You are on page 1of 13

Types of ADHD

Inattentive Type
Children with ADHD that have little or no
trouble sitting still or inhibiting behavior but
maybe predominantly inattentive and have
great difficulty getting or staying focused
on a task or activity.

Symptoms
Not paying attention
to detail
Making careless
mistakes
Failing to pay
attention and keep on
task
Not listening

Being unable to follow


or understand
instructions
Avoiding tasks that
involve effort
Being distracted
Being forgetful
Losing things that are
needed to complete
tasks

Hyperactive-Impulsive Type
Children who may able to pay attention to
task but lose focus because they maybe
predominantly hyperactive-impulse thus
having trouble controlling impulse and
activity.

Symptoms
Constantly jumping or
climbing on furniture
and other
inappropriate places
Not having patience
Blurting out
comments at
inappropriate times
Interrupting
conversations or
speaking out of turn

Trouble waiting for a


turn or standing in line
Doesnt seem to listen
when spoken to
Trouble doing quiet
tasks, such as
reading
Touching and getting
into everything
Running from place to
place

Combined Type
These children have significant symptoms
of all of the three characteristics.

Prevalence
Occurs in 3 to 5% of children
Varies slightly across social class
Ratio of males to females is 3:1 in
community sample, 6:1 to 9:1 in clinic
referrals.
Found in all countries and ethnic groups
varying prevalence (highest in the US)

Environmental and
instructional considerations
Task duration
To accommodate to the student's short
attention span, academic assignments
should be brief and feedback regarding
accuracy immediate. Longer projects should
be broken up into manageable parts. Short
time limits for task completion should be
specified and can be enforced with timers.

Direct instruction
Attention to task is improved when the
student with ADHD is engaged in teacherdirected as opposed to independent seatwork activities. Also, the teaching of notetaking strategies increases the benefits of
direct instruction. Both comprehension and
on-task behavior improve with the
development of these skills.

Peer tutoring
Class-wide peer tutoring provides many
of the instructional variables known to be
important in setting up students with ADHD
for success. For example, it provides
frequent and immediate feedback. When
combined with a token economy, peer
tutoring has been found to yield dramatic
academic gains.

Structure and organization


Lessons should be carefully structured
and important points clearly identified. For
example, providing a lecture outline is a
helpful note-taking aid that increases
memory of main ideas. Students with ADHD
perform better on memory tasks when
material is meaningfully structured for them.

Rule reminders and visual cues


The rules given to students with ADHD must be
well defined, specific and frequently reinforced
through visible modes of presentation. Welldefined rules with clear consequences are
essential. Relying on the student's memory of
rules is not sufficient. Visual rule reminders or cues
should be placed throughout the classroom. It is
also helpful if rules are reviewed before activity
transitions and following school breaks. For
example, token economy systems are especially
effective when the rules for these programs are
reviewed daily.

Pacing of work
When possible, it is helpful to allow
students with ADHD to set their own pace
for task completion. The intensity of
problematic ADHD behaviors is less when
work is self paced, as compared to
situations where work is paced by others.