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Lecture 15

Orthogonal Functions
Fourier Series

LGA mean daily temperature time series

is there a global warming signal?

Model that includes annual variability

T(t) = a + bt +
A1 cos(2f1t) + B1 sin(2f1t) +
A2 cos(2f2t) + B2 sin(2f2t) +
A3 cos(2f3t) + B3 sin(2f3t) +
with

f1 = 1 cycle per year

f2 = 2 cycles per year
etc

cos{2f1(t-t0)}

cos{2f1(t-t0)}

Cosine does not start at t=0

But remember cos(a+b)=cos(a)cos(b)-sin(a)sin(b)

cos(a+b)=cos(a) cos(b) - sin(a) sin(b)

cos{2f1(t-t0)} =
cos(2f1t0) cos(2f1t)
sin(2f1t0) sin(2f1t) =
A cos(2f1t) + B sin(2f1t)

cos(a+b)=cos(a) cos(b) - sin(a) sin(b)

cos{2f1(t-t0)} =
cos(2f1t0) cos(2f1t)
sin(2f1t0) sin(2f1t) =
A cos(2f1t) + B sin(2f1t)
So using both sines and cosines moves the delay, t0, out of
the cosine, and into the coefficients of the sines and
cosines. This trick linearizes the unknown, t0.

Why more than one frequency?

f1 = 1 cycle per year
f2 = 2 cycles per year
etc
Allows us to represent non-sinusoidal
shape of annual cycle.

cos(ft)

0.3cos(2ft)

sum: cos(ft)+0.3cos(2ft)
exactly periodic,
but shape not
exactly sinusoidal

data
fit
constant term, a

error of fit, e
linear term, bt

Statistics of linear term, bt

b = 0.31 degrees F per decade
d = [ eTe / N ]1/2 = 7 deg F
Cm = d2 [GTG]-1
b = [ d2 Cmb,b ]1/2 = 0.05 degrees F per decade
95% confidence
b = 0.310.1 degrees F per decade

So LGA is warming

sines and cosines are

orthogonal functions
T(t) = A0 +
A1 cos(2f1t) + B1 sin(2f1t) +
A2 cos(2f2t) + B2 sin(2f2t) +
a Fourier
Seriest) +
A3 cos(2f3t)Called
+B
sin(2f
3
3
with f2=2f1, f3=3f1, etc

Standard least-squares G matrix

1 cos(2f1t1) sin(2f1t1) cos(2f2t1) sin(2f2t1)
1 cos(2f1t2) sin(2f1t2) cos(2f2t2) sin(2f2t2)
G=

1 cos(2f1t3) sin(2f1t3) cos(2f2t3) sin(2f2t3)

1 cos(2f1t4) sin(2f1t4) cos(2f2t4) sin(2f2t4)
1 cos(2f1t5) sin(2f1t5) cos(2f2t5) sin(2f2t5)
1 cos(2f1t6) sin(2f1t6) cos(2f2t6) sin(2f2t6)

With the proper choice of f1

the matrix GTG is diagonal
dot product of any pair of columns
of G is zero
columns of G are orthogonal

The proper choice of f1

Suppose the time-series is N data points long, with
spacing t.
Then the lowest frequency must be f1 = 1 / (Nt)
one oscillation over the length of the time-series
And the highest frequency must be fN/2 = 1 / (2t)
one-half oscillation per sampling interval

f1 = 1 / (2Nt)

f1 = 1 / (2t)

note sine is zero

Count of unknowns
The constant term, one unknown
plus
2 coefficients per frequency, N/2 frequencies so N unknowns
minus
One unknown since the fN/2 term, which has no sine term
equals
N unknowns, same as number of data

MatLab Code
N = 100;
dt = 0.5;
tmin = 0.0;
t = tmin + dt*[0:N-1]';
tmax = tmin + dt*(N-1);

% times vector

df = 1/(N*dt);
M = N;

% frequency spacing
% number of unknowns same as data

G = zeros(N,M);
G(:,1)=ones(N,1);
for p = 2*[1:M/2-1]
G(:,p) = cos(pi*p*df*t);
G(:,p+1) = sin(pi*p*df*t);
end
p=M/2;
G(:,M) = cos(2*pi*p*df*t);

[GTG]11= [GTG]NN=N Other diagonal elements [GTG]ii=N/2

Off diagonal elements are zero

So least-squares solution is
m = [GTG]-1 GTd =
= diag( N-1, 2/N, 2/N, N-1 ) GT d
NO matrix inversion required!

GTG for N=100

data, d
d=Gm with
m=[GTG]-1GTd
d=Gm with
m=DGTd
where D=diag( N-1, 2/N, 2/N, N-1 )

spectrum
amount of power at different
frequencies
si2 = Ai2 + Bi2
s i2

time-series has
a lot of
energy at
frequency fp

fi
fp

N=4380

2 mo

3 mo

4 mo

6 mo

12 mo

Big annual
cycle in Neuse
hydrograph

Error Estimates for Fourier Series

Assume uncorrelated, normally-distributed data, d, with
variance d2
The problem Gm=d is linear, so the unknowns, m, (the
coefficients of the cosines and sines, Ai and Bi) are also
normally-distributed.
Since sines and cosines are orthogonal, GTG is diagonal
and Cm= d2 [GTG]-1 is diagonal, too
So that ms have uncorrelated errors. All but the first and last
have variance m2= 2d2/N.
The spectrum si2=Ai2+Bi2 is the sum of two uncorrelated,
normally distributed random variables and is thus 2distributed.
The 2-distribution has a variance of 4, so that s2= 8d2/N

Switching to complex numbers

nothing different in principle
but calculations become easier

But first
Lets switch to angular frequency
i = 2 fi
Beats writing all those 2s !

Remember
Eulers formula
exp( it ) = cos( t ) + i sin( t )
?

exp( it ) = cos( t ) + i sin( t )

exp( -it ) = cos( t ) - i sin( t )
cos( t ) = (1/2) [exp( it ) + exp( -it )]
sin( t ) = (1/2i) [exp( it ) - exp( -it )]

=1

Lets compare

=0
with p=p

p= -p
T(t) = A0 cos(0t) + B0 sin(0t) +
A1 cos(1t) + B1 sin(1t) +
A2 cos(2t) + B2 sin(First,
2t) +if T is real, then we must have C-p = Cp*
A3 cos(3t) + B3 sin(Then
exp(-pt) + Cp exp(pt) =
3t) +C-p

with
T(t) = ... +
C-2 exp(-i2t) +
C-1 exp(-1t) +
C0 exp(i0t) +

(Cpr-iCpi) [cos(pt) - i sin(pt)] +

(Cpr+iCpi) [cos(pt) + i sin(pt)] =
2Cpr cos(pt) - 2Cpi sin(--pt)]

So Ap= 2Cpr and Bp= -2Cpi

So these two representations are equivalent

T(t) = ... +
C-2 exp(-i2t) +
C-1 exp(-1t) +
C0 exp(i0t) +
C1 exp(i1t) +
C2 exp(i2t) +
C3 exp(i3t) +
T0
T1
T2
T3
T4

exp(-i2t0)
exp(-i2t1)
exp(-i2t2)
exp(-i2t3)

Implies a simple form of

the equation d=Gm

exp(-i1t0)
exp(-i1t1)
exp(-i1t2)
exp(-i1t3)

exp(i0t0)
exp(i0t1)
exp(i0t2)
exp(i0t3)

exp( i1t0)
exp( i1t1)
exp( i1t2)
exp( i1t3)

exp(i2t0)
exp( i2t1)
exp( i2t2)
exp( i2t3)

C-2
C-1
C0
C1
C2

Least-squares with complex numbers

real numbers:

complex nos:

given Gm =d
minimize E=eTe
implies m=[GTG]-1 GT d
The Hermitian
transpose, that is, the
transpose of the
complex conjugate.

given Gm =d
minimize E=eHe
where eH = e*T
implies m=[GHG]-1 GH d

The formula m=[GHG]-1GHd is not hard to work out using the standard
minimization procedure, but we dont have time to work it out in class.

T0
T1
T2
T3
T4

d=Gm
=

exp(-i2t0)
exp(-i2t1)
exp(-i2t2)
exp(-i2t3)

exp(-i1t0)
exp(-i1t1)
exp(-i1t2)
exp(-i1t3)

exp(i0t0) exp(i1t0)
exp(i0t1) exp(i1t1)
exp(i0t2) exp(i1t2)
exp(i0t3) exp(i1t3)

exp(i2t0)
exp(i2t1)
exp(i2t2)
exp(i2t3)

exp(-i2t4) exp(-i1t4) exp(i0t4) exp(i1t4) exp(i2t4)

Note T2 i Ci exp(+it2)

C-2
C-1
C0
C1
C2

m=N-1GHm
exp(i2t0) exp(i2t1) exp(i2t2)
exp(i1t0) exp(i1t1) exp(i1t2)
=N-1 exp(i0t0) exp(i0t1) exp(i0t2)
exp(-i1t0) exp(-i1t1) exp(-i1t2)

exp(i2t3) exp(i2t4)
exp(i1t3) exp(i1t4)
exp(i0t3) exp(i0t4)
exp(-i1t3) exp(-i1t4)

exp(-i2t0) exp(-i2t1) exp(-i2t2) exp(-i2t3) exp(-i2t4)

Note C2 i Ti exp(-iti)

C-2
C-1
C0
C1
C2

T0
T1
T2
T3
T4

T0
T1
T2
T3
T4

d=Gm
=

exp(-i2t0)
exp(-i2t1)
exp(-i2t2)
exp(-i2t3)

exp(-i1t0)
exp(-i1t1)
exp(-i1t2)
exp(-i1t3)

exp(i0t0) exp(i1t0)
exp(i0t1) exp(i1t1)
exp(i0t2) exp(i1t2)
exp(i0t3) exp(i1t3)

exp(i2t0)
exp(i2t1)
exp(i2t2)
exp(i2t3)

exp(-i2t4) exp(-i1t4) exp(i0t4) exp(i1t4) exp(i2t4)

Note T2 i Ci exp(+it2)

C-2
C-1
C0
C1
C2

M=N-1GHm
exp(i2t0) exp(i2t1) exp(i2t2)
exp(i1t0) exp(i1t1) exp(i1t2)
=N-1 exp(i0t0) exp(i0t1) exp(i0t2)
exp(-i1t0) exp(-i1t1) exp(-i1t2)

Opposite
signs

exp(i2t3) exp(i2t4)
exp(i1t3) exp(i1t4)
exp(i0t3) exp(i0t4)
exp(-i1t3) exp(-i1t4)

exp(-i2t0) exp(-i2t1) exp(-i2t2) exp(-i2t3) exp(-i2t4)

Note C2 i Ti exp(-iti)

C-2
C-1
C0
C1
C2

T0
T1
T2
T3
T4

Discrete Fourier Transform

Find the coefficients C given the data, T
Note normalization factor of N
Equivalent to m = GHd

-1

Ck = n=-N/2N/2 Tn exp(2ikn/N ) with k=-N, , N

Discrete Inverse Fourier Transform
Find the data T given the coefficients, C
Equivalent to d = N-1Gm Note normalization factor of N

-1

Tn = N-1k=-N/2N/2 Ck exp( 2ikn/N ) with n=-N, , N

Warnings: 1) no one can agree on signs
2) no one can agree on normalizations

Counting unknowns
frequencies from (N/2) to (N/2)in steps of
So N+1 complex numbers, Cp
So 2N+2 real and imaginary parts, C pr and Cpi
But C-p = Cp*, so really only N/2+1 unknown complex
numbers
So N+2 real and imaginary parts , Cpr and Cpi (p0)
But C0i=0 and CN/2i=0 (always)
So N unknowns, matching N data

% standard fft setup. The standard implementation of the digital fourier

% transform is VERY INFLEXIBLE. Learn these rules:
N=256;
% you can choose the length N of the time series
% in some implementations N can be any positive
% integer, but in others it MUST be a
% power-or-two. I set it here to 256, which
% is two-to-the-eigth-power.
dt=1.0;
% and you can choose the sampling interval dt
% but then the following variables are set
tmax=dt*(N-1); % we presume the time series starts at t=0, so
% the maximum time is tmax
t=dt*[0:N-1];
% time then goes from 0 to (N-1)*dt
fmax=1/(2.0*dt);
% the maximum frequency in the fft calculation is
% called the Nyquist frequency. It is
% determined by the two-points-per wavelength
% rule
df=fmax/(N/2); % the frequency spacing, df, assumes that a N-point
% time series is reperesented by an N-point fourier
% transform
f=df*[0:N/2,-N/2+1:-1]'; % The fourier transform has N values, from a negative
% frequency of -(fmax-df) through zero freqency, to
% positive frequency of fmax. But note the weird order. The
% zero and positive frequencies are put in the first
% half of the array and the negative frequencies are
% put in the second half.

% p is the timeseries whose transform is being computed

w0 = 2*pi*fmax/10; % sample p, a simple sinusoid of frequency w0
p = sin(w0*t);
% fourier transform using MatLab's fft function. The help function
pt=fft(p); % these are the coefficients, C, of the complex exponential
% presumably one would do something with the fourier transform
% at this point - apply a filter, for example. But I do nothing.
% Inverse fourier transform using the Matlab function ifft.
% Help says it uses the POSITIVE sign in the exponential, and that
% it has the right normalization that ifft(fft(x))=x. But
% BE WARNED, that doesn't mean that the normalization on fft
% is 1 and that the normalization on ifft is (1/N), like
% I had it in class. You can put any constant, b, in front
% of the fft integral, as long as you put 1/b in front of
% the IFFT integral. But judging by the Help, I think that
% Matlab used b=1.
pr=ifft(pt); % this reconstructs the function from the coefficients

The fast Fourier transform algorithm

The Fourier Transform equation
m = [GTG]-1GTd = diag(N-1,2/N, 2/N,N-1) GT d
has N multiplications for each of N unknowns,
So N2 in total. For example, for N=1024, N2=1,048,576
But in the special case of N being a power of two,
there is an algorithm the fast fourier transform
algorithm - that can compute m in only Nlog2N
multiplications
For example, N=1024, Nlog2N=10,240