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INTRODUCTION

RADIOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF:


 TEETH
 SUPPORTING STRUCTURES
 MAXILLA
 MANDIBLE
 CONCLUSION
 REFERENCES
 Teeth are composed primarily of dentin,with an
enamel cap over the coronal portion and a thin
layer of cementum over the root surface.
Radiographic appearance of
enamel
 ENAMEL appears more radio-opaque than
other tissues.
 It is 90% mineral causes greatest attenuation
of X-ray photons.
RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE
OF DENTIN
 75% mineral content less radiopaque than enamel.
Radiopacity similar to bone.
 ENANELODENTINAL JUNCTION appears as a
distinct interface separating these two structures.
Radiographic appearance of CEMENTUM
 50%mineral content and it appears as a very thin
layer on the root surface.
 It is usually not so apparent radiographically.
 CERVICAL BURNUOUT
Radiographs sometimes show diffuse radiolucent areas
with ill defined borders present on the mesial or distal
aspects of the teeth in the cervical region.
These appear between the edge of the enamel cap and
the crest of the alveolar ridge.
 This phenomenon is known as
 “ CERVICAL BURNOUT”
Normal configuration of the affected teeth
results in decreased X-ray absorption in the areas
in question.
Perception of these areas is due to contrast with
the adjacent ,relatively radiopaque enamel and
alveolar –bone.
It should not be confused with root caries which
has similar appearance.
It is composed of soft tissues so it appears
radioluscent.
Pulp chambers and root canals extend from the
interiors of the chamber till the root apices.
Root canal extends till the apex it is seen
radiographically also as apical foramen.
In some cases it may exit on the side of the canal.
Lateral canals may end at the apex as a discernible
foramen or may exit at the side of the root.
The pulp canals of a developing tooth root diverge and
walls of the root taper to a knife edge.
A radiolucent area is seen surrounding it in the
trabecular bone.It is surrounded by the hyperostotic
bone.
 IT IS THE DENTAL PAPILLA WITH ITS BONY CRYPT.
Its radiographic evaluation helps in determining the
stage of maturation of the developing tooth.
RADIOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF LAMINA DURA
It is a thin radiopaque layer of dense bone
surrounding the tooth socket.
 Its radiographic appearance is due to attenuation of
the X-ray beam as it passes tangentially through
the thickness of the bone.
It is thicker than the surrounding trabecular bone
and thickness increases with increase in amount of
occlusal stress.
RADIOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF
ALVEOLAR CREST
 It is the radiopaque gingival margin of the alveolar
process which surrounds the teeth.
 It is considered normal if it is 1.5mm or less from the
CEJ.
 It shows apical recession with the age or periodontal
disease.
RADIOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF THE PERIODONTAL
LIGAMENT SPACE
It is composed of collagen so appears as a
radiolucent space between the root and lamina
dura.
It is thinner in the middle of the root and slightly
wider near the alveolar crest and the apex
suggesting that the fulcrum of the physiologic
movements is in the region where PDL is thinnest.
RADIOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF THE CANCELLOUS
BONE
Also called as the trabecular bone or the spongiosa.
Lies between the cortical plates in both the jaws.
It is composed of thin radiopaque plates and rods
surrounding many small radioluscent pockets of
marrow.

In posterior maxilla it is similar to anteruor maxilla


but marrow spaces are larger.
Also called as median suture.
In IOPA it appears as a thin radioluscent
line in the midline between the two
portions of premaxilla.
It extends from the alveolar crest between
the central inscisors superiorly through the
anterior nasal spine and continues
posteriorly between the maxillary palatine
process to the posterior aspect of the hard
palate.
Mostly seen on IOPA of maxillary central inscisors.
Located in midline1.5-2cm above the alveolar crest.
It is radiopaque and usually V-shaped.

The nasal cavity shows the hazy shadow of the
inferior nasal conchae extending from the right and
left lateral walls
Also called as NASOPALATINE orANTERIOR PALATINE
FORAMEN.
It is the oral terminatus of the nasopalatine canal.
It transmits the nasopalatine vessels and nerves.
Lies in the midline of palate behind the central incisors
at the junction of the median palatine and incisive
sutures.
Radiographic image variability is due to
1.different angles of the X-ray beam.
2.Variability in its anatomic size.
IT IS FREQUENTLY THE POTENTIAL SITE OF CYST
FORMATION.
Radiographic features of superior foramina of the
nasopalatine canal
The nasopalatine canal originates at two foramina
in floor of the nasal cavity.
Radiographically it can be recognized as two
radioluscent areas above the apices of the central
incisors in floor of the nasal cavity near its anterior
border and both the sides of the septum.
Also called as INCISIVE FOSSA.
Appears as depression in the maxilla near the apex
of the lateral incisor .
Appears diffusely radioluscent in the IOPA.
The soft tissue of the nose is frequently seen in the
projections of the maxillary central and lateral
incisors ,superimposed over the roots of these
teeth.
Image appears uniformly opaque with a sharp
border.
The nasal and maxillary bones form the
nasolacrimal canal.
It runs from the medial aspect of the anteroinferior
border of the orbit inferiorly,to drain under the
inferior concha into the nasal cavity.
MAXILLARY SINUS is the air containing cavity lined
by mucous membrane.
DEVELOPMENT BY-invagination of the mucous
membrane from the nasal cavity.
Appears as the three sided pyramid .
 Base -formed by mesial wall adjacent to
 nasal cavity.
 Apex –extending laterally into the
zygomatic process of maxilla.
On the IOPA maxillary sinus appears as a thin
,delicate , tenuous radiopaque line.

It extends from the distal aspect of the canine to


the posterior wall of the maxilla above the
tuberosity.
Around the age of puberty its floor coincides with
the floor of the nasal cavity.
In older individuals the sinus may extend farther
into the apical process,and in the posterior region
of the maxilla its floor appears further below the
level of the floor.
In response to the loss of function (associated with
loss of posterior teeth) the sinus may expand
farther into the alveolar bone , occasionally
extending to the alveolar ridge.
 Thin radioluscent lines of the uniform width are found within the
image of the maxillary sinus.
 THESE ARE SHADOWS OF THE NEURO -VASCULAR CANALSTHAT
ACCOMMODATE THE POSTERIOR SUPERIOR VESSELS AND NERVES.
The zygomatic process of the maxilla is an
extension of the lateral maxillary surface that
arises in the region of the apices of the first and
the second molars and serves as the articulation
for the zygomatic bone.
Appears as U-shaped radiopaque line with
rounded end of U projected in the apical region of
the first and second molars.
An oblique line demarcating a region that
appears to be covered by a veil of slight
radiopacity frequently traverses peri apical
radiographs of the premolar region.
The medial and lateral pterygoid plates lie
immediately posterior to the tuberosity of
maxilla.
They cast a single radiopaque shadow without
any evidence of trabeculation.
Extending inferiorly from the medial
pterygoid plate, the hamular process may
be seen which on close inspection show
trabeculae.
The region of mandibular symphysis in infants
demonstrate a radiolucent line through the
midline of the jaw between the images of the
forming deciduous central incisors.
The suture usually fuses by the end of 1st year
of life and is no longer radiographically
apparent.
These are tiny bumps of bone that serve
as attachment for the genioglossus and
geniohyoid muscles.
Present on lingual side.
On IOPA appear as ring shaped
radiopacity below the apices of
mandibular incisors.
It is a hole or tiny opening located on
the internal surface of mandible and
surrounded by the genial tubercles.
Raiographically appears as a radiolucent
dot inferior to the apices of the
mandibular incisors.
nutrient canals are tube like passage-
ways through bone that contains
nerves and blood vessels that supply
the teeth.
Radiographically seen as vertical
radiolucent lines.
More prominent in anterior mandible
where bone is thin.
It is a linear prominence of cortical
bone located on the external surface
extendibg from the premolar region to
the midline and slopes upward.
Radiographically appears as a
radiopaque band that extends from the
premolar region to the incisor region.
Located above the mental ridge.
On peri apical radiograph appears as a
radiolucent area above the mental ridge.
 Located on the external
surface of the mandible as
an opening in the region of
the mandibular premolars.
 Mental nerves and blood
vessels exit through it.
 Radiogarphically it appears
as a small ovoid radiolucent
area located below the
apices of the premolars.
 Linear prominence of bone
located on the internal
surface of mandible.
 Extends from the molar
region downward and
forward towards the lower
border of mandibular
symphysis.
 On IOPA appears as
radiopaque band extending
downward from molars.
 Tube like passage
extending from the
mandibular foramen to
the mental foramen
and contains inf.alv.
Nerves and blood
vessels.
 Appears as a
radiolucent band
outlined by two
radiopaque lines of
cortical plate.
Linear prominence of
bone located on internal
surface of mandible
extending downwards
and forwards from
ramus.
It appears as a
radiopaque band
extending downwards
from ramus.
 Linear prominence of bone
located on external surface
of mandible extending
downwards and is a
continuation of anterior
border of ramus.
 It appears as a radiopaque
band extending downwards
and forwards from ant.
Border of mandible ends in
3rd molar region.
 Depressed area of bone
located on the internal
surface of mandible.
 Submandibular salivary
gland lies in this fossa.
 It appears as a
radiolucent area in the
molar region below the
mylohyoid ridge.
 It is a marked prominence
of bone on the ant. Ramus
of the mandible.
 Not seen on a mandibular
IOPA but appears on a
maxillary molars IOPA.
 It is seen as a triangular
radiopacity superimposed
over or inferior to maxillary
tuberosity.
Occassionaly seen
as a dense broad
radiopaque band
of bone.
Vary in their radiographic appearance.
Depend primarily on their thickness,
density and atomic number.
A variety of restorative materials may be
recognized on intra oral radiographs.