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# INTRODUCTION TO

PROBABILITY
AND STATISTICS

## Engr. Aldrin Lorrenz A. Chan

College of Engineering
FEU Institute of Technology

TOPIC OUTLINE
Basic Concepts in Statistics
Sampling Techniques
Data Collection and Presentation

BASIC CONCEPTS OF
STATISTICS

## Inferential statistics involves making scientific judgments in

the face of uncertainty and variation through the use of profound
scientific data.
Sources of Variation
Variation in precision (closeness of one data to the other given nature,
location and time of collection is identical)
Variation in accuracy (closeness to the true value)

Introduction to
to
Introduction
Probability and
and
Probability
Statistics
Statistics
Basic Concepts
Concepts of
of
Basic
Statistics
Statistics
Sampling Techniques
Techniques
Sampling
Data Collection
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and
Data
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Presentation

BASIC CONCEPTS OF
STATISTICS

## The need for statistical analysis arrives whenever

there is variability in the scientific data.

Introduction to
to
Introduction
Probability and
and
Probability
Statistics
Statistics
Basic Concepts
Concepts of
of
Basic
Statistics
Statistics
Sampling Techniques
Techniques
Sampling
Data Collection
Collection and
and
Data
Presentation
Presentation

## In inferential statistics, information is gather in the form

of samples, or collections of observations.
Samples are collected from populations, which are
collections of individual items of a particular type.

## POPULATION AND SAMPLE

1. We may wish to draw conclusions about the heights of
12,000 adult students by examining only 100 students
selected from this population

Introduction to
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Introduction
Probability and
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Probability
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Statistics
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## 2. We may wish to draw conclusions about the colors of

200 marbles in an urn by selecting a sample of 20
marbles from the urn.
Population can be finite or infinite, the number being called the
population size, usually denoted by N.
The number in the sample is called the sample size, denoted by
n, which is generally finite.

BASIC CONCEPTS OF
STATISTICS

## Types of Studies Based on Controllability of Factors

An experimental design can be created in systems where
factors can be adjusted accordingly. (i.e. production lines)
Factors can be varied to improve quality of inferences

## In cases where factor levels cannot be preselected, an

observational study is required. (i.e. wood density of trees in
the forest)
Quality of inferences is only as good as what can be gathered

Introduction to
to
Introduction
Probability and
and
Probability
Statistics
Statistics
Basic Concepts
Concepts of
of
Basic
Statistics
Statistics
Sampling Techniques
Techniques
Sampling
Data Collection
Collection and
and
Data
Presentation
Presentation

BASIC CONCEPTS OF
STATISTICS

## Descriptive statistics or a set of single-number

statistics are valuable whenever a scientific practitioner
wishes only to gain a summary of a set of data. It provides
a sense of center of the location of the data
variability in the data
general nature of the distribution of observations in the sample

Introduction to
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Introduction
Probability and
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Probability
Statistics
Statistics
Basic Concepts
Concepts of
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Basic
Statistics
Statistics
Sampling Techniques
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Sampling
Data Collection
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ROLE OF PROBABILITY
Example: Effect of Nitrogen on the Growth of Roots

Basic Concepts
Concepts of
of
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Statistics
Sampling Techniques
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Sampling

Data Set
There are two samples from two
separate population (comparative study)
Probability would quantify the
likelihood that this set of data could be
observed

Dot Plot

Introduction to
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Probability and
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Probability
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Data Collection
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PROBABILITY AND
STATISTICAL INFERENCE
Inductive reasoning: For a statistical problem,
inferential statistics makes clear use of the elements of
probability in order to draw sound conclusions about the
population.
Deductive reasoning: Elements in probability
allow us to draw conclusions about characteristics
of hypothetical data taken from the population,
based on known features of the population

Introduction to
to
Introduction
Probability and
and
Probability
Statistics
Statistics
Basic Concepts
Concepts of
of
Basic
Statistics
Statistics
Sampling Techniques
Techniques
Sampling
Data Collection
Collection and
and
Data
Presentation
Presentation

## SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING

Inductive reasoning: For a statistical problem,
inferential statistics makes clear use of the elements of
probability in order to draw sound conclusions about the
population.
Deductive reasoning: Elements in probability
allow us to draw conclusions about characteristics
of hypothetical data taken from the population,
based on known features of the population

Introduction to
to
Introduction
Probability and
and
Probability
Statistics
Statistics
Basic Concepts
Concepts of
of
Basic
Statistics
Statistics
Sampling Techniques
Techniques
Sampling
Data Collection
Collection and
and
Data
Presentation
Presentation