discuss goals and plans.
Shifting of the decision making and
accountability at operational levels
Appropriate work culture that rewards team
performance and integration of operations.
Aligning customers feedback in assessing
employees performance.

Performance Management
System
It is a set of techiniques and procedures
fro improving organizational perfromance
Main features of PMS are
Focus on objective settings.
Develop system for ongoing review of
objectives
Develop personal improvement plan
PMS align with training and development
Develop competence based organizational
capablity.

Balance Score Card


Developed by Dr. Robert Kaplan in
early 1990s.
Financial perspective
Learning and growth perspective
Employee training
Culture and attitudes
Which relates to both individual
employee and organization

Business process perspective


Internal business process
How the business is running and
whether its products and service is as
per customers conformance.

Customer perspective
Focus on customer satisfaction which is
the indicator of corporate success.