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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN

RURAL AND URBAN AREAS


By

R.S.Shankari

FORMATION
Rural

rural areas may develop randomly on the


basis of natural vegetation and fauna
available in a region

Urban

urban settlements are proper,


planned settlements built up
according to a process called
urbanization

OCCUPATION
Rural

People are mostly engaged in agriculture and


other primary activities

Urban

The population is engaged in


secondary and tertiary
occupations

POPULATION GROWTH
rural

Population growth is lower due to many out


migrants

urban

Population growth is high due to


in migration

LIFE AND RELATIONS


Rural

Rural life is slow and social relations are


informal and homely

Urban

Urban life is fast and social


relations are formal

SIZE OF COMMUNITY
rural

Size of community is very small in size.


Agriculturalism and size of community are
negatively co-related.

urban

Size of community is large in size.


Urbanity and size of community
are positively co-related.

POPULATION DENSITY
Rural

Density of population is lower. Density and


rurality are negatively co-related.

Urban

Density of poplulation is high due


to limited land and large
population

SOCIAL DIFFERENCES
Rural

Urban

Rural social differentiation is based on caste


and class and is rigid. Thus social mobility is
limited.

Urban social differentiation is


based on occupation, class,
standard of living, education, etc
but are not as rigid as rural
stratification. Social mobility is
unlimited

POPULATION MIX
Rural

Urban

More homogenous in social, racial and


psychological traits.

More heterogeneous than rural.


Different type of population is
seen in cities, different places,
religions, caste, class race,
community, economic and
cultural differences, occupations
and behavioural pattern also
different.

SOCIAL SOLIDARITY
Rural

Urban

Social solidarity or cohesiveness and unity


are more stronger / greater than urban.
Common traits, similarity of experiences,
common aims and purposes, common
customs and traditions are the basis of unity
in village. Strong sense of belonging and
unity.

Social solidarity is less stronger


than rural, dissimilarities,
division of labour,
interdependence, specialization,
impersonal, strictly formal
relationships results
comparatively less sense of
belonging and unity.

SOCIAL CONTROL
Rural

Urban

Control by informal means

Control by formal means

STANDARD OF LIVING
Rural

Urban

Less standards as compared to urban areas.


Infrastructure and other facilities are low

Development rate is low

High in standards. Infrastructure


is good and many facilities are
provided

Development rate is high

PROBLEMS
Rural

Urban

Good educational, medical,


recreational and civic amenities
but faces problems of pollution,
traffic, crowding, waste
management etc.

Poor educational, medical, recreational


amenities. But free from problems of
pollution, crowding, traffic etc